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# Physics for Scientists and Engineers PHYSICS 7B

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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marjorie Hahn on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYSICS 7B at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see /class/226696/physics-7b-university-of-california-berkeley in Physics 2 at University of California - Berkeley.

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EE40 Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Summer 2005 Octavian Florescu florescueecsberkeleyedu 39 It 7 First Week Announcements I Class web page httpinsteecsberkeleyeduee40 will have class syllabus staff office hours schedule exam grading etc info I Text Hambley Electrical Engineering Principles and Applications 3rd ed covers most of class material Reader will be available later in the semester for digital IC and fabrication subjects I Lectures to be available on web day before each class Please print a copy if you wish to have it in class EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 7 Instructor Octavian Florescu 2 39 1 Announcements cont d I Sections begin this week Ci Cancelled Sections Th 122 I Labs begin this week Attend your only second lab slot this week i Cancelled labs ThF 811 25 Please check your Lab section CI 8 Labs and 2 Project Labs I Weekly homeworks Ci Assignment on web on Thursday Due following Thursday in hw box at 6pm Q 15 Homework online today and due Friday Sorry I 2 Midterms in class i Tentatively on 0712 and 0728 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 I Lecture 1 I Course oveniew I Introduction integrated circuits I Energy and Information I Analog vs digital signals I Circuit Analysis EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 7 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 i EE40 Course Overview I EECS 40 One of five EECS core courses with 20 61A 61B and 61C I introduces hardware side of EECS I prerequisite for EE105 EE130 EE141 EE150 quotPrerequisites Math 18 Physics 78 I Course content 1 Electric circuits 1 Integratedcircuit devices and technology L CMOS digital integrated circuits EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 1 Course Overview Cont d I Circuit components 3 Resistor Dependent sources Operational amplifier I Circuit Analysis L Node LoopMesh Equivalent circuits L First order circuit I Active devices 3 CM08 transistor I Digital Circuits L Logic gates Boolean algebra L Gates design EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 7 Instructor Octavian Florescu I TL What is an Integrated Circuit P4 24 Ghz 15V 191me 300mm wafer 90mm I Designed to performs one or several functions I Composed ofup to 100s ofMiIIions of transistors EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 3945 lg Transistor in Integrated Circuits 90mm transistor Intel Metal Slime Law Oxide S emiconducmr I Transistors are the workhorse of modern ICs in Used to manipulate signals and transmit energy 1 Can process analog and digital signals EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 instructor Octavian Florescu Benefit of Transistor Scaling Generation m E m ME Mg m lntelf39586Tquot DX Processor I smaller chip area lower cost nte486739quot DX Processor I Pentium Processor I I Pentium II more functiogtyon a chip Processor better system performance I EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 9 391 Technology Scaling Moore s Law transistors Technology mapomcu r scaling MOORE39S LAW 10006000 Lemmas Lower Cost Investment Per Function mopoa f 285 7 W x r 10000 Em 1 Market Aaud woo Growth I Number of transist rs double every 18 months 2 Cost per device halves every 18 months C More transistors on the same area more complex and powerful chips D Cost per function decreases EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 10 39 1 Energy and signals in an IC I Electrical circuits function to condition manipulate transmit receive electrical power energy andor information represented by electrical signals I Energy System Examples electrical utility system power supplies that interface battery to charger and cell phonelaptop circuitry electric motor controller I Information System Examples computer cell phone appliance controller EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu M Signals in Integrated Circuits Analog and Digital 3 2 t o 1 I 72 3 Digital Word I Analog l Digital 5 Usually represents a physical 35 Each digital word is represented phenomenon by an amplitude 5 Continuous in time 35 Can be a quantization of an analog si nal 1 ft is a real scalar 35 gt takes on discrete quantized values EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu I2 39 1 Analog vs Digital Signals Most but not all observables are analog think of analog vs digital watches but the most convenient way to represent amp transmit information electronically is to use digital signals think of telephony 9 Analogtodigital AD amp digitaltoanalog DA conversion is essential and nothing new think of a piano keyboard EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 13 39 1 Analog Signals I May have direct relationship to information presented I In simple cases are waveforms of information vs time I In more complex cases may have information modulated on a carrier eg AM or FM radio Amplitude Modulated Signal Signal in microvolts 1mg iquot mmsmm EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 14 39 1 Digital Signal Representations Binary numbers can be used to represent any quantity We generally have to agree on some sort of code and the dynamic range of the signal in order to know the form and the number of binary digits bits required Example 1 Voltage signal with maximum value 2 Volts Binary two 10 could represent a 2 Volt signal To encode the signal to an accuracy of1 part in 64 15 precision 6 binary digits bits are needed Example 2 Sine wave signal of known frequency and maximum amplitude 50 uV 1 uV resolution needed EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 15 39 Reminder About Binary and Decimal Numbering Systems 1100012 1X25 1X24 0X23 0X22 0X21 1X20 32101610110 10 4X101 9X100 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 16 39 1 Example 2 continued Possible digital representation for the sine wave signal Analog representation Digital representation Amplitude in V Binary number 1 000001 2 000010 3 000011 4 000100 5 000101 8 001000 16 010000 32 100000 50 110010 63 111111 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 17 39 I Why Digital For example why CDROM audio vs vinyl recordings Digital signals can be transmitted received ampli ed and retransmitted with no degradation Digital information is easily and inexpensively stored in RAM ROM etc with arbitrary accuracy Complex logical functions are easily expressed as binary functions eg in control applications Digital signals are easy to manipulate as we shall see EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 18 39 1 Digital Representations of Logical Functions Digital signals offer an easy way to perform logical functions using Boolean algebra Variables have two possible values true or false usually represented by 1 and 0 respectively All modern control systems use this approach Example Hot tub controller with the following algorithm Turn on the heater ifthe temperature is less than desired T lt Tset and the motor is on and the key switch to activate the hot tub is closed Suppose there is also a test switch which can be used to activate the heater EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 19 39 1 Hot Tub Controller Example Seriesconnected switches A thermostatic switch B relay closed if motor is on C key switch Test switch T used to bypass switches A B and C Sim le Schematic Dia ram of Possible Circuit waif fr T Heater EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 20 Truth Table for Hot Tub Controller A B C T H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 21 Notation for Logical Expressions Basic logical functions AND dot OR sign NOT bar over symbol Example X AB Example Y AB Example Z A gt Any logical expression can be constructed using these basic logical functions Additional logical functions Inverted AND NAND Inverted OR NOR Exclusive OR EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 E AB only 0 when A and B 1 only 1 when A B0 A B only lwhen A B differ ie A B except AB Instructor Octavian Florescu 22 39 I Hot Tub Controller Example cont d First define logical values closed switch true ie boolean 1 open switch false ie boolean 0 Logical Statement Heaterison H 1 iannd B and C are 1orifTis 1 Logical Expression H1ifA and B and C are 1 or T is 1 Mean Ex reSSion Implemented using digital HA39 B 39 CT logicgates EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 1 Summary Attributes of digital electronic systems 1 Ability to represent real quantities by coding information in digital form 2 Ability to control a system by manipulation and evaluation of binary variables using Boolean algebra EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 24 39 1 Introduction to circuit analysis OUTLINE I Electrical quantities 2 Charge r Current 1 Voltage 3 Power I The ideal basic circuit element I Sign conventions Reading Chapter 1 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 Ii Circuit Analysis I Circuit analysis is used to predict the behavior of the electric circuit and plays a key role in the design process Design process has analysis as fundamental 1St step 1 Comparison between desired behavior speci cations and predicted behavior from circuit analysis leads to re nements in design I In order to analyze an electric circuit we need to know the behavior of each circuit element in terms of its voltage and current AND the constraints imposed by interconnecting the various elements Instructor Octavian Florescu EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 39 1 Electric Charge Macroscopically most matter is electrically neutral most of the time Exceptions clouds in a thunderstorm people on carpets in dry weather plates ofa charged capacitor etc Microscopically matter is full of electric charges Electric charge exists in discrete quantities integral multiples of the electronic charge 16 x 1019 coulombs Electrical effects are due to separation of charge 9 electric force voltage charges in motion 9 electric flow current EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 27 39 1 Classification of Materials Solids in which all electrons are tightly bound to atoms are insulators Solids in which the outermost atomic electrons are free to move around are metals Metals typically have 1 free electronquot per atom 5 gtlt1O22 free electrons per cubic cm Electrons in semiconductors are not tightly bound and can be easily promoted to a free state m w M QuartzSiO2 SiGaAs ACu dielectric materials excellent conductors EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 28 Electric Current Definition rate of positive charge flow Symbol 139 Units Coulombs per second E Amperes A 139 dqdt where q charge in Coulombs t time in seconds Note Current has polarity EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu Electric Current Examples 1 1O5 positively charged particles each with charge 16gtlt103919 C flow to the right x direction every nanosecond 5 19 I 10 Xll39o jlo 16x10 5A 1O5 electrons ow to the right x direction every microsecond 5 719 10 Xi39oixlo 16gtlt10 5A t EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 1 Current Densit Definition rate of posrtlve charge flow per unit area Symbol J Units A cm2 Example 1 Semiconductor with 1013 free 3 Wire attached elewons Per cm to end wrquot m IIIIII My C1 Suppose we force a current of 1 A to flow from C1 to C2 Electron ow is in x direction lagsec 7625X1018 electrons 716x10 quotCiferleclifon sc EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 31 39 1 Current Density Example cont d What is the current density in the semiconductor Example 2 Typical dimensions of integrated circuit components are in the range of1 pm What is the current density in a wire with 1 um2 area carrying 5 mA EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 32 39 I Electric Potential voltage I Definition energy per unit charge I S mbol v I Units JoulesCoulomb E Volts V v dwdq where w energy in Joules q charge in Coulombs Note Potential is always referenced to some point 1 Subscript convention vab means the potential at a minus the potential at b b vab Va 39 vb EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 I Electric Power I Definition transfer of energy per unit time I Symbol p I Units Joules per second E Watts W p dwdt dwdq dqdt vi I Concept As a positive charge q moves through a drop in voltage v it loses energy energy change qv rate is proportional to chargessec EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 I The Ideal Basic Circuit Element gt Polarity reference for voltage is indicated by plus and minus signs v Reference direction for the current a is indicated by an arrow Attributes I Two terminals points of connection I Mathematically described in terms of current andor voltage I Cannot be subdivided into other elements EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 35 39 I A Note about Reference Directions A problem like Find the current or Find the voltage is always accompanied by a definition of the direction v I II I In this case if the current turns out to be 1 mA owing to the left we would say 139 1 mA In order to perform circuit analysis to determine the voltages and currents in an electric circuit you need to specify reference directions There is no need to guess the reference direction so that the answers come out ositive however EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 36 39 i Sign Convention Example Suppose you have an unlabelled battery and you measure its voltage with a digital voltmeter DVM It will tell you the magnitude and sign ofthe voltage V th this circuit you are measuring vab The DVM indicates 1 401 so Va is lowerthan vb by 1401 V a b quotquot quot1111 Which is the positive battery terminal Note that we have used the ground symbol way for the reference node on the DVM Often it is labeled C for common EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 37 Sign Convention f r Power Passive sign convention pvi pvi i i i i gt gt 7 7 V v V v 7 7 I lfp gt 0 power is being delivered to the box I If lt 0 ower is being extracted from the box EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 38 Power If an element is absorbing power ie ifp gt 0 positive charge is flowing from higher potential to lower potential p vi if the passive sign convention is used 139 139 gt lt lt or lt How can a circuit element absorb power By converting electrical energy into heat resistors in toasters light light bulbs or acoustic energy speakers by storing ener char in a battery EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 instructor Octavian Florescu l l Power Calculation Example h e lement Conservation of energy total power delivered uals eq total power absorbed A de 39 39 39 39 39 large currents 7 milliamperes or smaller is more 7 typical nuswm i 13 75 h ilk 3 Ar d it l39l I m T m norm L l in quoti EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 instructor Octavian Florescu 20 39 1 Summary I Current rate of charge flow I Voltage energy per unit charge created by charge separation I Power energy per unit time I Ideal Basic Circuit Element 1 2terminal component that cannot be subdivided 1 described mathematically in terms of its terminal voltage and current I Passive sign convention 1 Reference direction for current through the element is in the direction ofthe reference voltage drop across the element EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 1 Instructor Octavian Florescu 21 EE40 Lecture 1 Venkat Anantharam 12308 Reading Chap 1 EE40 Spring 08 Slide 1 Venkat Anantharam EE 40 Course Overview EECS 40 One of five EECS core courses with 20 61A 61 B and 61C introduces hardware side of EECS prerequisite for EE105 EE130 EE141 EE15O Prerequisites Math 18 Physics 78 Course involves three hours of lecture one hour of discussion and three hours of lab work each week Course content Fundamental circuit concepts and analysis techniques First and second order circuits impulse and frequency response Op Amps Diode and FET Device and Circuits Amplification Logic Filter Text Book Electrical Engineering Principles and Applications Allan R Hambley Pearson Prentice Hall 4th Edition Supplementary Reader written by Prof ChangHasnain EE40 Spring 08 Slide 2 Venkat Anantharam Instructor Venkat Anantharam Office 271 Cory Hall Office hours M 2 3 Th 34 All emails to me should be forwarded by the Head GSI Head GSI Bart mbharatcoryeecsberkeleyedu EE40 Spring 08 Slide 3 Venkat Anantharam Important DATES Office hours Discussion and Lab Sessions will start on week 2 Stay with the Discussion and Lab session you registered for 3 tests and 1 Final Tests In Class Friday 222 Wednesday 319 Wednesday 57 Location 10 Evans maybe another location TBA Final 1230 330 pm Friday 5162008 Exam Group 5 Location to be announced Best Final Project Contest Monday 512 68 pm Location TBA Winning projects will be displayed on the second floor in Cory Hall EE40 Spring 08 Slide 4 Venkat Anantharam Grading Policy Weights 9 10 HW sets drop one lowest point hence each is worth 1 18 10 Labs 7 structured experiments each is worth 15 one 3week final project 75 39 3 tests each one is worth 13 34 Final exam No late HW or Lab reports accepted No makeup exams Departmental grading policy A typical GPA for courses in the lower division is 27 This GPA would result for example from 17 A39s 50 B39s 20 C39s 10 D39s and 3 F39s EE40 Spring 08 Slide 5 Venkat Anantharam Grading Policy Cont d Weekly HW Assignment on the web by 5 pm Fridays starting 12507 Due 5 pm the following Friday in HW box 240 Cory On the top page right top corner write your name in the form Last Name First Name with discussion session number Graded homework will be returned one week later in discussion sessions Labs Each lab is graded with 30 on Prelab and 70 on Report You must complete the prelab section before going to the lab The prelabs are checked by the GSls at the beginning of each session If prelabs are completed during the lab sessions it is considered late and 50 will be deducted Lab reports are due exactly one week after your lab is completed It is your responsibility to check with the head GSI from time to time to make sure all grades are entered correctly EE40 Spring 08 Slide 6 Venkat Anantharam Classroom Rules Please come to class on time Lectures will be webcast However problems do occur and portions of the webcast have been missed in previous semesters Turn off cell phones pagers radio CD DVD etc No food and No pets Do not move in and out of or around the classroom EE40 Spring 08 Slide 7 Venkat Anantharam Chapter 1 Outline Electrical quantities Charge Current Voltage Power Sign conventions The ideal basic circuit element Circuit element lV characteristics Construction of a circuit model Kirchhoff s Current Law Kirchhoff s Voltage Law EE40 Spring 08 Slide 8 Venkat Anantharam Electric Charge Electrical effects are due to separation of charge 9 electric force voltagechargedistance charges in motion 9 electric flow current Macroscopically most matter is electrically neutral most of the time Exceptions clouds in a thunderstorm people on carpets in dry weather plates of a charged capacitor etc Microscopically matter is full of electric charges Electric charge exists in discrete quantities integral multiples of the electronic charge 16 x 1019 Coulomb EE40 Spring 08 Slide 9 Venkat Anantharam Etymology The word electric is derived from the Greek elektron Latin electrum denoting amber It was discovered in ancient times that when amber is rubbed it attracts feathers dried leaves etc This is due to the amber becoming charged discovered much later These are the roots of our subject EE40 Spring 08 Slide 10 Venkat Anantharam Electric Current Definition rate of positive charge flow Symbol 139 Units Coulombs per second E Amperes A Note Current has polarity i dqdt where q charge CoulombS t time in Seconds 7 REPUBquiE n i t I E39I 4 39 z iquot 1quot I WTquot T i i i n a AndreMarie Ampere 17751836 EE4O Spring 08 Slide 11 Venkat Anantharam Electric Potential Voltage Definition energy per unit charge ymbol v Units JoulesCoulomb E Volts V V dWdq 1745 1827 Where w energy in Joules q charge in Coulombs Note Potential is always referenced to some point Subscript convention val means the potential at a minus the potential at b vab E va vb EE40 Spring 08 Slide 12 Venkat Anantharam The Ideal Basic Circuit Element 139 gt Polarity reference for voltage can be indicated by plus and minus signs Reference direction for the current is indicated by an arrow Attributes Two terminals points of connection Mathematically described in terms of current andor voltage Cannot be subdivided into other elements EE40 Spring 08 Slide 13 Venkat Anantharam Circuit Elements 5 ideal basic circuit elements voltage SOUFCe active elements capable of current source generating electric energy resistor inductor capac or passive elements incapable of generating electric energy Many practical systems can be modeled with just sources and resistors The basic analytical techniques for solving circuits with inductors and capacitors are similar to those for resistive circuits EE40 Spring 08 Slide 14 Venkat Anantharam

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