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General Psychology

by: Declan Runolfsson

General Psychology PSYCH 1

Declan Runolfsson

GPA 3.87


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Declan Runolfsson on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/226688/psych-1-university-of-california-berkeley in Psychlogy at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Psych 0813 109 Classical Psychology 500 BC to 300 BC urope Plato Aristotle Ch Taoism Confucianism ndia Vedanta Sankhya Buddhism Science started in the west not in China A classical puzzle In the 1600 science really got going until 1914 in World War I After that science has been faltering blah blah Aristotle A biological way of looking at the world Spent huge sums of his own money for research in biology Very well connected Focus on human psychology was to see man as a simple biological thinganimal He influenced very much Thomas Aquinas He was a great biologist If the world contradicted logic so much worse for the world Proof would make things not true rather than proof making things true HE HAS THE BIOLOGICAL WAY OF LOOKING AT HUMAN BEINGS We are basically animals but we have something higher that allows us to think Plato A metaphysical way Sankhya dealt with consciousness in a very modern way Notion of material processes goes up much higher ENLIG HTENMENT TO THE G REAT WAR 1600 to 1914 Some general features Science is llNatural Philosophy Consciousness central Pluralistic methods amp values Galileo brought in skepticism Bring in lots of sources of information Logic observation direct what does it feel like etc 1 Iu I39I I I II39 1600 Many people were getting put to the stake for In I I and 39 U 39 39 Europe got exhausted with this Erasmus llLive and let live Renee Descartes Naturenurture NativismEmpiricism Mental activity for EMPIRICISM is Iearned learning is passive movie screen analogy llsense impressions The universe has a structure Our cognition is the result of that structure impressed on us Ultimately derives from the passive capacity of the mind to receive impressions organized bottomup Representative transformation LOOK AT FIGURE 12 photosynthesis Around 1914 Einstein said that you were prevented from understanding WHY Prediction and control instead of understanding Psych 08131109 Section Correlation is NOT causation Ice cream sales to drowning A cor B B cor A AgtB BgtA CgtgtAB The fact that they are related has an underlying w Two birds flying in the same patterngt correlationl Two birds flying in opposite patterngt correlation1 Two flies flying in random patterngt correlation0 Active vs Passive sentences Causation Active sentences are more vivid and more easily processed active sentences show the cause and inherently set up to fit our coherency Something happens and something else happens as a result The first thing is usually considered the cause and the second is the result Experiments have very different status than correlational study Experiments in theory don t necessarily solve everything BUT show cause and effect Correlation does not This is better because experiments are controlled unlike correlational studies And things are dealt with one at a time Compare dependent variable to the independent variable Any causal relationship can be explained in a correlational relationship but not always the other way around HUGE number of correlational relationships compared to a tiny number of causal relationship We change our environment to be able to survive in order to reproduce Given that correlational studies are so much less powerful than experimentalthen why have correlational studies Correlations are easier to set up Experiments take a lot more time money blah blah Much cheaper to do correlations Correlations are good for persuasion Correlational studies do not cause damage to subjects unlike experiments that are set up on purpose to leave subjects vulnerable to damage llCan t have more child molesters or less child molesters Etcquot 9209 Enlightenment to the Great War 1600 to 1914 Some general features Science is llnatural philosophy Consciousness central Pluralistic methods and values Ultimate aim understanding 20 h century was all about making people and animals do what you want continued from EMPIRICISM Mental activity for NATIVISM is largely innate computer analogy more active organized topdown much nonconscious processing Descartes dualism PR factor in the severity of the split between conscious and matter Why can t there be scientific investigation of nonmaterial phenomena Nascent cognitive approach representative transformation 09 14 09 Evolution Ultimate functional and Proximate physical causes two very different modes of scientific analysis Can t say why electrons behave the way they do we only have statistical laws that explain that Ultimatequot explanations based on finding Darwinian functional adaptations Often less certain but more satisfying Proximatequot explanations based on establishing physical processes often more certain but less satisfying descriptive Songbird Example Birds migrate north a male bird will pick out a territory that is valuable sits very conspicuous on top of the tree and will sing its heart out That attracts females and angers other males Competition among the males occurs and the ones that can stay on the top of the best territory get the females Can t explain simply by testosterone and studying the brain WHY they do these things BEHAVIORISM Why is behaviorism BAD In terms of Mangan all associated with what you re NOT allowed to do Behaviorism is prediction and control not understanding Tolman of Tolman Hall went inside the black box so he could control and predict better Rhetorical social psychological push Creates an authoritarian attitude Excludes all sources of evaluative resources because they forbid it Not allowed to go to the black box Behaviorism cannot study consciousness So it created a very rigid methodology No grey areas 19 h century scientists thought this way IT was the vector of the worst features of 20 h century thinking which damaged the specific area of research of consciousness influences of behaviorism on psychology 1 New Emphasis Communality with animals Learning and Reinforcement quot 39 39I 39 39 U William James branch and other one Look in book 3 Restrictive methodology all psychology limited to S R experiments no representation S EPR Stimulus Response the black box in the middle is the biochemists physiologistsetc s job WATSON said don t go into the BLACK BOX Behaviorists Black Box Formalism only aim Predict and control not understanding 2 Total rejection of 39 and Understanding causal relationships doesn t answer the WHY questions influences on behaviorism From English speaking tradition 1 Empiricism Tabula Rasa 2 Bottom up explanations start with the facts From 20 h century post WW I 1 Reject tradition quotExclusivequot Theory Emphasize power Prediction and control WPWN Antireligion and antihumanist EthologyConrad Laurentz and Tim Berman established this in 30s as a discipline from biology Behavior that differentiates some species from others differential behavior It is a great compare and contrast to behaviorism 1 From Biology biologically based WatsonBehaviorism animals were not instinctually different but rather learned different things because of different environments 2 Looked at learning compare with behaviorism behaviorism thought almost everything was learned Environmental Genetic evolved Imprinting Following mommy duck on the ground while birds in nests on trees stay because no threat Whatever moves is mommy When baby geese are imprinted in following Conrad Laurentz they begin to want to mate with Conrad Laurentz Complicated interaction in which the species is born with and what it has learned 092109 Evidence against SR behaviorism Concept learning in pigeons unification of stimuli handling new situations Same testing as rats The pigeon is trained on two sets of slides Pecks at pictures of trees and doesn t peck at pictures without trees To get stimulus inputs Teach the birds to peck at the trees Then get a completely new set of slides of trees and control What happens The pigeon pecks on the slides with trees despite the new slides What s the ultimate reason for this What is the point of concept To take old intelligence to apply to new situationsthe more likely that organism will survive Conditioned stimuli on humans Read in book Neurons and the Brain A Hierarchical organization 1 Overall character Higher levels Reach conclusions Control lower levels topdown Lower Levels Contain information to execute behavior that is M at higher levels Gather information for higher levels bottomup 2 Examples nstitutional organization


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