Week 9 Bio Notes
Week 9 Bio Notes ATY 253-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Hall on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Anthrpolgy in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
101515 Lecture Notes Amber Hall Photosynthesis o A Little History Mid 16005 Anton van Leewenhoek described chloroplasts 0 Others found that they could be ruptured in hypotonic solutions 1774 Joseph Priestly English chemist discovers 02 0 Animals in airtight chambers died 0 When plants were put in chambers no death of animals occurred 1779 Jan Ingenhousz Dutch physician and chemist discovers that only the green parts of plants produce 02 0 Plants without light consume 02 just as animals do so plants can do respiration too 0 Green parts of plants produce 02 that s the basic idea of photosynthesis 1804 Swiss Theodore de Saussure determines the formula for photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 9 C6H 1206 602 Carbon dioxide water gt light energy glucose oxygen gas 1883 Thomas Englemann German botanist determines that blue and red wavelengths work best for chloroplasts of spirogyra 0 Used aerobic bacteria to find 02 concentration 0 Prism separates light The Players in Photosynthesis o Chloroplasts organelle where photosynthesis occurs Doublemembraned like mitochondria Thylakoid looks like a stack poker chips Granum stack of thylakoids o Distinct lipids phospholipids diglycerides sulfolipids 0 Proteins including enzymes 0 Photopigments 0 Electron shuttles Stroma 0 Starch grains 0 Ribosomes 0 DNA 0 Enzymes Number of chloroplasts per cell 0 Vascular plants average 12 per cell 0 Leaf mesophyll 3050 per cell 0 Epidermal cells 0 per cell Photopigments Chlorophyll a 0 Primary photopigment 0 C55 H72 05 N4 Mg 0 Bluered 0 Embedded in proteins Chlorophyll b 0 Almost identical to chlorophyll a o Yellowishgreen Accessory pigments o Carotenoids deep yelloworange o Xanthophylls yellows oranges o Phycobilins reddish Leaves Organ for photosynthesis Palisade mesophyll cell column shaped side by side Spongy mesophyll cell loosely collected together Vein tube transports materials Bundle sheath keeps vein in tube shape Guard cells 2 specialized cells that change shape to open and close stoma Stoma openinghole controlled by guard cells 0 C02 goes in 02 goes out water can also go out Light How light is used 0 Animals vision 0 Plants I Cyclosis movement of organelles in cytoplasm I Flowering reproduction I Seed germination root comes out of embryo I Biogenesis of chlorophyll I Phototropism bend towards light I Photosynthesis 0 Most energetic cosmic and gamma rays xrays I Extensive protein DNA damage free radicals o Ultraviolet UV I Growth inhibited o Visible light I Absorption by carotenoids chlorophyll a violet and blue I Green yellow orange nothing I Red photosynthesis at peak 3 Chlorophylls active 3 Photosynthetic enzymes active 3 Seeds germinate I Around 700nm stem growth Light has a dual nature It can act as a wave or as a photon a packet of energy So light hits the chloroplasts 0 Light is either reflected absorbed or transmitted o A couple of options for the absorbed energy of the photons 1 Heat and light 2 Transferred to a neighboring pigment molecule