Week 7 Book and Class Notes
Week 7 Book and Class Notes MKT 319
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Lynch on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 319 at Michigan State University taught by R. Spreng in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Marketing Research in Marketing at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Ch 9 Measurement and Scaling Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling Measurement and Scaling Measurement Assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects being measured according to predetermined rules To permit statistical analysis of the generated data To help communicate information about the results Scaling The generation of the continuum upon which measured objects are located Scale Characteristics and Levels of Measurement Description The unique labels or descriptors that are used to designate each value of the scale A11 scales possess description Order The relative sizes or positions of the descriptors denoted by descriptors such as greater than less than and equal to Distance The absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and can be expressed in units Origin A unique or fixed beginning or true zero point of a scale Highest level A scale has the lowerlevel characteristics but the reverse might not be true Primary Scales 1 Nominal scale Uses numbers as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects a Onetoone correspondence between the numbers and the objects b Mutually exclusive No overlap between classes every object being measured falls into only one class c The objects in each class are viewed as equivalent in terms of the characteristics d Collectively exhaustive All the objects fall into one of the classes e Percentages mode f Social security numbers 2 Ordinal scale A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed Thus it is possible to determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object a Order differences not magnitude b Percentile median c Quality tournament team ranks education levels 3 Interval scale A scale in which the numbers are used to rank objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured a Mean standard deviation b Temperature 4 Ratio scale This is the highest level of measurement It allows the researcher to identify or classify objects rankorder the objects and compare intervals or differences It also is meaningful to compute ratios or scale values a Geometric mean all b Height weight income A Classification of Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulus objects with one another Paired comparison rank order constant sum Ordinal or rank Advantages Small differences between objects under study can be detected Disadvantages Limitation in terms of analyzing ordinal data not possible to generalize beyond the objects under study Noncomparative scales Scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the others Monadic or metric scales where objects are scaled independently of others Continuous rating scale itemized rating scales Most widely used scaling in marketing research Comparative Scaling Techniques Paired Comparative Scaling A respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion Sensory 0 lt5 brands Order might bias results Little resemblance to market Rank Order Scaling Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion Rank brands attributes Closer to resembling shopping environment Forces respondent to discriminate Less time than paired Easily understood results easy to communicate Constant Sum Scaling Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points dollars chits stickers or chips among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion Has an absolute zero sometimes considered metric 0 Not Generalizable so ordinal Fine discrimination Doesn t require too much time Respondents can allocate more or fewer units than those specified Class Notes 101915 Rank ordinal Rate interval Interval Forces distinction Comparative Ordinal Think about measurement scaling by thinking about the data analysis step Mean interval data
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