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General Biology Lecture

by: Nettie Herzog

General Biology Lecture BIOL 1A

Nettie Herzog

GPA 3.8

J. Forte

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J. Forte
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nettie Herzog on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1A at University of California - Berkeley taught by J. Forte in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/226650/biol-1a-university-of-california-berkeley in Biology at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Bio lAFinal Study Guide Part 2 What is the order of a cell cycle for mitosis Interphase G1 growth and metabolic 81 DNA replication growth G2 growth preparation for division Prophase condense into chromosomes centromeres being making spindle poles Prometaphase nuclear envelope begins breaking into vesicles Metaphase chromosomes align at metaphase plate and microtubles attach to kinetochore and spindle pole Anaphase sister chromatids separate via the walking of microtubules and separation of spindle poles Telophase nuclear envelope reforms and chromosomes begin decondensing Cytokinesis cleavage furrow via helical actin pinches and separates the cells Cell cycle for meiosis Interphase Meiosis I Meiosis II Prophase I homologous chromosomes condense and align recombination spindle poles Metaphase I homologous pairs line up on metaphase plate centromeres attach Anaphase I homologous pairs separate Cytokinesis I cell divides into 2 Prophase II condensation of chromosomes and spindle poles Metaphase II chromosomes line up Anaphase II chromatids separate Cytokinesis II 4 haploid cells made What is the difference bt mitosis and meiosis Divisions 2 l Anaphase I separates chromosomes while Anaphase separates chromatids Recombination none in mitosis Products diploid versus haploid What are replicated chromosomes made of 1 DNA molecule for each chromatid held together by proteins kinetochore attach to centromeres via microtubles What are microtubules made of What features do they have How do they elongateshorten Tubulin dimer alpha beta polar for attachment motor proteins of kinetochore use ATP and convert it to KE to walk along the microtubules What purpose do having pairs of chromosomes do in Eukaryotic genome Compensate for defective genes and generate diversity among offspring What creates genetic diversity Mutation independent assortment of homologous chromosomes maternal paternal on either side has 2N chance where N equals of homologous pairs recombination 7 catalyzed by enzymes random fertilization 7 any egg with any sperm What are Mendel s Laws First Law Law of Segregtation only get 1 allele for gene in gamete Second Law Law of Independent Assortment unliked pair of alleles segregates into gametes independently Anaphase II Explain why Drosophilia are good subjects for genetics experiments 4 pairs of homologous chromosomes short life span sequenced genome and can control crosses What are the differentiations of linked versus unlinked and the relation to recombination Unlinked no recombination Linked less than 50 cmg apa1t 7 recombination but parental more frequent Linked more than 50 cmg apart 7 recombination but parental and recombinant equal like unlinked What is successful complementation What is fail to complement Complement show wild type because di erent genetic material and not alleles of same gene Fail to complement complementation group show mutant type because same genetic material and alleles of same gene The probability of l and 2 is found by The probability of l or 2 is found by l and 2 7 multiply the probability of both 1 or 2 7 add the probability of both What is the basic unit of DNA7 what is it made of What is the name of DNA What are the characteristics of DNA 2 What is at each end How does it connect What rules Nucleotide 7 nitrogenous base pentose phosphate group Deoxyribose Double stranded antiparallel 539 to 3 Triphospate group on 539 and OH group on 3 Phosphodiester linkage bt each 3 O to phosphate on 5 Via OPO2OCH3pentose Polar phosphodiester backbone with nitrogenous bases binded by hydrogen bonds Chargo s Rules AT and GC because purines AG hydrogen bond with pyridamines T C How does a phosphodiester linkage form chemically what attracts what Electron pair on OH attracts P on lst phosphate What is released when DNA is synthesized Outer 2 phosphates are cleaved 01f pyrophosphate releasing energy and then phosphodiester linkage with OH of next nucleotide What 5 enzymes involved in DNA synthesis Helicase 7 unwinds strands primase 7 makes RNA primer for initiation DNApolymerase III 7 adds nucleotides to 339 end DNA polymerase I 7 replaces RNA primase Ligase 7 uses energy to connect Okazaki fragments since they have no pyrophosphate leaving group Which ways is DNA synthesized By what enzyme Didirection at original of replication needs to be 539 to 3 DNA polymerase III does both with 2 active sites with the 3 to 539 side in 539 to 3 Okazaki fragments How is DNA synthesized Where does it start Discuss the normal way first What enzymes Origin of Replication 7 bidirectional 539 gt 3 normal Helicase 7 separates strands Primase RNA poly 7 makes short RNA primer for DNA synthesis initiation DNA polymerase III 7 adds DNA to 3 end of primase by phophodiester linkages and continues to elongate DNApolymerase I 7 removes RNA primer and synthesizes DNA in its place after DNA polymerase III is gone What dilTerent is the 3 to 539 side DNApolymerase III removes and replaces the primase Ligase then makes phosphodiester bonds between 339 OH of one Okazaki and 539 phosphate of other Okazaki Ligase uses energy because no phosphate leaving group bt Okazaki fragments What is transciption and translation Where does each occur in Prok and Eukaryotes What is unique in Prok DNA gt RNA RNA gt Protein Eukaryote Transcription in nucleous translation in cytosol Prokaryote Transcription and translation in cytoplasm coupled Summarize prokaryotic transcription and translation RNA polymerase makes mRNA ribosome uses tRNA to make peptide chain Prokaryotic transcription What enzyme What does the enzyme make What is the enzyme made of What three parts of transcription RNApolymerase makes mRNA with PPP 539 and OH 3 complementary and antiparallel to DNA made of 4 proteins Activation initiation by promoter TA rich DNA that RNA polymerase recognizes and then separates strands RNA polymerase elongates RNA polymerase termination sequence detaches RNA polymerase Prokaryotic transcription what reads the mRNA and which way How is the mRNA read Ribosomes read mRNA 539 to 3 mRNA read as codon for amino acid redundant many codons for 1 amino acid but not ambiguous with 2 amino acids for l codon What is the initiation codon Termination AUG UAA UAG UGA What comes to the ribosomes What structure and due to what What do the tRNA have and how do they get it How does the aminoacyl tRNA bind to the amino acid How does the synthetase recognize the tRNA Aminoacyl tRNA transfer RNA 7 clover structure due to intermolecular pairing unique anticodon with amino acid Amino acyl tRNA synthetase binds amino acid to tRNA recognized by distinct intramolecular shape and anticodon paby cleaving pyrophosphate from ATP and binding resulting AMP to amino acid until aminoacyl tRNA binds its speci c amino acid and releases AMP oxygen binds to carboxyl of amino acid What is a ribosome made of certain thing What two subunits What does each subunit do sites and other stuff Made up of rRNA that is never translated and shapes internal interactions small subunit makes A P and E sites A site 7 aminoacyl tRNA binding site P site 7 peptide bonding site E site 7 exit site large subunit 7 has active 23SrRNA site that takes proton from aminoacyl tRNA in A site and leaves electrion pair of amine group to attach to carboxyl group of elongating protein in the P site What are the 3 parts of translation in Prok What way is it synthesized Initiation 7 small subunit of ribosome binds to mRNA 539 to 3 and anticodon of tRNA binds to start sequence Elongation 7 codon recognition at A site peptide bond formation from amine group of amino acid on A site attacks carboxyl group of P site Synthesized amine to carboxyl Termination 7 release factor uses water to hydrolyze and separate polypeptide What is the difference between Prok and Euk translated DNA and RNA What RNA does Euk have and how does it change Prokaryotic DNA have promoter coding and termination region and mRNA has untranslated region around 539PPP and 3 OH for ribosome to bind Eukaryotic DNA has promoter coding region termination region and exonintron hnRNA and then mRNA via splicing What is the rst RNA of Euk What is the structure What is the purpose of the structure hnRNA with 539CAP guanine triphosphate and 3 PolyAtail lots of adenines protects RNA from degradation helps it get to cytoplasm helps ribosome bind to it helps de ne 539 end of rst exon and 3 end oflast exon How is the mRNA formed What things invovled Splicing of introns have conserved sequences near borders by breaking phosphodiester and making new ones between exons snRNA base pairs with intron snRNP lsnRNA and 7 proteins binds intron and guides exons in splicing and holds them together spliceosome 7 complex of snRNPs What is the bene t of splicing Use hnRNA for multiple proteins How do mutations occur How are they prevented What happens when they are not prevented When radical oxygens oxidize DNA repair enzymes remove oxidized G 8 oxaguanine and repace with G but it DNA replication occurs before repair GC base pairs will become AT and cell will inherit the mutation What is a silent missense nonsense sense and frameshift mutation Change nucleotide 7 no change in amino acid change nucleotide 7 1 amino acid changes change nucleotide 7 amino acid is stop codon change nucleotide 7 stop codon is nonstop codon framseshift 7 insertdelete 12 How do Prok regulate gene expression How do Euk regulate gene expression 3 Prok operons Euk chromatin remodelling transcription factors and noncoding RNA degrade other mRNA What is a positive regulation Activator binds and activates transcription induce What is negative regulation Bind and block transcription repressor What does the lac operon naturally do Trp operon Naturally repressed Naturally active How is repressor bound to operator Repressor alpha helices place amino acids in the major groove where they noncovalently bond What is the lac operon made up of Promoter operator lac Z Y A How is the lac operon regulated Lactose activates transcription by inactivating repressor positive regulation glucose inhibits transcription rate How does glucose affect transcription high glucose inhibits adenylate cyclase which catalyzes formation of cAMP which is used to bind to CRP which binds to binding site before promoter to help RNA polymerase bind to promoter When can lac operon be transcribed When there is lactose but not glucose If mutation in I gene what happens If mutation in CRP gene what happens Negative regulator gene so always expression positive regulator gene so never expression How is the trp operon regulated Tryptophan binds to repressor to activate as corepressor to block transcription How is Euk gene expression regulated Transcription factors chromatin structure non coding RNA degrade other mRNA What are the 3 RNAP And what do they do Which is the more important one RNAP l rRNA genes except SS rRNA RNAP 3 tRNA snRNA 5 S rRNA RNAP 2 genes encoding mRNA and for non coding RNA What does the more important one need to have General transcription factors TFIID then TFIIB make zinc nger regulator transcription factors What are regulatory specific transcription factors One specific one What others does it control How does it bind Where does it bind How does it help general transcription factors Galactoseinducible transcription by GAL 4 which has enhancer before GAL l 7 10 Binds as zinc finger to major groove with cystein histidine binds ahead of TATA as enhancer It loops and helps TFIIB bind to TFIID so RNA can bind to promoter and transcription can begin What regulates this above regulator GAL 80 blocks the negative region of GAL 4 when galactose present the galactose blocks GAL 80 and prevents it from blocking GAL 4 What is the Euk genome made of quot r genes retrotransposons r What do bacteriophages use of host cell DNApoly 11 poly I and ligase to replicate DNA genome RNAto transcribe ribosomes to translate How do they burst host cell What used for protection Lysozyme gt lysis restriction endonucleases What do retroviruses have What do they make in host cell 2 copies of RNA genome 2 reverse transcriptase envelope and capsid proteins proteins to protect RNA genome proteases to cleave polyproteins and RTintegrase What are mobile elements The first 7 bad and good why What are the second composed of Retrotransposons 7 nonfunctional retroviruses bad mutate good diversity transposons 7 require transcription for movement 7 autosomes transposon in promoter by inverted DNA How do they move Random target site old to new cut and adds DNA poly and ligase used to put back together copy pase coupled with replication fork to have 2 copies oftransposon 7 DNA poly And ligase ll gaps How are mobile elements repressed Chromatin structure What is the organization of chromatin after DNA double helix What are they made up of Nucleosomes H2A H2B H3 H4 globular domain with lyseine and argine and histone tail 7 binds to phosphodiester backbone What does DNA methylation do Methylate what Description which way which enzymes do it Compact CG metylation 5CG3 symmetrical Dnmt 3 methylates unmethylated Dnmt l methylates after replication What does histone acetylation do Where What are the two types called Enzymes What is the chemical difference What does Dnase do Opens up lyseine K9 acetylated 7 euchromatin extra COCH2 on NH deacetylated 7 heterochromatin histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase digests and heterochromatin only gives one line What complex on compact and open Compact 7 NuRD CH3 MBD methyl binding HDAC deactylase Mi2 ATP compacts nucleosomes Open 7 Ac HAT acetylase remodelr opens nucleosomes transcription factors RNAP II What is the noncoding RNA that degrades other mRNA Made by what Where does it go What happens to it MicroRNA RNAP II 7 makes 22 BP in certain region goes to cytoplasm helicase unwinds 7 one degrades one goes to RISC What does RISC do RISC cleaves mRNA or blocks ribosomes from translating mRNA negative regulator What is the procedure of isolating a single gene from genome Restriction enzyme cutes DNA plasma vectors carry DNA bacteria replicate DNA in plasmids and then analyze by gel electrophoresis and sequencing What happens in plasmid vector Insert recombinant plasmid into bacteria and it makes large amount of human genome which is digested and put on agarose gel How do you DNA sequence DNA polymerase ddiTP on acrylamide capillary gel separate by one base How determine sequence of genome by shot gun Partially digested genome by restriction enzymes and clone all in plasmid and recombinant and then sequence and show overlapping regions to show genome What is PCR Taq polymerase copies DNA with primers attached Operons in bacteria allow for Proteins to be translated from a single mRNA Where does the base attach to on pentose Phosphate 1 carbon 339 carbon Gene families Encode proteins w similar functions Bio 1A Final Study Guide Part 3 What do heterotrophs typically store food as CHZO as glycogen What is unique about animals Lack cell walls unique intercellular junctions tussues for impulse conduction and locomotin ll organ systems Digestive nervous circulatory respiratory endocrine excretory muscular skeletal integumentary immune lymphatic reproductive Major tissues 4 Epithelial connective muscle nervous What are the types of epithelial tissue Simple single layer strati ed many layers pseudostrati ed single layered but cells vary in shape Cuboidal cubic columnar like bricks standing squamous at glandular 7 absorb secrete ciliated What would strati ed columnar epithelia be for simple columnar pseudostrati ed ciliated columnar strati ed squamous simple squamous Strong lining of urethra for urine lines intestines to secrete and absorb lines tracts to push down stuff regenerates rapidly like skin think and leaky for diffusion What makes epithelium a tissue Cells are polarized and very close have special adjoining junctions 7 tight junctions as barriers What does connective tissue do What is it made of Bind and support other tissues scattered cells bers made of proteins What kinds of bers are there collogenous collagen nonelastic elastic elastin rubbery restoration reticular thin collagen joining connective with other tissues What is collegenous ber made of Polypeptide rings microfribules bundles ber What kinds of things are made of connective tissue Adipose cartilage bone blood What makes some of the bers Fibroblasts make collagen and elastin What is bone made of What cells are responsible for makingdestroying it collagenous matrix calcium phosphate deposits Osteoblasts make bone and osteoclasts degradekill bone What is the structure of bone marrow Blood vessels 7 venus sinus leukocytes erythrocytes plumapotent stem cells What do the stem cells give rise to Lymphoid line and myeloid line What are sources of stem cells Endogenous stem cells in tissues inner cell mass in early embryo 7 blastocysts umbilical cord blood What is muscle tissue for What kinds Movement skeletal striated smooth not striated electrical impulses cardiac striated electrical impulses What do nerve tissues do 3 Excitation conduction and transmission What do tissues organs and organ systems do and Serve and regulate internal environment What is a mechanism for homeostasis Negative feedback What are the 4 parts of food processing Ingestion digestion absorption elimination What are the accessory glands and what do they do Salivary glands moisten food begin digestion pancreas bicarbonate ions digestive enzymes liver produce bile gallbladder store bile 7 emulsi es fats What is the swallowing re ex Epiglottis is down esophogal sphincter relaxes glottis and larynx are up and bolus of food goes down Peristaltic waves help food go down and mix What does the stomach do Stores mixes and macerates food secretory What do the cells of the stomach secrete Mucus cells 7 mucus lubricant chief cells 7 prepsinogen activated to pepsin by Hcl hydrolyzes proteins parietal cells 7 secrete HCl kill bacteria denature proteins activate pepsin What is the small intestine made up of What does the rst section do Dueodenum jejunum ileum all secretions into deuodenum What enzymes does the pancreas secrete speci cally Trisinogen gt trypsin procarboxypeptidase gt carboxypeptidase chymotripsino gen gt chymotrypsin What activates trypsin Carboxypeptidase Chymotripsin Enteropeptidase protease trypsin actives the other two Enzymes in mouth Salivary amylase breaks down carbs into smaller polysaccharides Enzymes in stomach Pepsin breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptides Enzymes in pancreas and liver Pancreatic amylases break down carbs into maltose and disaccarides Trypsin chymotryprsin break down proteins into smaller polypeptides Aminopeptidase caboxypeptidase breaks down proteins to amino acids Bile sats emuslify fats Lipase breaks fat down Enzymes in brush border of small intestine Disacharidose breaks cards into monosaccarides dipeptidase breaks proteins down into amino acids lipase breaks fats down How does stimulation occur during eating Vagus nerve and gastrin acts as a hormone What hormones are secreted in the dueodenum Secreten and CCK cholecystokinin What does gastric acid stimulates Release of secretin gt stimulates pancreatic HCO3 gt neutralizes acid What does partially digested food stimulate Release of CCK gt stimulate pancreatic enzymes and bile gt digest food and emulsify fat What reaction is going on with the hydrochloric acid and bicarbonate HCl and NaHCO3 gt NaCl and H2CO3 gt NaCl and H20 and C02 What is the structure of the small intestines What unique thing Muscle layer gt epithelium mucosa folds so tissue can stretch and move gt villi and microvilli make absorption surface high and they have crypts 7 holes for generative cells and secretions What are intestinal epithelial cells for Specialized for absorption of carbs nucleic acids fats salts and minearls What is gastritis Hyperemic gastric mucosa in ltration by neutrophils helocater pylori infection cause ulcers What is appendicitis Appendix infested with neutrophills reservoir ofbacteria good What is best for diffusion 11 Fast at small distances to dilTuse across fast with more area Heart circulation Vena cava gt right atrium gt tricuspid AV gt right ventricle gt pulmonary SLV gt pulmonary arteries gt lungs gt pulmonary veins gt left atrium gt bicuspid AV gt left ventricle gt aortic SLV gt aorta gt body What is diastolesystole Diastole 7 relaxed lling Systole 7 contracted emptying How does the electrical activity in the heart work Sinoatrial node pacemaker in the right atrium gt atrium fills gt atrioventricular node between left and right ventricles gt bundle branches gt purkinje fibers in left ventricle What is cardiac output Volume of bloodminute heart rate beatsmin x stroke volume vol bloodbeat What is the pathway blood vessels Arteries gt arterioles gt capillaries beds gt venule gt veins What is the structure of the blood vessels Artery 7 outer to inner 7 thick connective thick smooth muscle for strong walls endothelium smaller cross section Capillary 7 endothelium inside basal lamina outside large cross section for exchange Vein 7thin connective and smooth muscle for exible walls valves in endothelium wider cross section than artery Which have pressure velocity arteries 7 high pressure high velocity because of heart capillaries 7 very thin low pressure and blood ow veins 7 middle pressure high velocity but not highest What is microcirculation How does blood ow Wihich end has more pressure When is this used Capillaries relaxed precapillary sphincters gt blood ows contracted 7 blood not in capillaries gt arterial venus connection arterial has more pressure because letting stuff out and venus letting stuff in Used when cold or warm or when going to different organs What are the two important parts of the heart Neural 7 autonomic nervous sytsem ANS Hormonal What does the neural system do 12 Acetylcholine parasympathetic decreases heart rate through SA node NorEpinephrine sympathetic increases heart race via SA node increases strength via stroke volume out of heart muscle What does the hormonal system do Epinephrine adrenal medulla increases heart rate via SA node and increases strength via stroke volume of heart muscle What are the responses ofthe blood vessels Local response 7 vasodilation increased blood ow with nitric oxide adenosine and metabolic products Neural 7 sympathetic norepineprhine with alpha receptors for vasoconstriction and beta receptors for vasodilation dilation is relaxation constriction is contraction What is systolic and diastolic pressure In 12080 Top is systolic bottom is diastolic systolic 7 when left ventricle contracts leads to high blood pressure diastolic 7 when ventricles relax lower blood pressure brachial artery What does respiration do Use oxygen to break carbon bonds and produce energy fore cells and C02 What is Fick s Law of Diffucion Rate of dilTusion depends on area and concentration directly and distance inversely What is a respiratory surface Where gas exchange occurs ie Gills tracheoles lungs What is the mammalian respiratory system made up of Trachea gt 2 bronchi gt bronchioles gt alveoli alveoli covered in blood vessels thoracic cavity diaphragm intercostal muscles How do we breath by what What mechanism inhales and exhales What volumes and pressures What kind of breathing do we do speci cally What is a type of breathing di erent and what animal has it and why Diaphragm and ribs Inhale 7 diaphragm contracts down ribs expand out volume increases pressure inside is lower so air comes in Exhale 7 diaphragm relaxes up ribs muscles rela volume decreases pressure inside is higher so air goes out Tidal breathing volum inhaled for each breath have some left over residual breathing not all exhaled Birds inspirate and exirate all for more energy What is our respiratory rate breathsmin volume minutetidal volume which is mlmin divided by mlbreath Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs What two aspects of the alveoli help better respiration Alveolar space comes in contact with gas and capillary lumen has blood large alveolar space and many alveoli think alveolar membrane 7 short distance between air and blood How is carbon dioxide carried in the blood and diffused out Carbon dioxide travels mostly has bicarbonate and hemoglobin buffers by taking hydrogen ion carbon dioxide and water make carbonic acid via carbonic anhydrase When it reaches the How is the oxygen carried Carried by hemoglobin 4 02 for l hemoglobin because hemoglobin has 4 globin and 4 hemes Hemoglobin retains more 02 at higher pH higher C02 What is the 14 myoglobin saturation between 39 and 11 II 1 39 has sshaped curve because of cooperative interaction Oxygen saturation of Hemoglogin decreases if C02 is high pH is low H are high How is breathing controlled by P02 and Pcoz High Pcoz affects respiratory regions of brain pons medulla oblongata Low P02 affects respiratory regions of brain indirectly gt carotid arteries and aorta and sends nervous impulses to brain pons medulla oblongata Respiratory regions of brain send nervous impulses to diaphragm What does the kidney do Regulates body uids concentrations of salts and solutes and excretes nitrogenous wastes What do 39 do 0 3 runs at 39 quot J 39 39 for 39 conform to environment What is osmosis Semipermeable membrane can make equilibrium with pressues and concentrations What is isotonic isoosmotic hypotonic hypoosmotic hypertonic hyperosmotic Isotonic 7 same pressure and concentrations on both internal and external sides Hypo 7 higher pressure outside higher concentration of impermeable salts inside gt swelling and hemolysis Hyper 7 lower pressure outside lower concentration of impermeable salts outside gt water leaves shrinks How is homeostasis maintained in body uids Maintain salt water osmotic pressure pH and waste products What three things does excretory organs do Filtration reabsorption secretion What organs part of excretory system 2 kidneys ureters urinary bladder urethra What is the functional unit of a kidney What is it made up of What does each part do Nephron made up of glomerulus with ball of capillaries surrounded by tubular Bowman39s capsule for ltration proximal tubules most reabsorption loop of Henle form gradient distal tubules reabsorption secretion collecting duct nal urine concentration determined and gradients controlled How does ltration occur What is not ltered What leads into the glomerulus and out of the glomerulus Filtrate goes out of glomerulus capillaries into lumen of Bowman s capsule blood and proteins not ltered out Afferent arteriole leads into glomerulus and efferent leads out Where do reabsorbed things go into The things are reabsorbed into the efferent arteriole from renal tubule What is the renal corpsucle The glomerulus Bowman39s capsule and arterioles What happens at the loop of Henle For what purposes What propelties does this give the kidney Descending 7 impermeable to salts permeable to water gt reabsorb water Ascending 7 impermeable to water permeable to salts gt dilute urine inner medula high osmotic pressure and concetration makes hypotonic urine How does water necessity determine urine concentration How is it regulated If need water make collecting duct more permeable to water high antidiuretic hormone ADH If need to rid of water make collecting duct impermeable to water make dilute urine How does a hemodialysis machine work Blood taken out of body to semipermeable membrane and ltered What happens when osmolarity too high 1 Stimulate water reabsorption 7 osmoreceptors in hypothalmus posterior pituitary gland make ADH gt collecting duct more water permeability and more water absorption 2 stimulate thirst 7 osmoreceptors in hypothalamus posterior pituitary gland gt activate thirst How is blood volume and pressure regulated By regulating NaCl salt absorption 1 aldosterone 7 conserves salts in adrenal medulla for absorption 2 atrial natriuretic fator 7 lost losing hormone promotes salt secretion What 3 types of defenses does the body have against invasion External internal acquired immunity What is the lymphatic system made up of How does it get about Lymphatic capillariesvessels 7 no circulation moved by muscles and valves DilTuse into and lter Lymph nodes 7 lymphocytes and macrophages spleen 7 huge lymph node thymus bone marrow What does the bone marrow do What types of cells Has pluripotent stem cells that make make RBC and WBC leukocytes lymphoid gt lymphocytes B cells and T cells myeloid gt neutrophils eosinophils basophils mnocytes erythrocytes RBC platelets RBC What are neutrophils eosinophils basophils monocytes Neutrophils 7 attracted to sites of infection attack microbes engulfs and kills itself Eosinophils 7 attack invading parasites with enzymes Basophils 7 release histamine chemoattractant not phagocytic Monocytes 7 differentiate into macrophages big eater and dendritic cells more acquired immunity What is external defenses Prevent bacteria from getting in skin mucous membranes trap and excrete secretions lysosymes in saliva What are the internal defenses Cells and proteins in blood stream recognize and destory Phagocytic 7 neutrophils macrophages Antimicrobial proteins 7 complement interferons Killer cells 7 produce material to kill In ammatory response What is an in ammatory response Tissue is injured so chmical signals histane prostaglandins released Dilation and increased permeability of capillaries Chemotaxis phagocytic migration Phagocytosis of pathogens and then healing What is the acquired immunity What types Memory helps with specific reoccuring antibodies slower and specific humoral response antibodies with B cells cellmediated response cytotoxic T cells What are Th cells Tc cells and B cells involved in as in which responses just general answer Th cell in uences humoral Tc cells activation and cellmediated B cells antibodies B cells do humoral Tc cells do cellmediated Where are lymphocytes created Lymphoid stem cells in bone marrow or liver make B cells Lymphoid stem cells in thymus make T cells helper and cytotoxic What are MHC molecules Whaty types and for what cells Major histocompatibility Class I MHC 7 in all nucleated cells Class II MHC 7 in all macrophages dentritic cells and B cells What do the MHC molecules do Helper T cells bind to Class II MHC with CD4 to activate the helper T cell On infected cells Class I MHC release antigens like on Tc cell the T receptor CD8 and Class I MHC bin and activate the Tc cells to being the killing process How are helper T cells invoved in the humoral and cellmediated immune response This is full summary What is involved in binding What do they activate What cells are formed T cell receptor Class II MHC CD4 binding releases Interleukinl which activates the helper T cell and initiates cloning of helper T cells Interleukin 2 secretes other helper T cells cytotoxic T cells and B cells cytotoxic T cells do cellmediated response and begin attacking B cells do humoral response and secrete antibodies by cloned plasmas and make memory B cells How are cytotoxic T cells involved in cell mediated response This is full summary What is invovled in binding Cytotoxic T cell binds to Class I MHC with T cell receptor and CD8 on target cell activated T cell releases perferin which forms pores on the target cells for protealytic enzymes granzymes to enter apoptosis occurs and nucleas fragments and dies How is a B memory cell activated Touching interaction with T cell For immunization what happens with 1st and 2quotd response First response has antibodies increasing slowly over time and second response has antibodies increase quickly and a lot What types of cloning is there Tdependent antigen 7 requires Interleukin2 and interactionactivation by TH cell A 39 r antigen 7 39J ides of bacterial surface enough don t need TH cells makes no memory B cells What is an antibody What is it made by What makes them speci c An immunoglobin protein made by plasma cells speci c and tight antigen binding sites called epitopes can be many for attacking antigen What kind of receptor does a B cell have Y shaped with 4 chains 2 heavy 2 light with ends having variable V regions and rest being constant C joined by disulfide bonds How are there so many different antibodies and epitopes as in how are they formed Deletion of segment of DNA bt V and J regions in undi erentiated B cell gt functional gene gt transcription results in permantently arranged functional gene gt RNAprocessing gt translation gt specific variable region determines epitope How do antibodies protect 4 ways Neutralization 7 block sites or coat and opsonization gt easier for phagocytosis Aggulation 7 bind and clump gt phagocytosis Precipitation 7 make immobile gt phagocytosis Complement fixation 7 proteins MAC membrane attack complex makes pore and lets in stuff to lyse it What types of passive immunity Blood transfusion placenta transfer mothers milk provides antibodies these all will turn over eventually Consequences of exaggeration and failure of immune system Allergic reactions autoimmune disease immunodeficiency diseases Explain allergic reactions Mast cells produce histamine 7 activated by some allergen gt survival signal constricts bronchioles and tells you to get out of that place Explain autoimmune diseases Immune system attacks own tissue because it recognizes it as foreign lupus Explain immunodefeciency Lack certain parts of immune system 7AIDS by HIV Hogkjn s SCID How does the body chemically communicate By the endocrine system 7 hormones and endocrine glands What are means of cellular communication Gap junctions 7 direct cellular communication autocrine and paracine glands 7 secrete a signal to active endocrine 7 hormone into blood stream targets cells in body neurocrine 7 neurotransmitters for certain nerve interactions neurohormon 7 nerve cells secrete substances into blood stream Why do we have a variety of responses Because variety of hormones diferrent receptors make diferent responses diferent intracellular proteins cause different cell responses Give an example of cell receptors Epinephrine can affect alpha receptor and make interstitial blood vessel constrict or beta receptor makes skeletal muscle blood vessel dilates or beta receptor in di erent liver cell makes glycogen break down What is an example of di erent intracellular proteins with di erent responses A liver cell What are the 3 kinds of hormones Amino acid derivative 7 water soluble ow around cell impermanent works outside of cell Peptide hormones 7 water solube cell impermanent arnin acid polymers ADH Steroid hormones 7 membrane permeable fat soluble water insoluble ow in bloodstream attached to plasma cells aldosterone Where do steroid hormones derived from come from Also called Derived from cholesterol used for plasma membrane and hormones from adrenal cotex or gonads Also cortical hromones How do water soluble hormones work at cellular level generally In blood stream gt nd target gt work on sruface receptor on the membrane and send intracellular messenger 2quotd messenger gt response How do steroid hormones work at cellular level generally In blood stream gt nd target gt bind to receptor inside cell gt response directly invovled turns on synthesis in nucleus How do peptide and amino acid derivative hormones work What are some 2 1 messengers Surface receptor then transduction via 2quotd messenger cAMP IP3 Ca2 lst messenger is hormone How do we get cAMP What response does it achieve What can we do to increase cAMP ATP gt AC adenylate cyclase gt cAMP gt PDE phophodiesterase gt AMP promotes activation of protein kinses for repsonse phosphorylation of protins Receptor coupled stimulation of AC Inhibit desctruction of PDE So how does the signal transduction work for the cAMP What is the complex called Hormone actives external receptor in membrane gt relayed by stimulatory G proetin to effector AC which uses ATP and makes the cAMP and achieves response Receptoractivation complex How does signal transduction work for 1P3 and Ca2 Hormone activates receptor gt G protein relays gt effector Phospholipase C affects 2quotd messenger 1P3 to signal to ER and out comes Ca as 3rd messenger to in uence cell response In what areas do hormones work Hypothalamus pituitary gland thyroid gland parathyroid gland adrenal glands pancreas ovary testes What system secreted by what and what effect of each gastrin secretin CCK epinephrine norepinephrine acetylcholine interleukins 1amp2 histamineamppr0staglandins ADH aldosterone atrial natrioetic factor Gastrin 7 GI system stomach slim H secretion secretin 7 GI system dueodenum HCO3 secretion CCK 7 dueodenum enzyme and bile secretion epineprhine 7 respiratory adrenal medulla norEpinephrine 7 neurotransmitter increase heart rate same with epinephrine acetylcholine 7 neurotransmitter decrease heart rate Interleukin 1amp2 7 autocrine and paracrine Histamine amp prostaglandins 7 chemoattractans ADH 7 collecting duct H20 permability aldosterone 7 tubule Na reabsorption ANF 7 tubule Na loss What are of antagonistic hormones and homeostasis Examples Push and pull off and on type balance through chemical signals Insulin and glucagon calcitonin and PTH Explain insulin and glucagon What is too high glucose and too low glucose Too high glucose hyperglycemic diabetes gt insulin secreted by beta cells of pancreas gt to have cells take up glucose gt lower glucose level Too low glucose hypoglycemic gt glucagon secreted gt breaks down glycogen gt raises blood glucose Explain Calcitonin and PTH High blood calcium gt thyroid glands secrete calcitonin gt stimulates Ca deposits to take up more in bones reduces Ca uptake in intestines increases Ca loss in kidneys gt lowers blood calcium Too low calcium gt parathyroid glands release PTH parathyroid hromone gt increases Ca uptake in kidneys increases Ca uptake in intestines stimulates Ca release from bones osteoclasts gt blood Ca rises What does the posterior pituitary gland do Neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus signal and synthesize hormones Signaled by changes in osmolarity ADH 7 kidney tubules Oxytocin 7 mammary glands uterine muscles What does the anterior pituitary gland do Hypothalamus releasing hormones GHRH LHRH LH in tested FSH RH FSH in ovaries TSHRH TSH in thyroid ACTHRH ACTH in adrenal cotex MSH melanocytes Prolactin mammary glands control the release of hormones signals from neurons to bloodsream via protal vessel signalled by RH to produce and release that hormone and go to that area and secrete other hormones How does the body regulate stress as in where and how Adrenal gland adrenal medulla 7 responds to short term 7 epinephrine and norepinephrine gt ght or ight adrenal cortex 7 responds to long term 7 increased blood volume and pressure proteins and fats broken down to glucose for higher blood glucose What is the difference bt parthenogenesis and hermaphroditism Parthenogenesis has organism with cycles of sexual behavior but only one sex Hermaphroditism has both sex organs but cross fertilization What are the organs of the male anatomy Seminal vesicle penis testis in scrotum epididymis vas deferens What are the glands of the male Seminal vesicle secretes into seminal uid 7 fructsoe for energy alkaline to neutralize acid mucus for lubrication Prostate 7 dilutes anticoagulatn citrant bulbourethral 7 mucid uid to neutralize Sperm leaves how SEVEN UP 7 seminiferous tubules epididymis vas deferens 77 urethra penis Male sexual arousal What does viagra do Higher centers in brain gt parasymp nervers gt local release of NO gt penile vasodilation gt increase penile blood ow and erection GTP gt NO gt cGMP arterial vasodilation gt PDE gt GMP makes it go back to normal Viagra inhibits PDE What is ectopic fertilization Egg fertilizes in wrong place What are the female organs Ovaries uterus cervix vagina oviduct fallopian tubes endometrium Female sexual arousal Higher centers in brain gt parasymp nerves gt Like Viagra local release of NO gt genital vasodilation gt increase vaginal and clitoral blood ow GTP gt NO gt cGMP anterior vasodilation gt PDE gt GMP block PDE What type are gonodoal hormones Which ones Steroids from cholesterol testosterone estradiol progesterone What regulates sexual characterisitics in females Where is the negative feedback GRH gonadotrophinRH from hypothalamus gt stimulate anterior pituitary gt release FSH and LH gt FSH simulates follicles to mature and ovulate and LH stimulates corupus luetum to release estrogen and progesterone Negative feedback from ovary anterior pituitary and hypothalamus What regulates sexual characterisitics in males Where is the negative feedback GRH from hypothalamus gt stimulates anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH gt FSH stimulates spermatogenesis and LH stimulates androgen production by interstitial cells 7 testosterone Negative feedback from testes via inhibin from cells of Sertoli and testosterone on anterior pituitary and hypothalamus What are leydig cells and what are Sertoli cells Leydig interstitial release testosterone bt seminiferous tubules Sertole are nurse cells that support cells Go through spermatogenesis and oogenesis Spermagonium 2n 2c gt 81 DNA repl gt primary spermacyte 2n 4c gt MI gt secondary spermacyte ln 2c gt MII gt spermatid ln lc gt maturation and agella gt spermatazoa Oogonium 2n 2c gt 81 DNA repl gt primary oocyte 2n 4c gt MI gt lst polar body and secondary oocyte ln 2c gt 2nd polar body and ootid ln lc gt maturation gt ovum What are the 3 parts of a sperm cell What does each have and each do Tail made of microtubule 7 for movement Middle piece 7 mitochondria spiral shape 7 supply energy for tail Head 7 mucleus and acrosome 7 vacuole of enzymes for getting through Where do estrogen and progresterone go to Estrogen to cervical bone and progesterone to breasts What are the phases of the female reproductive cycle without fertilization What hormones Initial phaseFollicular phase 7 rise in FSH and thus estrogen for follicle maturation Ovulation 7 surge of LH and FSH leads to ovulation and high estrogen and progesterone Luteal secretory phase 7 sustained levels of estrogen and progesterone lead to maintaining uterine lining in secretory state What is the difference between menstrual and estrous cycle Estrous has very little endometrium lost Wha tis the female reproductive cycle when fertilization occurs What is secreted HCG 7 Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin secreted by embryo like LH What are the 4 parts of fertilization and implantation Fertilization from ovulation to uterus cleavage starts cleavange continues blastocyst implants How doe sthe sperm fertilize the egg Contact gt acrosomal reaction and block to polyspermy gt contact and fusion of sperm and egg membranes gt entry of sperm nucleus gt cortical reaction fertilization membrane Ca release stimulates cortical release How is the egg protected from multiple sperm What is the difference in mammalian fertilization Acrosomal reaction is fast block cortical reaction is slow block Mammals 7 the cortical reaction modifies the zona pellucida as slow block Why are eggs di erent sizes Bigger eggs aren39t help within the mother What re the membranes Amnion 7 cushin prevents deyhdration chorion 7 allows gass exchange allantois 7 waste disposal yolk nutrients What are the stages of early embryonic development Zygote gt 8 cell gt morula gt blastula blastocoel gt gastrula gastrulation 7 blastopore germ layers coelom gt nerula What are the sources of developmental information for the embryo as in how does it know what becomes what Mix of cytoplasmic proteins maternal mostly induction by nearby cells and receptors Where does it expand to Expands toward maternal endometrium for nutrients After what day do human characteristics begin appearing After what day do sex characterisitics begin appearing 25 45 What is the default sex What changes the sexes Default is female unless Gene SRY Y crhomosme expressed What are the main bipotential structures Wolffran duct and mullerian duct both present for males gt mullerian regresses andwolfian becomes vas deferes epididymis sem Vesicle for females gtwolf1an regresses and mullerian duct becomes fallopian tube uterus and upper vagina What bipotential structures make ovaries and testes Gonadal medulla regresses in females and makes testes in males Gonadal cortex regresses in males and makes ovaries in female What are the comparisons between endocrine and nervous system 4 for each Endocrime secretes chemical and uses circulation to act on target can sustain for slong periods of time acts on many cells slow Nervous is nerve to nerve or nerve to effectro fast distint elTects acts on one cell Trace the pathway from stimulus to response Stimulus gt receptor gt sensory neuron gt ganglion gt spinal cord and brain gt intemeuron gt nerve gtmotor neuron gt effector cell gt response What are the parts and functions of each part of a neuron Dendrides 7 input of information cell body myelin shealth 7 help transfer electrical impulse by jumping faster axon 7 output of information synapse and synpatic terminals What are other supporting cells Gilia astrocytes oligodendrocytes Schwann cell 7 wrap around axon for insulation What are the 3 functions of nerves Excitation 7 activates neuron Conduction 7 moving stimulus along Transmission 7 communical bt neurons What is the basis of excitation How is it made Action potential membrane potential What is resting membrane potential which minerals What are the concentrations in cytoplasm and interstitial uid K Na Cl cytoplasm high K low Na negative interstitial low K high Na positive How do they move 3 Protein channel for K 7 gradient would help it go out Protein channel for Na 7 gradient would help it go in Sodium pump 7 uses ATP against gradient charges up system What are the factors of action potential Voltage by ion gradients across membrane and and permeability of channels Equation What does each mean E7 60 log KinKout negative potential means wants to go out positive potential means wants to go in What does permeability do Whichever has high permeability determines membrane potential What kind of protein channels are there What is the structure of an ion channel Voltagesensitive 7 opens at certain voltage Ligandactivated 7 sensitive to certain chemical binding Cylindrical membrane proteins What kind of polarization does action potential need depolarization What is the process of action potential What is the role of the sodiumpotassium pump Resting state gt depolarization open Na channel makes inside gt repolarizing close Na chanel and open K to go out gt undershootrefractory period now more negative than before Sodiumpotassium pump restores gradients but indirect How is action potential generated Flow of Na across membrane How is action potential conducted Depolarization spreads to neighboring region initiating action potential while rst site repolarizes as K ows out How does conduction spread faster Bigger nerves carry impulses faster myelinated nerves depolarize node to node so jumping makes it faster What are the parts of nerves for transmission Presynaptic membrane has synaptic vessicles that release neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft postsynaptic membrane has ligand gated receptor channels How does the action potential make the transmission go across Action potential gets to synaptic terminal and its voltage causes Ca channels to open for vesicles to dock and release transmitters What is the neurotransmitter and how does it make the action potential go across Acetylcholine Ach released from presynaptic terminal binds to receptorchannel ligand gated channels open and increase Na and K permeability leading to depolarization Acetylcholinesterase breaks down Ach Gates close and postsynaptic membrane repolarizes How is neuron regulated What types of input Many synaptic inputs on each neuron both excitatory and inhibatory Temporal summation 2 excites Spatial summation 2 excites at same time 25 Spatial summation of both EPSP and IPSP excite and inhibit cancel out What types of muscle are there Skeletal smooth cardiac What is skeletal muscle made of What kind How does it move theory s name only Actin thin laments 7 2 strands of monomers and myosin thick laments 7 l strand bers sacromeres Striated muscle Sliding Filament Theory How does skeletal muscle move ATP hydrolysis 7 ATP bound to myosin when hydrolyzed myosin binds to actin head goes through molecular motion How is skeletal muscle activated to contract Nerves from spinal cord to go motor neuron synapses on muscle bers and release neurotransmitters gt muscle ber gets excited and then individuals through holes Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2 to bind to troponin and shape change exposes myosin binding sites and muscle can contract How does skeletal muscle contract 4 2 Parts of relaxation Muscle action potential Ttubules carry impulses into cell interior SR 7 activation causes release of Ca into cytoplasm ATP 7 actinmyosin interaciton gt laments slide Ca returns to SR ATP comes back and laments relax What is excitation and contraction coupling include chemicals and then relax Ca release gt ACh released by vesicles to muscle bers gt action potential travels down Ttubules gt SR release Ca gt Ca binds to troponin and frees myosin binding sites gt myosin bridges with actin with ATP for lament sliding Ca goes back to SR after action potential ends and tropomyosin blocks binding sites again contraction ends and relaxes What special properties do cardiac muscle have Automaticity rhythmicity What is a tetanic contraction Can the heart do this Why A continuous contraction due to summation No because cannot restimulate until it goes fully though long refractory period How are cardiac muscle cells organized and how does transmission go through Has a lot of Smooth transmission goes through gap junctions bt cardiac muscles unit contraction striated Has a lot of mitochondria 26 How is smooth muscle organized Not striated not highly organized but contraction by actin and myosin connected by gap junctions as one unit


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