Beginning Modern Dance Technique
Beginning Modern Dance Technique THEATER 40A
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ephraim McCullough I on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THEATER 40A at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/226749/theater-40a-university-of-california-berkeley in Theater Arts at University of California - Berkeley.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
O 1 Berkeley School of In wma on The Advent of the Internet SIMS 103 History of Information Dec 3 2007 Geott Nunberg A Convergence of Causes Technological developments Policy choices Economic forces Infrastructure eg Web presumes large number of pc s in place Social responses The Technological Bases of the Web Communications protocolsPacket switching Physical Networks Addressing system Hypertext transfer protocols Browsers Graphical browswers Indexing amp search Broadband Technological Beginnings 60 amp 705 1969 ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency of DOD later DARPA creates Arpanet linking timesharing computers at four research sites by telephone lines Net makes use of packetswitching rather than circuit switching as with phone communication at the time 1971 File Transfer Protocol FTP permits easy exchange of gt files between sites 1974 Bob Kahn and Vin Cerf quotFather of the Internetquot demonstrate Transfer Control Protocol which enables machines to route amp assemble data packets 1974 Ethernet developed at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center PARC allowing communication among machines on local networks Internet Developmentz80 198039s NSF funds national backbone to connect computer research centers Other gov39tfunded networks BITNET CSNET emerge 198039s Commercial networks begin to emerge 1983 Domain Name System DNS introduced to keep up with growing number of hosts introduces domain names com gov mil edu etc Late 198039s First Internet Service Providers emerge 1989 Australia UK Germany Italy etc join Internet Internet Developmentz90 1990 ARPANET shuts down 1991 NSF removes all restrictions on commercial use of Internet 1992 Internet Society ISOC formed assumes responsibility for fixing standards through the Internet Engineering Task Force IETF by now a voluntary organization 1995 NSF discontinues support of infrastructure 1998 Internet Corporaation forAssigned Names and Numbers ICANN established to oversee assignment of domain names and IP addresses formerly under control of US government But Bush administration indicates intent to retain control in 2005 90 The Origins of Email 1971 First network email program created by Ray Tomlinson at Bolt Beranek amp Newman BBN with quotUSERhostnamedomainquot addressing system First message sent between 2 machines that are sidebyside But most email is restricted to proprietary networks until 1988 when MCI mail is linked to the Internet The Emergence of the WWW 1945 Vannevar Bush writes quotAs We May Thinkquot in The Atlantic envisions Memex machine to follow links between documents on microfiche 1965 Ted Nelson coins the term quoth pertextquot to describe quotcompound documentsquot formed by inks among documents 1990 Tim BernersLee of CERN coins the term quotWorld Wide Webquot develops HTTP protocol for transmitting hy ertext documents between clients and servers and and irst Web browser making use of hypertext links Ca 1990 Paybased online services like AOL Compuserve and Prodigy market connectivity proprietary content games 0 at rooms ecommerce instant messaging etc to users unfamiliar with computers first for hourly and then for monthly fee By 1998 AC has 15m members 1 he Growth of the W 1993 Mark Andreessen39s Mosaic browser released by NCSA which runs on Windows and permits easy integration of graphics in Web pages CERN announces that W3 technology will be available free to everyone 1994 Over 200 HTTP servers traffic on CERN server has grown 1000told since first launched From the mid90s on Internet use roughly doubles every year 1994 Andressen now in private sector releases Netscape Navigator browser 1995 Microsoft releases Internet Explorer bundled with Windows 95 to compete with Netscape which rapidly loses market share Win95 also bundles dialup software to make connection easy 1995 AOL makes Internet available to all subscribers The Addition of Search 1991 Gopher developed at U Minnesota creates searchable index of FTP sites 1994 lnfoseek and Lycos search engines launched Jerry Yang and David Filo introduce Yahool a directory of Web sites 1995 AltaVista launched by DEC company regards it as showpiece for its hardware 1997 Larry Page and Sergey Brin launch Google which makes use of Page Rank algorithm to rank pages according to popularity Eoogi i 1998 Gotocom later Overture later Yahoo Search introduces payperclick advertising altavistaquot 90 102000000 10200000 0 The Web Takes Off m 19942005 Internet use increases rapidly driven by email Ecommerce news amp information pornography amp gambling By 2005 there are an estimated 100m Web sites 2000 Growth of broadband enables exchange of audio amp video content blogs and social networking sites proliferate etc 2005 68 percent of American adults and 90 percent of American teenagers have used the Internet 391 e Internationalization ot the Web Initial prevalence of English on the Web 1997 Nunberg amp Schuetze survey of 28 million pages from Web crawl 85 percent of content is in English including about 85 percent of content in nonEnglish speaking domains Eng Most common in N Europe lessdeveloped nations 2000 Jack Xu ExciteHome survey of around 600 million pages 72 are in English Fears of English Hegemony The Web is the ultimate act of intellectual colonialismquot Director of Russian ISP 1999 Nearly 70 per cent of the world39s Web sites are in English at times crowding out voices and viewsquot Kofi Annan 12Jan04 And Anglophone Triumphalism The Internet is quota great force for the Anglification of the planetquot Thanks to the Internet English will be the native language of a majority of the world by some time in the next centu ry Editor The Futurist The Polyglot Web Proportion of English is dropping sharply aided by widespread adoption of unicode first developed in 1991 to enable rendering of non Roman writing systems Relatively slower growth in NAmerica Europe as opposed to Latin America East Asia Relative proportion of English is dropping in nonEnglishspeaking domains as usage widens 1 Growth of Other Languages on the Web The Polyglot Web Clear that proportion of English is dropping Relatively slower growth in NAmerica Europe as opposed to Latin America East Asia Relative proportion of English is dropping in nonEnglishspeaking domains But the perception of English dominance persists One reason English still by far the most widely used single language Millenarian Visions Predictions that InternetNVeb will Ensure the dominance of English as a world language Dematerialize online content quotend of the bookquot quotDisintermediatequot commerce amp discourse eliminate the middleman like retailers amp wholesalers Decentralize authority amp permit groundup social amp political organization Destabilize the quotold mediaquot a E E E Inspect Work l INSECTION Warwon i 1 i3 Millenorion Visions Predictions that InternetWeb will decentralize authority amp permit groundup social amp political organization and the development of quotvirtual communitiesquot Cf the quotvirtual corporationquot quotsmart mobsquot moveonorg etc which are said to facilitate direct democracy The Rise of quotVirtual Communitiesquot 197879 Early MUDS MultiUser Dungeons enable players of textadventure games to interact amp team up Later MOOS MUD Object Oriented developed at Xerox PARC provide model for online collaboration amp interaction Many of these offer online chat 1979 gt Early BBS s Bulletin Board services allow users to connect via modem to a common server amp post hlmhillumbda mnmarwmr was a w messages Bunk l sin I 7 l n 1980 USENET is conceived as poor man s ARPANET to allow users to exchange email amp software Introduction of hierarchically organized newsgroups facilitates general discussion on various topics Gives rise to terms like FAQ spam amp trolling origins of internet etiquette I v Gama The Rise of quotVirtual Communities 1985 Stewart Brand amp Larry Brilliant found the BBS The Well Whole Earth 39Lectronic Link which becomes an influential virtual community providing email forums etc WELL participants go on to found Craigslist Electronic Frontier Foundation Saloncom etc 1986 Matchmakerdating service begun as textbased BBS adding to groups like socsingles etc By 2008 US Webbased online dating services draw 40m annual visitors 1995 Craig Newmark founds Craiglist in San Francisco for posting of local events by 2000 expanded to 9 cities The Rise of quotVirtual Communities 1997 Slashdot created to provide user generated News for nerdsquot Becomes wildly popular antecedent of blogs 1997 Sixdegreescom founded social networking site that achieved 1m members and anticipated Friendster MySpace Linkedln amp FaceBook etc Mal 0110RG CAMPAIGNS s Ime o ell America The Rise of quotVirtual Communities ti 7 l sum up success 5mm mmsz 7 GM UP Jnln mun thin 3000 1998 Moveonorg founded to militate for moving past Clinton impeachment hearings In 2003 becomes important channel for opposition to Iraq war major source of funding for antiwar candidates 2002 Meetupcom founded to facilitate offline meeting and networking of interest groups During buildup to campaign it becomes an important source of grassroots political organization for Howard Dean campaign later for Kerry amp Edwards The Triumph of Social Networks 2003 myspace founded rapidly becomes largest soc networking site Complaints about stalking exploitation spam etc lead some schools to block site 2005 bought by News Corp for 580m 2003 Second Life launched by Linden Labs 2004 Facebook launched by Harvard undergrad Mark Zuckerberg extended to other colleges high schools amp general public BY 2007 claims 60m members The complications of quotcommunityquot Community usually implies rich interaction around common interests Note Community always implies positive evaluation Online interaction creates or strengthens groups organized around significant common interests eg sexual orientation political activism diseases The complications of quotcommunityquot But quotcommunityquot is also used for almost any kind ofgroup formed online so long as it39s judged positive Commumty r HI Varieties of Online Community Relation of online media to social groups Supports Amplifies lextends Transforms Creates A h 7 0 ss 0 00 reg iJ Is the Internet a Community Social implications of cyberspace the infosphere etc Spatializations of Electronic Discourse Electronic discourse supports multiple spatializations unconstrained by material form of documents or mode of distribution People talk about the Web in terms of different and sometimes inconsistent spatial models with different implications w 4 if H H W M I ll jl LMl illill w Spdfidl Models of Electronic Discourse quotCyberspacequot The New Jerusalem ca 1992 Cyberspace A world in which the global traffic of knowledge secrets measurements indicators and alterhuman agency takes on form sights sounds presences never seen on the surface of the earth blossoming in a vast electronic night From vast databases that constitute the culture39s deposited wealth every document is available every recording is playable and every picture is viewable The realm of pure information filling like a lake Michael Benedikt Introduction to Cyberspace MIT Press 1991 Visualizing Cyberspace Double Space by Graham Burchell Cyber space 7 rather like real space but without stars or moons lt39s warmer e a tang of electr ity and a nose of new plastic hangs in the voidu lt39s a space more graphite than black a perfect emptiness riddled with energ are the occasional line of hypertext wh scrambled into glyphic you may stream into View with a rush 01 nonexistent alrl as a lm a lled EOI39I IBl hauling a long poem or snippet of pmse along invisible band width Mutated phish with murderous teeth burp bubbles of sewered gas sounding bubble you bubble your bubble you into the cosmos of no depths or shallows in that same space cookies rotate slowly like lost cells in an ocean go The Internet as a Public Space The Internet as Public Space Visualizing the quotBlogospherequot The Emergence of quotThe Collective Mindquot Cf James F Moore Berkman Center on quotthe global consciousness of the second superpowerquot The Internet and other interactive media continue to penetrate more and more deeply all world society The collective power of texting blogging instant messaging and email across millions of actors cannot be overestimated Like a mind constituted of millions of inter networked neurons the social movement is capable of astonishingly rapid and sometimes subtle community consciousness and action the emergent democracy of the second superpower is alive with touching and being touched by each other as the community works to create wisdom and to take act39 Should Internet be capitalized Cyberspace The Morning After The virtual Bowery The Internet is a place where crime is rampant and every twisted urge can be satisfied Thousands of virtual streets are lined with casinos porn shops and drug dealers Scam artists and terrorists skulk behind seemingly lawful Web sites And cops wander through once in a while mostly looking lost It39s the Strip in Las Vegas the Red Light district in Amsterdam and New York39s Times Square at its worst all rolled into one and all easily accessible from your living room couch quotThe Underground Webquot Business Week 9202 The vitual rialto The Internet as Public Space A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace Governments of the Industrial World you weary giants of esh and steel I come from Cyberspace the new home of Mind On behalf of the future I ask you of the past to leave us alone You are not welcome among us You have no sovereignty where we gather I declare the global social space we are building to be naturally independent of the tyrannies you seek to impose on us You have not engaged in our great and gathering conversation nor did you create the wealth of our marketplaces You do not know our culture our ethics or the unwritten codes that already provide our society more order than could be obtained by any of your impositions John Perry Barlow Electronic Frontier Foundation 1996 Search and the Conception of Web Community PageRank relies on the uniquely democratic nature of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page39s value But Google looks at considerably more than the sheer volume of votes or links a page receives for example it also analyzes the page that casts the vote Votes cast by pages that are themselves quotimportantquot weigh more heavily and help to make other pages quotimportantquot Using these and other factors Google provides its views on pages39 relative importance When Google Supports the Notion ancedseamh Preterences mwegews semhngs Gnnvtesemh 3003167 m tmves t Bmuvs tumm t News Omctat an sue wwwhmdtmncam BeIFaslmmesaandDrEYch mslamxe mmns Meme an Cash Rebates Euwvvmmce ewm teem Nwwm vivt m betaw deatercas Outwaran m mm Nemth gtAnas Makes and Mmets N ram mw Warsaw Fwdmnmmm Newzeetememm Ehaursiva Asexeeexea YJdeannmmceshettemerNBAdm Mtnsmensmesm mvt mm m EWth News Semen news hrtvdarbmwsuhe tilesl headtmes an Mum Cumgany Desrm39lmn uNetetsNe mevarv Meetth ans mwes ant Mmets Fm War amen wwwNMew 2k Dched Stmtarnnges Stackgumes Fum MuturCum an HumePa 2 e carvame websne NV heer Convanvand Ns vemcte Hammond semee was temunnv mveslar eeeer news and quotem Mummy wwwhmcm en enunmm m Dched Stmtargages VIme resu ls namwww mm mm an Fuundatmn mas pwtetes sne mp semN m cm seewes Newstm Wm Wat Netemny memymnwm maxmm uwmssz Descnpmn themandamuswaitsaremsvenvlhendermcmtcvatues reducevavmvandmtusuce vmme m awry Mew pNtsmNNE sums em Mavmg Faundzlmns wwwtumtwundaw m asNea Stmtarnages an Deutscntand amwsemeem Van wm be meme m e kw seewnas mNe ewwme Wm daesm wam Neese cttck here Descmman Knnxemvescmcme weaeue wm Zhbehar GebmucMWivensuche wm mndtemmenbank unwary New gt newseN N rem mew mamaquot N ram tuntutude 2k a meme an Vehtctes Hume Nesem mp uwN News m Wm Stream mumamrmts Fwdhas envmeemd 3 WWW vet wwmee and 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Lrhwr quotHmunlmh Amm u lrmImln Hmn Jew Watfih umnn 39 mu Lmrm rm mm 5 ml Srholnrmipmlul Ruur Fm Educ nm I P vamrm 10 2M7 quotmquot s39mvm39 quot39 m U s 3 quotmquot mung 1x Indqlnulmu39 mmII 11mquot mm Mr cl Zinn il Ru an Mu och Sn Wall erccl Journal I n 1 n Ilh Dead Allcucdl Rtvmls ncslmnuhl Fncn mu 39 mm mm 1mg L39unnnl Defend lmsng sz Bl LWJDlEJ J LEMSAhlmLBIMM kvnn Mun Ncwipup n deln Smuons md39w Sun on nmmnwv quotw gunZ 39m39 439 my quotwquot anuluuun I 39mgll Sgukcmcn 5m Unnchlcvuhlc Ruins 39 quot V mmnnhLCme sn Nevuuunnn Rcutl L39n 39mvcmamh mkmmn an an hm gvsunn a a an X 2m TD m a sfarN 39l ammmdlmmhbm s V V n I and l rnnh Bun can u Nahlus l rnah Sm Wc Dnn39 h V W y u w y M nanum Dxclamr 5231 w a sh PushesWanlIlcssWarWnslc 1 D 3 nu LuLmsulanm umuu s H1 and Jobs Harms Lem um Irnwl mquot r Pcaccml ux I m A searchengine breakdOWn Why is the jew result disturbing Is the search engine doing the right thingquot Where does the problem lie Assumptions about Algorithms amp intentionality How Google39s algorithms work What a high Google ranking means How the Web is organized LowerCasing the Internet Effective with this sentence Wired News will no longer capitalize the quotlquot in internet At the same time Web becomes web and Net becomes net Why The simple answer is because there is no earthly reason to capitalize any of these words Actually there never was a change in our house style was necessary to put into perspective what the internet is another medium for delivering and receiving information That it transformed human communication is beyond dispute But no more so than moveable type did in its day Or the radio Or television Wired 81604 Of quotthe Shirequot quotthe Coastquot Cf also earliercapitalization of quotthe Radioquot and quotthe Cinemaquot