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Global Environmental Change

by: Karlie Hayes

Global Environmental Change GEOG 1

Marketplace > University of California - Berkeley > Geography > GEOG 1 > Global Environmental Change
Karlie Hayes

GPA 3.92


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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karlie Hayes on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/226640/geog-1-university-of-california-berkeley in Geography at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Know the Processes that are forminghave formed the following places Appalachian Mountains 7 Convergence between Eurasian North American and African plates Erosion Atlas Mountains 7 convergence between the Eurasian and African plates Erosion Himalayan Mountains 7 ceonvergence between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate Everest is a horn Alps convergence between the African and Eurasian plates Erosion Peak a result of a horn 7 three or more glaciers moving down a mountaintop Sierra Nevada Mountains subduction between paci c and north American plate Plutonic orogeny Glaciers Cascade Mountains The Cascade Mountains are a chain of volcanoes that form as the Juan De Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate As the oceanic crust goes under the continental crust it goes deeper into the earth where it eventually melts and sends magma upward that forms the Cascade Volcanoes Andes Mountains subduction between South American Plate and Paci c Plate The Red Sea divergence between the African and Saudi Arabian Plates The Persian Gulf on going convergence between Saudi Arabian plate and the Eurasian plate The African Rift Valley divergence between the African plate and the Saudi Arabian plate The Atlantic Ocean Basin The Mid Atlantic Ridge Divergent boundary between Eurasian and African plates from the American plates Iceland formed from volcanic eruptions on the MidAtlantic ridge Japan Indonesia Philippines Hawaiian Islands Hot Spot Mississippi Flood Plain Yosemite National Park The process began roughly 25 million years ago when the Sierra Nevada mountains began a steady uplift As the western slope increased the Merced River carved a Vshaped canyon Eventually the Sierra Nevada mountains were tall enough to catch their own precipitation A cooling climate one to two million years ago combined with signi cant precipitation to form the rst Sierra glaciers An ice sheet developed on the Sierra crest Valley glaciers descended into the preexisting river canyons The glaciers straightened widened and deepened the river valleys This rst glacial period the Sherwin lasted 300000 years and ended one million years ago The Sherwin produced the longest and most massive valley glaciers in Yosemite The Merced River Glacier extended from the Sierra all the way to El Portal Several classic landforms of Yosemite like Half dome and El Capitan formed during the Sherwin glacial period The ancient Merced River canyon was straightened and widened by a valley glacier that formed today39s Ushaped valley Tributary streams with their own tributary glaciers owed into the main Merced Glacier At the conclusion of the Sherwin glaciation the ice retreated and Lake Yosemite formed Lake Yosemite slowly lled with river born sediment Over time sediments lled the lake and a meadow formed This explains why Yosemite Valley does not have the classic Ushape The bottom of the quotUquot is lled with sediment What is left behind is a canyon with a wide at bottom and extremely steep cliffs The cliffs are extremely steep because of vertically jointed rock The rock walls that enclose Yosemite Valley happened to contain vertically oriented joints So as glaciers pushed along the walls granite sloughed off along these zones of weakness The vertical cliffs were formed by the combination of joint orientation and glacial pressure more info httpwwwyosemitecausformation The Norwegian Coastline Fjords Middle East Western USA and Canada Know and be able to discuss in your answers the owing Plates Paci c Plate Juan de Fuca Plate African Plate Indian Plate Eurasian Plate South American Plate Saudi Arabian Plate North American Plate Other TermsConcepts Geomorphology 7 The study of landforms their evolution and natural processes Plate Tectonics A tectonic plate also called lithospheric plate is a massive irregularly shaped slab of solid rock generally composed of both continental and oceanic lithosphere Plates move horizontally over the asthenosphere as rigid units A plate may be referred to as the continental plate or oceanic plate depending on which of the two occupy a larger portion of the plate The theory of plate tectonics proposes that the earth s lithosphere is divided into seven major and some minor plates Young Fold Mountain ridges trenches andor faults surround these major plates Plates have been constantly moving over the globe throughout the history of the earth Alfred Wegener and the Theory of Continental Drift all the continents formed a single continental mass a mega ocean surrounded by the same The super continent was named PANGAEA which meant all earth The megaocean was called PANTHALASSA meaning all water He argued that around 200 million years ago the super continent Pangaea began to split Pangaea first broke into two large continental masses as Laurasia and Gondwanaland forming the northern and southern components respectively Subsequently Laurasia and Gondwanaland continued to break into various smaller continents that exist today Pangaea and the Break up 0f Pangaea l Pangaea 2 Laurasia and Gondwanaland 3Laurasia becomes North America and Eurasia Gondwanaland becomes South America Africa India and Antarctica 4 India crashes into Asia and Australia separates from Antarctica The Rock Cycle a continuous process through which old rocks are transformed into new ones Igneous rocks are primary rocks and other rocks sedimentary and metamorphic form from these primary rocks Igneous rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks The fragments derived out of igneous and metamorphic rocks form into 139 y rocks J39 y rocks quot 39 can turn into fragments and the fragments can be a source for formation of sedimentary rocks The crustal rocks igneous metamorphic and sedimentary once formed may be carried down into the mantle interior of the earth through subduction process parts or whole of crustal plates going down under another plate in zones of plate convergence and the same melt down due to increase in temperature in the interior and turn into molten magma the original source for igneous rocks Granitic and Basaltic Igneous Rock Igneous rocks are formed through cooling magma There are two types of igneous rocks Granitic and Basaltic Granitic rock is rock that is formed within the Earth s crust These rocks cool slower As the magma goes up it starts to cool eventually forming a Pluton a mass of granitic rock that is underground Granite erodes slower than surrounding materials and it eventually rises up and forms mountain ranges These mountains look white and are very high Eg 7 Sierra Nevada Mountains and Andes Mountains Basaltic Rock cools in the surface of in water It has small crystals and is darker and denser than granitic rock They are most common in volcanic areas and the Cascade Mountains Most Basaltic rocks are in the oceanic crusts Sedimentary Rock Rocks igneous sedimentary and metamorphic of the earth s surface are exposed to denudational agents and are broken up into various sizes of fragments Such fragments are transported by different exogenous agencies and deposited These deposits through compaction turn into rocks This process is called lithification Metamorphic Rock These rocks form under the action of pressure volume and temperature PVT changes Metamorphism occurs when rocks are forced down to lower levels by tectonic processes or when molten magma rising through the crust comes in contact with the crustal rocks or the underlying rocks are subj ected to great amounts of pressure by overlying rocks Metamorphism is a process by which already consolidated rocks undergo recrystallisation and reorganisation of materials within original rocks Convection Currents The mobile rock beneath the rigid plates is believed to be moving in a circular manner The heated material rises to the surface spreads and begins to cool and then sinks back into deeper depths This cycle is repeated over and over to generate what scientists call a convection cell or convective ow Heat within the earth comes from two main sources radioactive decay and residual heat Asthenosphere The upper portion of the mantle is called asthenosphere The word astheno means weak It is considered to be extending upto 400 km It is the main source of magma that finds its way to the surface during volcanic eruptions It has a density higher than the crust s It is from this that the molten rock materials find their way to the surface Magma The material in the upper mantle portion is called magma Once it starts moving towards the crust or it reaches the surface it is referred to as lava Continental amp Oceanic Crust A plate may be referred to as the continental plate or oceanic plate depending on which of the two occupy a larger portion of the plate Plate ConvergenceConvergent Plate Boundaries Where the crust is destroyed as one plate dived under another The location where the sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone There are three ways in which convergence can occur These are i between an oceanic and continental plate ii between two oceanic plates and iii between two continental plates Subduction Zones The location where the sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone Plate DivergenceDivergent Plate Boundaries Where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other The sites where the plates move away from each other are called spreading sites The bestknown example of divergent boundaries is the MidAtlantic Ridge At this the American Plates is are separated from the Eurasian and African Plates Transform Plate Boundaries Where the crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other Transform faults are the planes of separation generally perpendicular to the mid oceanic ridges As the eruptions do not take all along the entire crest at the same time there is a differential movement of a portion of the plate away from the axis of the earth Also the rotation of the earth has its effect on the separated blocks of the plate portions Ocean Trenches These areas are the deepest parts of the oceans The trenches are relatively steep sided na1row basins They are some 35 km deeper than the surrounding ocean oor They occur at the bases of continental slopes and along island arcs and are associated with active volcanoes and strong earthquakes That is why they are very signi cant in the study of plate movements Orogenesis Volcanic Plutonic and Collision Orogenesis means the building of mountains Plutonic orogenesis 7 Magma rises and cools in the crust becoming granitic rock The soil surrounding the granitic rock erodes and because the granite erodes slower than its surroundings it eventually protrudes through the surface and becomes a mountain Hot Spots Hot spots are relatively small longlasting and exceptionally hot regions They below the plates and provide localized sources of high heat energy thermal plumes to sustain volcanism The Hawaiian Island Emperor Seamounts chain resulted from the Pacific Plate moving over a deep stationary hotspot in the mantle located beneath the presentday position of the Island of Hawaii Heat from this hotspot produced a persistent source of magma by partly melting the overriding Paci c Plate The magma which is lighter than the surrounding solid rock then rises through the mantle and crust to erupt onto the seafloor forming an active seamount Over time countless eruptions cause the seamount to grow until it finally emerges above sea level to form an island volcano Wilson A that quot 39 plate eventually carries the island beyond the hotspot cutting it off from the magma source and volcanism ceases As one island volcano becomes extinct another develops over the hotspot and the cycle is repeated This process of volcano growth and death over many millions of years has left a long trail of volcanic islands and seamounts across the Pacific Ocean oor Ocean Ridges Chain of submarine mountains where oceanic crust is created from rising magma plumes and volcanic activity Also associated with this feature is plate divergence which creates a rift zone Alpine System American and Eurasian The Ring of Fire A zone circling the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin where tectonic subduction causes the formation of volcanos and trenches Volcanic Island Arcs A line of volcanic islands found of the ocean that have been created by the convergence of two tectonic plates and the subsequent subduction of one of the plates beneath the other Subduction cause magma plumes to rise to the Earth39s surface creating the volcanic islands Stream Flow Rainfall Relationships in Urban ie Channelized versus Natural Environments Urban cities tend to channelize or to create concrete rivers to make water quickly exit a city The concrete from such rivers as well as roads block base ow and instead you get over ow Over ow is much faster than base ow As a result you have a much greater peak of water in urban areas but the water also disappears faster In a natural environment there is more base ow so there is less of a peak in water but the water takes longer to leave Impacts of Urbanization 0n streams 7 In a natural environment there is base ow which causes the streams to be more filled year round The soil stores the water and releases it slowly which allows the streams to have water even during times of drought There is no base ow in urban cities because the concrete stops the water from penetrating the soil so they do not enjoy the same privilege Stream Velocity Transportation Erosion and Deposition by Streams There are materials suspended in streams which are transported When the velocity slows down the materials sink and accumulate on the streambed This is called deposition Erosion occurs when the velocity is faster The materials are broken down by the water and then are moved off the landscape There is more erosion at the upper basin more deposition in the lower basins In the upper basins you nd the creation of V shaped valleys because the high velocity cuts through the oor In the lower basins you see oodplains which are more U shaped Discharge Q Area x Velocity Volume of water passing through a river Base Flow vs Overland Flow 70verland ow refers to water that runs along the landscape The water may also be absorbed by the soil which causes base ow The water in ltrates the soil and reaches the water table underneath which the soil is saturated so the water cannot penetrate it The water ows along the water table and this is called base ow Watershed Drainage Divides Drainage divides are the lines separating neighboring drainage basins Watershed and drainage divides are synonyms Flood Plain Meanders Levees etc Flood plains are seen in lower basins A ood plain is a at or nearly at land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences ooding during periods of high discharge The velocity of the water is slower because the ground is at which causes deposition The deposits grow eventually to the point that the river meanders to nd lower ground This causes the river to go from side to side The instability of the shape of the river oods the neighboring which makes it hard for humans to settle there So humans build levees that prevent the river from shifting course The higher the river gets the higher the levees become This causes ooding to become less frequent but they are more severe Impacts of Dams Dams help generate electricity They also help with ood control in order to maintain a constant stream of water They also help with water storage and transport for agriculture urban uses etc There is a risk that the dam will break and wash out cities Dams can also cause legal troubles Syria gets water from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers but Turkey built a dam and it limited the water ow There can be pollution build up in the reservoir Dams cause habitats to change because a river is made into a lake It also introduces erotic animals which affects the indigenous population Animals depend on the variability of the river s discharge ood to calm and they do different things in different seasons There is also sediment build up which reduces the dams capacity The sediment does not ow through which causes ecological changes downstream For example deltas downstream won t get sediment so they begin to sink Affects the migration of animals up and down the river Eg salmon Longshore Transport amp Current how it forms and its effect 7 Energy comes from the Northwest because that s where the storms are The water hits the land and bends becoming more parallel with the coast This creates a river that moves along the beach This river causes downstream transport of materials Jetties Spits Lagoons J etties are piles of rocks that are perpendicular to the beach These prevent longshore transport They create broad beaches upstream because they receive more material Beaches downstream become smaller because they are deprived of materials A spit is caused when the longshore transport comes around a bend It goes in the direction of the bend and deposition occurs The sand makes a bridge that extends from the land Lagoons are created when the spit goes from one side and continues to another piece of land separating a body of water from the ocean E g Malibu Lagoon 7 The lagoon has a fresh water creek that makes the water fresh The lagoon opens in the winter and closes in the winter because there are more storms in the winter which makes the longshore transport stronger This causes erosion The creek also gets more water because of storms which causes the levee to become lled with too much water and eventually breaks It is rebuilt in the summer when conditions are more stable Erosion Transport and Deposition by Coastal Processes Ria Barrier Island and Fjord Coastlines A Ria coastline is associated with rising sea levels that cause a ooding of the coastline It will cause greater erosion making the water ll the river valleys at the foot of the mountains As the waves crash into the river valleys erosion happens at the mountain tips causing the material to go into the next river valley The erosion causes cliffs in the mountain edges A barrier coastline is a narrow island that is parallel to the coast Created when there are a lot of materials available Frequent in New Jersey where the materials came from the J 1 39 39 39 M t 39 The 39 eroded sending material into the water Eventually the material is deposited on the coastline As sea level rises the island will move inland Hurricanes quickly wash them out but they are rebuilt by deposition A fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U shaped valley by abrasion of the surrounding bedrock Glacial melting is accompanied by rebound of Earth39s crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed Pleistocene Epoch Ice Ages 7 The ice caused lower sea levels about 130 meters Holocene Epoch 7 The epoch we line in now Glaciation amp Interglacial Periods amp Climate Change A glaciation period is an interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances Interglacials on the other hand are periods of warmer climate within an ice age These are important in terms of glaciers During a glaciation period the temperatures are colder which allows the glaciers in the poles to become bigger extending all the way till the northern US In interglacial periods the glaciers retreat and become smaller Through erosion deposition and transportation the glaciers change the landscape Laurentide and Scandavian Ice Sheets Antarctica and Greenland Ice Sheets Glaciers Zone of Accumulation and Ablation The accumulation zone is the area above the frm line where snowfall accumulates and exceeds the losses from ablation Ablation is the surface removal of ice or snow from a glacier or snowfreld by melting sublimination and or calving The ablation zone is the region of the glacier that has a net loss of snow or ice through ablation processes Erosion Transportation and Deposition by Glaciers Glaciers cause erosion by picking up rocks and using them to abrade the surfaces over which they pass Plucking 7 The bedrock is usually cracked and as the glacier moves over it the ice melts The glacier exerts enough pressure on the water to cause it to break rocks off Eventually the rock becomes smaller until the point that it becomes a powder Material may be transported and brought up to the surface if there are deformation planes or crevasses that reach to the bottom of the glacier Deposition 7 Eventually the materials reach the end the glacier and they are let free There may also be temperate temperatures that cause a stream to form on the top of the glacier carrying materials to the bottom of the glacier A similar stream may also form at the bottom of the glacier because of the friction between the glacier and the bed rock Alpine versus Continental Glaciers Continental glaciers cover parts of continental land masses like Greenland Alpine glaciers are found high in mountain valleys above the snowline Differences 1 Location Alpine glaciers are only found on mountain tops whereas continental glaciers are only found at the earth39s poles regardless of elevation 2 Size Alpine glaciers are smaller compared to Continental glaciers Similarities 1 Both move and cause erosion 2 Both change the landscape 3 Both developed in constantly cold temperatures below freezing How U Shaped Valleys Form Glaciers carry down large rocks and other pieces of material The rocks moving along with the glacier scratch bedrocks exposing them Rocks become polished because they ve been abraised so much They glacier will also erode the sides of the valleys making them more U shaped When the U shaped valleys are close to the sea levels and become submerged with water they are called F urers Cirque Cirques are the most common of landforms in glaciated mountains The cirques quite often are found at the heads of glacial valleys The accumulated ice cuts these cirques while moving down the mountaintops They are deep long and wide troughs or basins with very steep concave to vertically dropping high walls at its head as well as sides A lake of water can be seen quite often within the cirques after the glacier disappears Such lakes are called cirque or tam lakes There can be two or more cirques one leading into another down below in a stepped sequence Moraine terminal lateral and medial They are long ridges of deposits of glacial till Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end toe of the glaciers Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys The lateral moraines may join aterminal moraine forming a horseshoe shaped ridge There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glacio uvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley oors Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines The moraine in the center of the glacial valley anked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines Paleolakes in the Western US during the Ice Ages 7 The Polar Ice sheets came south and the cold temperatures caused high pressure The air would try to move from high pressure to low pressure so it moved outwards This high pressure current affected the westerlies and as a result they were pushed more to the south This caused greater rainfall in the Western US which caused the formation of lakes After the ice age the westerlies went back north and stopped supplying the lakes with water so they dried up Possible causes of the Ice Ages Possibly plate tectonics changes in the ocean currents or atmosphere Astronomical causes are the changes in solar output associated with sunspot activities Sunspots are dark and cooler patches on the sun which increase and decrease in a cyclical manner According to some meteorologists when the number of sunspots increase cooler and wetter weather and greater storminess occur A decrease in sunspot numbers is associated with warm and drier conditions Yet these findings are not statistically significant An another astronomical theory is Millankovitch oscillations which infer cycles in the variations in the earth s orbital characteristics around the sun the wobbling of the earth and the changes in the earth s aXial tilt All these alter the amount of insolation received from the sun which in turn might have a bearing on the climate Volcanism is considered as another cause for climate change Volcanic eruption throws up lots of aerosols into the atmosphere These aerosols remain in the atmosphere for a considerable period of time reducing the sun s radiation reaching the Earth s surface After the recent Pinatoba and El Cion volcanic eruptions the average temperature of the earth fell to some extent for some years The most important anthropogenic effect on the climate is the increasing trend in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which is likely to cause global warming Biodiversity and Biodiversity Hot Spots Biodiversity 7 different types of life A hot spot is an area with very high biodiversity which means that there are a lot of different types of animals living there Why preserve Biodiveristy Direct utilitarian values 7 1 Food 7the more genes that there are the greater the ability to harvest more productive traits New crops can be waiting to be found Indigenous people rely on biodiversity for food medicines etc 2 Cultural Values 7 Some plants have spiritual or religious functions Some medicines are found in nature Can also be useful for medical research 3 Aesthetic Values 7 Greater biodiversity increases the quality of our lives by providing beauty Ecotourism is growing more people travel to see beautiful nature 4 Ecological Service Values 7 Different species contribute different things to the ecology E g Pollinators and insects help other animals grow 5 Ethical Values 7 Other species have a right to exist independent of our need for them 6 Evolutionary processes 7 the more genetic variety there is the more evolution can take place Factors that tend to increasereduce biodiversity l A physically diverse habitat such as mountains and rainforests There are more niches to be filled Niche 7 an environmental condition that a species can exploit More niches means that there are more species E g 7 Being on a mountain has different altitudes which means there are different temperatures and climates This creates more niches for different animals to exploit 2 Resource rich environments 7 The soil is richer able to support more primary producers 3 High biodiversity in one trophic level will lead to higher biodiversity at another level E g 7 The more primary producers there are the more animals that there are that can exploit them 4 There are more primary producers along the equator because there is more sunlight Animals can use photosynthesis to generate more energy there is more energy which means that there is more energy for different animals to eat The Edge Effect amp Habitat Fragmentation Fragmentation is to break something apart It is bad to divide forests because of the edge effect The edge effect 7 When there is a separation between farmlands and forests the farmland animals penetrate and mix into the forests and they compete with forest animals which decreases the area that they can live in E g 7 when you put in a road you increase the amount of forest that can be penetrated so it makes the forest even smaller Fire Ecology crown fires burn the top of the tree and ground fires burn along the bottom Fires are naturally frequent and moderate This prevents the buildup of fuel such as branches and leaves In the US we prevent wildfires This creates more fuel which makes frres less frequent but far more drastic Additionally the fires cause ash that falls to the soil which increases the nutrients in the soil Trees adapted to this pine cones are only exposed in fires and once they are planted they grow quickly Biodiversity and Conservation Policy Natural parks tend to be in areas of low biodiversity and in areas of high aesthetic beauty Most parks are also in the West of the United States Conversationalists tend to concentrate on animals that are aesthetically pleasing but they are not always evolutionarily successful E g 7 Pandas have birth defects Forms of conservation 7 1 Species based conservation concentrate on a specific species A Insitu conservation 7 conserving the animal in its habitat B Exsitu conservation 7 conserving the animal outside of its habitat 2 Habitat based conservation 7 focuses on conserving entire habitats Environmental restoration 7 turning places that have been infiltrated by humans back to their natural states E g 7 get rid of exotic plants restore canals etc Biomes 7 different ways to categorize life The Biome concept 7 animals in similar regional climates will be similar not because of genes but because of similar adaptations Types 1 Tropical Rainforests 7 year round moisture warmth and sunlight Lots of vegetation soil is moist poor nutrients in the soil because of leeching Energy is stored in plants They have to deal with poor soil so they regrow fast There are shallow and spread out root systems The competition for sunlight is fierce three canopieslayers in the trees Upper canopies 7 able to deal with dry conditions seeds are dispersed by wind Lower canopies use fruits to disperse seeds 2 Tropical Savannahs 7 Warm there is seasonality wet and dry seasons Have to deal with the seasonality so plants go into a dormant stage which helps them survive dry seasons 3 Desert 7 Year long droughts Types of deserts 1 Global deserts 7 created by subtropical high pressure 11 Isolation deserts 7 isolated from a source of water 111 Rainshadow deserts 7 caused by the rainshadow effect Adaptations 7 Succulence 7 The plants store water They have deep roots to get down to the water table They don t have much leaves photosynthesis takes place in the stem Don t have leaves because they dry out fast Shallow spread out roots to get maximum rainfall Plants are waxy to preserve water 4 Mediterranean 7 Characteristics 7 seasonality and fires Along the coast similar latitudes on the west side of continents because they get their moisture from the westerlies Cold ocean currents and get wet winters from the poles that extend downwards Plants are similar to deserts Long droughts so plants lose their leaves in the summer The vegetation becomes fuel for fires during droughts 5 Temperate Grassland 7Towards the middle of continents not near water Usually arid plants have to deal with long droughts Plants have roots like deserts for similar reasons Resprouting 7 plants die during the summer above the ground and the roots regrow when there is more moisture Seed dormancy 7 the seeds spread out and wait for wet conditions to grow 6 Temperate forests 7 in the midlatitudes Plants have to deal with extreme temperature low light seasons snow and lower noon sun angle Deal with low light conditions snow lower nonsun angles Deal with low light conditions by their chlorophyll dying out The leaves change colors Leaves aren t able to generate enough energy 7 Temperate rainforests 7 cold and low light seasons yearlong moisture from the westerlies Trees are evergreen Leaves don t fall because they want to protect their nutrients the soil is wet and leeching causes low nutrients The growing season is short Not enough time to shed leaves to grow them back in time 8 Boreal forests 7 Cold and low light seasons Drier re Evergreen forests Drier causes more fires polar air causes high pressure dry 9 Tundra 7 Extreme cold not trees low light seasons and dry Have moss and likens that are fungi They grow in thick pads because it is cold The bigger you are the more heat you can maintain Also has heliotropic plants ower that follow the sun to maximize sun exposure http www csulbedur0drigue geog140lecturesglaciershtml


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