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Introduction to Human Nutrition

by: Arlene Kertzmann

Introduction to Human Nutrition NUSCTX 10

Arlene Kertzmann

GPA 3.93

N. Amy

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N. Amy
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arlene Kertzmann on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUSCTX 10 at University of California - Berkeley taught by N. Amy in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/226679/nusctx-10-university-of-california-berkeley in Nutritional Science at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
NST 10 Introduction to Human Nutrition Department of Nutritional Sciences amp Toxicology University of California Berkeley Fall 2011 Exam 1 Review INTRODUCTION AND NUTRITION GUIDELINES 1 P Define essential nutrient and what are the essential nutrients in our body What are the differences between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins Give some examples of both What are the differences between major minerals and trace minerals Give some examples of both The energy content of macronutrients Carbohydrate Fat kcalg kcalg Protein kcalg Alcohol kcalg What are some general concepts of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Are these guidelines food based or nutrient based What are the food groups MyPyramidMyPlate organized into What does MyPyramid symbolize N What does 3 oz of meat look like 1 oz of grain What size does a small fist or a baseball represent 8 What are discretionary calories Give a few examples offoods that provide these calories 9 What are the key things you should look for on a food label or Nutrition Facts panel when choosing foods 10 What are the differences between structure and function health and nutrient claims What are the requirements for nutrient claims Digestion 1 What are the accessory organs for digestion 2 What are the hormones that signal from the hypothalamus in the brain to cause us to feel hungry or satiated 3 What s in saliva What do these constituents do P Uquot 9 N 9 9 Answer the following questions for gastrin secretin and CCK hormones that regulate digestion Where is each hormone secreted from where is it signaling to and what is the function of each What are the ways nutrients are absorbed and how are they different Fill in the blanks Food that is broken down and moist is called a Once the same word from previous blank enters the stomach it is converted to By the time water absorption has occurred in the large intestines the same word from previous blank is converted to What are the differences between Probiotics and Prebiotics What is one problem associated with using probiotics and what can you do to fix the problem Give the intermediate and final products of the breakdown of carbohydrates sucrose maltose lactose fiber fats and proteins What are the roles of GI tract in immune function 10 Fill out the table based on key enzymes and hormones important for digestion Take note of each macromolecule and its primary location of digestion Protein Stomach Small Intestines Large Intestines Gallbladder Liver Pancreas CARBOHYDRATES 1 What are the 3 most common monosaccharides Where can you find them 2 What are some problems associated with excessive intake of available carbohydrates 3 What is the difference between hydrolysis reaction and condensation reaction 4 Rank the sweetness of the following carbohydrate sweeteners andor alternative sweeteners using sucrose as the standard lactose maltose sucrose glucose fructose aspartame and neotame 5 What are the hormones that regulate blood glucose How do they do it 9 TF When blood glucose is high glucagon is secreted into the circulatory system H What are the main types of diabetes How do they differ What are the immediate symptoms and long term complications 8 What are the physiological effects of dietary fiber What is insoluble fiber Soluble fiber 9 What are the components of a whole grain What s the difference between whole grain and refined grain 10 How many grams of sugar are in a teaspoon Atablespoon 11 What percentage of your daily caloric intake is recommended to be made up of carbohydrates 12 What is an enriched grain What are such grains enriched with 13 The Reference Daily Intake for calcium is 1000 mg fa food provides 150 mg of calcium what is the DV for calcium in this food 1 What are the major lipids in our diet 2 Bile is produced in the and stored in the Bile is a greenish fluid containing and 3 Why do we want to have low LDL and high HDL levels in our body 4 List 5 functions of lipids in the body 5 What are EFA What are sources of EFA What are some symptoms of EFA deficiency 6 We need to consume cholesterol in our diet as cholesterol is used to make hormones and bile in our body TF See the previous question 7 Enzymes begin to break down lipids before the emulsification process begins TF 8 How does the chain length relate to absorption offatty acids 5quot What is atherosclerosis DIETARY FAT AND HEART DISEASE 1 What is the AHA recommendation for a Saturated Fats b Trans Fats 2 What are the dietary sources for monounsaturated fatty acid Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids 3 We should consume the same amount of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids as they are essential fatty acid TF 4 What are the risk factors for heart disease PROTEIN 1 Generally what is the structure of an amino acid and what distinguishes one amino acid from the other P What are essential amino acids How many amino acids are there and how many are essential What are some symptoms of essential amino acid deficiency What functions does protein serve in the body What is the difference between complete protein versus incomplete protein What is the RDA of protein for a healthy adult 19 and older What are the differences between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus What are their characteristics Excess protein intake over long time can result in and a sugar substitute containing phenylalanine can harm individuals with PKU What is metabolism


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