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Geology Week 10 Notes

by: Kate Notetaker

Geology Week 10 Notes GEOL1005

Kate Notetaker

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Notes from lecture on March 24.
Historical Geology
Catherine A. Forster
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL1005 at George Washington University taught by Catherine A. Forster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Geology at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 03/24/16
March 24, 2016  Extra credit assignment o Analyze one of four articles o Pick out statements regarding geology or paleontology o Ask  It is logical?  Can this be substantiated? o Write a paper that is more than one page but not more than three, single spaced o Include references  Reference the source of the factual information of your paper  Have a bibliography  Must use at least two scientific sources o Make sure that you use scientific names of animals correctly  Name of genus is always capitalized, name of species is never capitalized  Genus and species names must either be italicized or underlined  Late Triassic (archosaur) o Archosaurs include crocodilians, flying reptiles, dinosaurs and dinosaurian  All of the reptiles were relatively small, bipedal and quadrupedal carnivores o Only 8% of archosaurs are dinosaurs o End Triassic extinction event  Wipes out a lot of the archosaurs  Dinosaurs are allowed to radiate and take over  Jurassic and Cretaceous o The big terrestrial animals  Don’t swim in the water or fly in the air yet o Largest animals that ever lived were dinosaurs o Two different varieties  Saurischia  Herbivores  Carnivores  Ornithischia  Herbivores  Ischia means hip  Saur means lizard  Ornith means bird  Lizard and bird dinosaurs o Pelvis is very involved in a lot of the changes of dinosaurs  Bone on top called the ilium  Bone hanging down the front called the pubis  Bone hanging down the back called the ischium  Opening that is formed by all three bones  Where the hind leg fits into the hip  Hip socket  acetabulum  Closed over by bone on the inside o Dinosaurs eliminate this bone  Dinosaurs all have an open hip socket o Saurischia  Lizard hip is like all other reptiles o Ornithischia  Have an unusual hip  Opisthopuby  Rotate the pubis so that it is pointing backward  Also has another part of the pubis that juts forward  The muscles that are at the front of the animal come and attach to the pubis  The muscles are now moved way far back  Much more abdominal muscles are pushed farther back  Hadrosaurs  Have hollow crests  extensions of the nasal passage that have hypertrophied and been pulled back or looped on top of head  Pachycephalosaurs  Big chunk of solid bone on their head  Persistent hypothesis regarding behavior is that they were head-butters  An engineering study on the skull showed that the shape would withstand high stresses  Examination of the fossils shows the dome is made from very vascular bone o Lacks the material properties necessary to withstand head-butting stresses  Ceratopsians  Horned dinosaurs  Have a new bone at the front of their face  rostral bone  Grow “frills” of the back of their head  Hundred of skeletons are known o Theropoda and Sauropods  Formed the Saurischia  Sauropods  Late Triassic through Late Cretaceous  Largest land animals to ever evolve  Flat footprints o Fatty cushion at the back part of their feet o Very similar to elephant feet  Theropoda  Late Triassic – recent  Ostrich-mimics (Ornithomimids) o They were toothless  Oviraptors  “egg thief” o Have very strange skulls and are also toothless o Stealing the eggs of Protoceratops ?  Found eggs and nests and oviraptors on those nests  Eggs were found with embryos inside  They were Oviraptor babies, not Protoceratops o Law two eggs at once o Medullary bone in a chicken  Put down when ovulation starts  Full of calcium  Getting ready to lay eggs o Lines of Arrested Growth  Dromaeosaurs o Velociraptors o One lineage became quite small  They had feathers o We now know that most theropods had feathers o Had wishbones at the front of their chests o Elongate hands and cocked wrist with unique adaptations of the wrist bones o Birds originate by the Late Jurassic  Become very diverse and numerous throughout the Cretaceous  Get smaller and smaller  Invade ecological spaces that no one has before


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