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Introduction to Comparative Politics

by: Jamison Crooks

Introduction to Comparative Politics POL SCI 2

Marketplace > University of California - Berkeley > Political Science > POL SCI 2 > Introduction to Comparative Politics
Jamison Crooks

GPA 3.83

P. Chhibber

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P. Chhibber
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamison Crooks on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL SCI 2 at University of California - Berkeley taught by P. Chhibber in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/226643/pol-sci-2-university-of-california-berkeley in Political Science at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Note I have bolded things I feel may be on the quiz TF short answer or MC but it may not include everything Steven Wolinetz Party Systems and Party System Types Party systems are important number of parties in elections shapes choices for voters number of parties winning seats in legislative elections affects ease of forming government in parliamentary systems and finding support in presidential systems Three streams of study 1 way American 2 party system has changed over time way state parties differ from national parties partisan realignment and reflection of cleavage lines 2 extent to which state party systems reflect national patterns 3 quality of democracy in American party system and need for quotmore responsible 2 party systemquot Definition of party system consists of regular and reoccurring interactions competition among its component parties thus party system is distinct from its component parties competition shore up own support and pry votes from competitors influenced by what other parties have done in past and what will do in future cooperation depends on distance on key issues and presentation in elections vary on number of parties contesting and winning seats size and strength number of dimensions on which they compete distance on key issues willingness to work together Classifying Party Systems one party two party and multiparty if decide to focus on parties winning seats have to decide which to include and exclude 39 difficult many measures have been introduced Classification on the basis of relative strength and size of parties Blondel look at average share of vote won by largest parties and consider ration of first party to second and third 2party system 2andahalfparty systems multiparty system w predominant party and multiparty wo predominant party allows us to distinguish types of multiparty and differences of pure 2 party systems with 2 party system with a small party playing a role 0 quothalf partyquot plays hing party role needed to make parliamentary majority or wing party role only influence agenda or policy but that is easily taken over by large party 0 Patterns of Government formation 0 0 patterns of government formation and party interaction patterns of opposition can be strictly competitive cooperative and competitive coalescent and competitive strictly coalescent 0 Moderate versus Polarized Pluralism Sartori o o 0 count parties and make classes of parties parties large or small should be counted based on effect on 39 1 party competition 0 small parties relevant if have coalition potential sufficient seats to make coalition feasible blackmail potential can influence agenda Quinlan 39 2 existence alters direction of party competition 0 changing direction of competition from centripetal parties on either side compete for votes in middle to centrifugal should establish classes of party systems 39 Lumps more general categories 0 one party lumps not properly competitive predominant party systems where one party regularly wins majority and predominates over smaller 0 multiparty system lumps limited pluralism 3 5 relevant parties extreme pluralism 6 8 relevant parties 0 atomized party systems so fragmented the addition of one party makes no different to pattern of competition 39 Refined multiparty categories 0 no party likely to obtain majority 0 direction and character of competition important moderate pluralism competition like 2party system 39 centripetal competition polarized pluralism 39 centrifugal antisystem extreme parties compete with center parties 39 parties in the center govern wo benefit of alternate government 39 ideological divisions irresponsible oppositions and outbidding or over promising end up with 4types o predominant party systems 0 2party systems moderate pluralism polarized pluralism 0 More recent schema o o o o 0 competition closed or open alternate approach 1 pure 2 party system 2 moderate multiparty systems 3 moderate multiparty system with one dominant party 4 moderate multiparty system with 2 main parties 5 moderate multiparty systems with balance among parties 6 extreme multiparty systems with one dominant party 7 extreme multiparty systems with balance among parties these are describing patterns of party competition not party systems 0 New Directions new typology number of parties their interrelationships presence or absence of clustering alliances centripetal versus centrifugal drive electoral volatility a property of party not system not proper index of party system Maneet Kaur Poli Sci 2 12210 Jones 7 Rise of Insurgency in Afghanistan Notes 0 Introduction 0 o o Insurgency developed in Afghanistan after American war Why 39 1 existing theories do not explain say say grievances among ethnic groups or greed 39 2 Afghanistan supposed to be initial front for US War on Terror 7 Al Qaeda and Taliban Precondition for onset of insurgency was 39 structural weak government 0 government unable to provide basic services to the population law and order and too 0 and too many international forces filling the gap 7 anarchic because no higher power to protect state 39 insurgents took advantage 7 ideology theory Methodology interviews throughout years Question Why insurgency in Afghanistan began o Grievance or Greed Neither o o o insurgency politicalmilitary campaign to overthrow government using military tactics Theory 1 Grievances Ushaped violence less likely in less homogenous and highly heterogeneous and more likely with ethnic majorities and ethnic minorities ethnic ties are strong committed 0 Thought Pashtuns believed north getting power difficulty uniting country and national identity Little evidence 0 Taliban not motivated by ethnic concerns and only certain Pashtun tribes supported support from other tribes Karzai won in many dilTerent tribes not based on ethnicity 0 Ethnic grievances not major concern surveys Reason of absence balance representation in government Theory 2 Greed violence generates profits from looting bandits pirates natural resources commodity exports 0 lower percent with less commodity as more GDP Little evidence 0 country has few natural resources infrastructure destroyed educated people gone poor country no competition over exports 0 Rise in production of poppy is not cause of insurgency wrong timing 7 drug trade more result of insurgency because of weak gov control 7 of cials corrupt warlords 0 Governance Collapse 0 weak governments make insurgency easier b c of weak policing and counterinsurgency practices 7 need temporary security peaceful con ict economy for civilians and soldiers 0 government capacity governance 7 establish law and order manage resources implement sound policies Weber 7 monopoly of legitimate use of physical force in territory 0 structural chances can create emerging anarchy weakness for insurgents to step in 39 domestic central hierarchic international decentral archic 7 less authority more vulnerable the case for many countries 1 unable to provide essential resources 0 corruption can impede 7 hamper economic growth burden poor undermine law hurt gov legitimacy 0 supply side give brides demand side public official who take them 2 state security lack legitimacy and unable to establish law and order 7 lose authority over territories police 0 insurgents provide security take taxes set up administrative structure for population 0 The Collapse of Afghan Governance precondition for onset of insurgency Essential Services 7 new gov unable to provide especially in rural areas and urban elite bene ted most 39 weak administration and lack of control in some provinces 39 ie electricity 7 dominance by informal sector 39 programs confusing uncoordinated unorganized Law and Order 7 no security outside capital 7 US gov didn t make good Afghan security forces or police and gave less support than needed 39 low Afghan police competence 7 no good training corrupt ineffective 39 US provided assistance to local warlords undermining government for law and order 0 warlord militias patrolled and guarded o Ideology of Jihad local population motivated to support Taliban or too fearful to oppose because of governance failure especially in rural areas insurgent leaders motivated by ideology Taliban alQaida HizbiIslami Taliban 7 largest radical Sunni Islam Deobandism 7 conservative Islamic orthodoxy that follows Salafrst egalitarian model and model times and life of Prophet Mohammed 0 supported in Pakistan 0 few rights for women Islamic dress old clothes beards no entertainment public execution amputate hand destroy cultural museums AlQaida 7 Islamic scholars similar Sunni ideology spread in Middle East 0 overthrow regimes of US and its allies that supported regimes o HizbiIslami 7 similar ideology Islamic revolution pure Islamic state educated elite o Ideological Support from Abroad Pakistan Mullah Omar functional committees based out of cities in Afghanistan Pakistan and borders helped undermine Afghan governance by strengthening opposition groups that could move into rural areas of the east and south where the Afghanistan gov was weak 0 Result Afghanistan39s Spiraling weak governance and radical Sunni ideology violent insurgency absence of gov in rural areas help insurgency a lot 7 lead cause of insurgency 39 villages say corrupt government not fair justice think can get it with Taliban 39 Afghan police and army forces unable to provide security to rural areas so villages fell into hands of gov Inability to provide essential services and security to rural areas marginalized population making it a good target for insurgents 39 more susceptible to indoctrination Insurgent groups had information from Iraqi insurgent groups suicide tactics communications training 0 Conclusion Afghanistan supposed to be initial battleground against alQaida but efforts failed to prevent rise of insurgency 39 not because of grievances ethnic or greed poppy No single theory for motivation of insurgent leaders and collapse of governance is critical precondition for onset of insurgencies Policy recommendations 7 extend governance to rural areas and provide essential services and establish effective law and order for security 7 have a stabilizing effect 7 increase government39s monopoly and legitimate use of force within Afghanistan 0 Main Idea state collapse is precondition to insurgency because of lack of authoritysecurity creates lack of legitimacy for people and space for others to come in Questions 0 This article relates to Chhibber s theory of state collapse being when other powers can come in and provide what the government is supposed to such as insurgents but does this mean the populations prefer security and strict rules of the Taliban over lack of security or is the lack of security just them fearing the Taliban will come back and they might as well support the Taliban in fear of what the Taliban may do McNulty Mel 7 Collapse onaire 0 Introduction 0 seizure of power by AFDL as collapse of Zaire after civil war but had survived many civil wars before 0 because Mobutu created state with strain of 39 l implosion 7 state only functioning as milkcow for rulers and populations frustration with it 2 revolution 7 populations alienation anger frustration and coalition of militant opposition 39 3 external sabotage 7 undeclared military alliance of neighbors that Zaire had helped undermine by supporting their enemies 39 resulted in nal collapse Mislabeling of war as ethnic con ict 0 What was Zaire rst anticolonial by Belgium little local elite and thus not smooth transition General Mobutu took power in coup and established military rule credibility and power rested on restoration of order which was done Zairean nationalism big African man retained power by control of money and control of force 0 money source of patronage at expense of country s economy and natural resources and vampire state 7 he bene ted most from exploitation 0 Why Did Zaire survive Foreign intervention long term effects of outside imposition and maintenance of dictatorship 7 Western Allies France supported militarily 7 contracted French companies support advice when overwhelmed by other attackers 0 Why Did Zaire Outlive the Cold War Mechanical and nearunconditional support from powerful external patrons o Zaire not ful lling functions except as sovereign authority 7 hard states 0 state collapse signs 39 power devolves to peripheries when centre ghts among itself power withers at center by default because central government loses its power base gov malfunctions by avoiding necessary but dif cult choices the incumbents practice only defensive politics with no political agenda and elections are postponed 0 economy assetstripped by Mobutu 7 force and money economy asco 0 suspension of USbrokered democratization process prolonged absences extensive collection of overseas real estate extortion of state wealth gt disintegration of all aspects of state apparatus 0 Burlesque of democratization 39 opportunities for turn around but he tried to derail it when he knew it would destroy his personal power played ethnic card and ethnic cleansing pressure from Bush and new world order France still clinging on even after all 39 changed power structure in region 0 Why Did Zaire Collapse External Factors 39 unsustainability of Mobutu failure of Frenchsponsored propaganda the lack of potential intervenor in absence of France corresponding Western nonintervention response with Ugandan and Rwandan backing and expertise o 0 Internal factors 39 no state to collapse new administration had to start almost from zero revolution for many years 39 Mobutu had kept opposition weak and divided 39 guerillas Regional factors 39 regional security imperatives 7 Rwanda and Angola to secure borders 39 issue of governance by Zaire 39 now regional border issues after overthrowing for AFDL 39 pressure on internationals about Zairean war and violations by Mobutu 39 pressing and unsatis ed demands by neighbors didn39t allow domestic stability Main argument Demise of Zaire was due to the exploitation of the state39s wealth by Mobutu the populations unhappiness with Mobutu and lack of governance and the problem with countries neighboring Zaire Questions Iwas quite confused with the part about the borders and the neighboring countries and would hope to clarify that in discussion Note I have bolded things that seem likely to be on the quiz as multiple choice TF or short answer I am not saying those are the only things in the article that may be on the quiz but that they seem to be things you should definitely try to memorize What is a Political Party John Kenneth White Definition 0 political parties existence has little to due with winning elections but more with ideas Beer Lover s Party now has serious platform Green Party environmentalism non violence social justice etc third parties are considered legitimate parties 0 quotmediating institutionsquot bt governed and government 0 many definitions listed by many authors some ideas from each definition 39 national interest coalition governing apparatus legal means The Party Consensus o consensus behind many of the normative arguments made on party s behalf 0 parties are essential in progress towards democracy capacity to make strong organized parties because they give a direction to course of politics View from the Tripod explanations of a party 0 Tripod party in the electorate party organizations and party in government Party as Organization machinery of party Party as the Mass of Supporters electoral loyalties Party as a Body of Notables collectivity of notables who accept party label and they make the policy tendencies recognized by people considered a weak model public disdain for parties happier with other models of electing like in California the blanket primary choose any candidate regardless of party Party Paradigms o Rationalefficient model emphasizes partiesI electoral activities at expense of virtually all other party functions only outcome worth having is winning of elections organizational structure like cadre of political entrepreneurs o centralization and no formal party membership 0 efficiency is most stressed 0 little organizational continuity after election 0 U 8C 0 o o o o allowed to do as they wish once elected as long as it helps them win next election Responsible parties model parties rendered important public service when organized around issues of principle 39 effective party system requires 1 programs that they can commit to 2 parties posses sufficient internal cohesion to carry out programs 1 this gives voters a clear choice in election campaign 2 gives winning political party a mandate 3 ensures party as the instrument for voters39 legal revolution allows role for opposition as critics 39 commitment to collective party or to individual responsibility collective party responsibility is very important line of Mediating Institutions Parties political parties aren t what they used to be increased ideological polarization and greater organization skills bringing parties back to life decline of mediating institutions will cause political parties to adapt or wither away quotbowling alone social capital decreasing Internet contributing to social isolation quality of political participation is very different and less interactive


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