Week of Oct 19th notes
Week of Oct 19th notes UAPP110
Popular in Changing the World and Public Policy
Popular in Public Health
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey West on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to UAPP110 at University of Delaware taught by Erin Knight in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Changing the World and Public Policy in Public Health at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
October 19 2015 Notes Policy Analysis and Evaluating Alternatives Policy analysis tends to focus on steps 2 and 5 of policy process policy formulation and policy evaluation Policy Analysis What is it o A systematic method for studying 0 Problems nature and scope 0 Policy alternatives possible actions 0 Policy outcomes implemented policies Who does it 0 Government agencies federal and state 0 Universities 0 Think tanks 0 Interest groups Policy Analysis by Think Tanks Policy research institutesquot growing sector 4000 world wide 0 Small and specialized vs large and diverse 0 Mostly nonprofit o Often issuespecific Their work helps policymakers 0 Understand complex problems 0 Learn ways to address problems 0 Understand views of interest groups Steps in the Policy Analysis Process Define and analyze the problem Construct policy alternatives Develop evaluation criteria Assess the alternatives Draw conclusions Step 1 How do policymakers and other stakeholders analyze a problem Define and measure Collect data Investigate causes Major Components of Problem Analysis Understand the CONTEXT surrounding the problem Define the problem narrowly Measure it Document the EXTENT or MAGNITUDE ofit Identify CAUSES of the problem Think about What should policy outcomes be What are your goals in addressing the problem Determine how to measure it Be as objective as possible 0 Sometimes problems are clear sometimes not 0 Politics of problem definition 0 I thinkquot is irrelevant 0 Be very careful of assumptions myths Identify or develop operational measures 0 Observable evidence DATA describing the problem 0 Cite your sources What s causing the problem What are the root causes of the problems 0 Increases the complexity of the problem 0 Policies that can impact root causes will be more effective 0 These policies may be harder to sell Research backward Get to the quotrootquot 0 What contributes to the problem 0 Where does it start What are the proximate causes Low hanging fruit Getting at the root ask why 5 times Why is Jason in the hospital with an infection Because he has a cut on his leg Why does he have a cut in his leg Because he was playing in an abandoned lot near his apartment and got cut on an old car Why was he playing in an abandoned lot Because his neighborhood is rundown and a lot of kids paly there and there s no one there to watch them Why does he live in that neighborhood Because his parents can t afford a nicer place to live Why can t his parents afford a nicer place to live Enough though they both work they have a hard time paying the bills Step 2 Constructing Policy Alternatives Developing potential solutions to policy problems What policy outcomes need to be attained Set goals Be clear about your specific goals Reduce illegal immigration or reduce immigration Improve highway safety or reduce highway traffic Reduce binge drinking or reduce underage drinking Reduce accidents caused by distracted driving or reduce accidents caused by cell phone use Create living wage jobs or reduce poverty Reduce the prevalence of obesity or increase physical activity Instruments of Public Policy things we might consider Regulate Subsidize Improve taxes or give tax deductions Etc Methods to formulate policy alternatives Importance of CREATIVE THINKING NO ACTION ANALYSIS what happens if we do nothing Quick surveys 0 Talk with EXPERTS to see tools they recommend Literature review 0 What policy alternatives are out there 0 Think tanks interest groups Construct alternatives Realworld situations 0 What s worked in similar situations 0 Has it been tried by a state Parallel situationsanalogies 0 Used in other sectors 0 For other problems Brainstorm Step 3 How is the right course of action chosen Access policy alternatives using SPECIFIC evaluative criteria Selected criteria for evaluating public policy proposals Effectiveness Efficiency Equity Liberty freedom Political feasibility Social acceptability Administrative feasibility Technical feasibility Why are criteria used Policy decisions are complicated 0 Focus on what s most important 0 Organize your thinking 0 Make your perspective explicit Can be used to choose on option over another Can be used to judge merit or impact or current policy Helps to identify winners and losers Evaluative Criteria Effectiveness 0 Does the policy alterative reach outcome goals I Operational measure that define quoteffectivequot I An estimate of its likelihood of working 0 Efficiency 0 One step beyond effectiveness I Effectiveness RELATIVE TO COSTS I Costs relative to benefits I An efficient policyquot is one that works well at low cost Feasibility 0 Political social I Extent to which policy makers accept support an alterative I Extent to which public will accept support an alterative o Administrativetechnical I Likelihood that a department or agency can implement the alternative well example resources expertise organizational structure I Availability reliability of technology needed for implementation of the alternative 0 Fairness in the distribution of the costs benefits and risks across the population 0 NOT necessarily the same as equality 0 Different ways to think about equity example process vs outcome equity Using Evaluation Criteria Different decisions rely on different criteria 0 The criteria should relate well to the decision 0 The situation context also in uences criteria Criteria should use operational measures or indicators be objective and measurable whenever possible Not necessary to consider every criterion and may need to balance one against another Approaches to policy analysis Economic analyses 0 Cost benefit risk assessment 0 Costeffectiveness Forecasting and impact assessment Political and institutional analysis ETHICAL ANALYSIS October 21 2015 Notes Drone Policy Evaluation Criteria Effectiveness Efficiency Equity Political feasibility Understanding Drones What do drones do Used to monitor what is happening on the ground And possibly shoot missiles Advantages of drones Don t put lives at risk Less expensive than traditional warfare Easy to support politically Disadvantages of drones Not a long term solution Secret CIA operation US bears sole responsibility for attacks What are the controversies about the use of drones Laws put into place do not cover technology today con ict and technology
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