### Create a StudySoup account

#### Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

# Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits EL ENG 40

GPA 3.78

### View Full Document

## 48

## 0

## Popular in Course

## Popular in Electrical Engineering

This 72 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kris Heathcote on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EL ENG 40 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/226765/el-eng-40-university-of-california-berkeley in Electrical Engineering at University of California - Berkeley.

## Reviews for Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits

### What is Karma?

#### Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15

EE40 Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Summer 2004 Alessandro Pinto apintocccsbcrkclcycdu TAS Wei Mao maoweieecsberkelevedu xRenaldi Winoto Winot0eecsberkelevedu Reader xHaryanto Kurniawan harvantouclinkberkelevedu Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 2 Course Material Main reference xhttp WWW insteecsberkeleveduee40 Textbook s Electrical Engineering Principles and Applications by Allan R Hambley Reader available at Copy Central 2483 Hearst Avenue Publications Selected pubs posted on the web Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 3 Course Organization Lectures 3 X week 20 total Labs Experimenting and verifying Building a complete system mixer tone control amplifier power supply control Discussion sessions More examples exercise exams preparation Homework Weekly for a better understanding Exams 2 midterms 1 final Grade VHW 10 LAB 10 MID 20 FINAL 40 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 4 Table of contents Circuit components Resistor Dependent sources Operational amplifier Circuit Analysis Node Loop Mesh Equivalent circuits First order circuit Active devices CMOS transistor Digital Circuits Logic gates Boolean algebra Gates design Minimization Extra TOplCS CAD for electronic circuits Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 5 Prerequisites Math 1B xPhysies 7B Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 6 Illustrates the historical background Electricity Transistor Monolithic integration xMoore s law Introduces signals Analog and Digital Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 7 Hans Christian Oersted 5 Experiment 1820 Michael Faraday s Experiment 1 831 Source Molecular Expression Maxwell s Equations 1831 1 HR K 2 E quota E z 7 m I a 1 HE E E 4quot E n a Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 8 CONTACT GERMANVUM Emitter t 91 39 MOSFET D BJT C G B S E Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 9 History of EB Integration Resistor Jack S Kilby 1958 NW N Capacitor L Monolithic one piece circuits built form 4 P o o 5 a Silicon substrate 39 r T Inductor Diode Transistor 29 35 30 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 10 transistors Gordon Moore 1965 Ponuumn 4 ProcessorI 100300000 I Permmnw lll Processor MOORE S LAW Funlmnw u Procushoi J 10000000 Penmmw Prcccs ov 455 ox Procussol 1000000 if Number of transwtor y 1 100000 per square inch doubles 8 55 4v approximately every18 months 9080 5 39 10000 4003 3 3 7 1000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Implications Cost per device halves every 18 months More transistors on the same area more complex and powerful chips Future chips are very hard to design Fabrication cost is becoming prohibitive Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 11 Today s Chips An Example Alessandro Pinto EE4O Summer 2004 p4 le f mZ Silicide Layer Silicon Gate Electrode 12 nm SiO2 Gate Oxide Strained Silicon 50 nm transistor dimension is 2000x smaller than diameter of human hair Hair size 1024px Signals Analog vs Digital flt glt lln L m o v V u Analog Analogous to some physical Digital can be represented using quantity a finite number of digits Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 13 Example of Analog Signal A 440Hz piano key stroke Properties Dynamic range maXV minV Frequency number of cycles in one second Voltage uV moms 0002 00025 am 00035 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 Analog Circuits It is an electronic subsystem which operates entirely on analog signals t ot K it Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 15 Digital Circuits It is an electronic subsystem which operates entirely on numbers using for instance binary representation sum carry v v OOSI v Ov OU Oi i O i OOO Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 16 Encoding of Digital Signals We use binary digits Two values 0 1 Positional system Encoded by two voltage levels 15V gt 1 0V gtO A 15V 1 5 gt 101 threshold 15 V 0 noise margin 0 V V o gt 15 V Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 17 Why Digital Digital signals are easy and cheap to store Digital signals are insensible to noise Boolean algebra can be used to represent manipulate minimize logic functions Digital signal processing is easier and relatively less expensive than analog signal processing Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 18 Digital Representation of Analog Signals Problem represent ft using a finite number of binary digits Example A key stroke using 6 bits Only 64 possible values hence not all values can be represented Quantization error due to finite number of digits Time sampling time is continuous but we want a finite sequence of numbers Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 19 Digital Representation of Analog Signals Dynamic Range 3030 HV Sarnpling t I Precision 5 11V 7 g 7 4f VVt 1011 0100 0101 0110 0001 Result 0010 1001 1100 0100 0011 0010 0011 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 20 Digital Representation of Logic Functions Boolean Algebra Variables can take values 0 or 1 true or false Operators on variables x a AND b ab a QR b ab xNOT b b Any logic expression can be built using these basic logic functions Example exclusive OR Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 21 Full Adder Example a b sum carry 0 O O O O 1 1 O 1 O 1 O 1 1 O 1 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE4O Summer 2004 22 Analog signals are representation of physical quantities Digital signals are less sensible to noise than analog signals Digital signals can represent analog signals with arbitrary precision at the expense of digital Circuit cost Boolean algebra is a powerful mathematical tool for manipulating digital Circuits Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 23 39 I Announcements I HW 1 Due today at 6pm I HW 2 posted online today and due next Tuesday at 6pm I Due to scheduling conflicts with some students classes will resume normally this week and next I Midterm tentatively 712 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu l 39 1 Review I Mesh and Nodal Analysis I Superposition I Equivalent Circuits aThevenin 39 Norton I Measuring Voltages and Currents EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 2 quot7 A Review Thevenin Equivalent Example Find the Thevenin equivalent with respect to the terminals ab 50 X M 3 401A 6 8012 EE40 Summer2005 Lecture 2 instructor Octavian Ftorescu quot17 Lecture 4 OUTLINE I The capacitor I The inductor I 1st Order Circuits I Transient and SteadyState response Reading Chapter 3 Chap 4145 EE40 Summer2005 Lecture 2 triStructor Octavrari Ftorescu 39 1 The Capacitor Two conductors ab separated by an insulator difference in potential Val gt equal amp opposite charge Q on conductors slored charge in terms ofvollage where C is the capacitance of the structure gt positive charge is on the conductor at higher potential Parallelplate capacitor dielectric per Ity of insulator s Unduemg F I pitac gt capacitance EEAEI Summer ZEIEIE Lecture 2 39 lnstrumur Octavian Flurescu 5 apacitor or ie C C Units Farads CoulombsNolt typical range of values 1 pF to 1 11F for supercapa citorsquot up to afew F CurrentVolta e relationshi d dv dC c 139 Q C5 V l air air dt vc IfC geometxy is unchanging ic C chdt ote Q VG must be a continuous function of time i C Electmlyu39c pularized capacimr EEAEI SummerZDDE Lecture 2 7 u a Voltage in Terms of Current Q0 2 Mr Q0 vcl 201 201 vc 0 0 M Capacitors are used to store energy for camera ashbulbs in filters that separate various frequency signals and they appear as undesired parasitic elements in circuits where they usually degrade circuit performance EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu Stored Energy CAPACITORS STORE ELECTRIC ENERGY You might think the energy stored on a capacitor is QV CW which has the dimension of Joules But during charging the average voltage across the capacitor was only half the final value of Vfor a linear capacitor Thus energy is gV Example A 1 pF capacitance charged to 5 Volts has 1z5V2 1 pF 125 pJ A 5F supercapacitor charged to 5 volts stores 63 J if it discharged at a constant rate in 1 ms energy is discharged at a 63 kW rate EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 i A more rigorous derivation T t tFinal V VFinal V VFinal w j Vc1cdt Ive Edt jvch t tInitial V Vlnitial V Vlnitial V VFinal 1 2 1 W I CVc ch ECVFinal ECVInitial V Vinitial EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 9 39 Example Current Power amp Energy for a Capacitor i 0 WV vt C 1rdrv0 v0 1 10p A vc and q must be continuous H l C functions of time however dt ic can be discontinuous t 0 3 4 5 Note In steady state dc operation time derivatives are zero C is an open circuit EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 10 lExample Current Power amp Energy for a Capacitor p W 1392393394 1 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 it gt vt 5i Mus p w t w I pdr 0 5 Mus Instructor Octavian Florescu Capacitors in Series V10 V20 Proof EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu c vtv1tv2t 1 Capacitors in Parallel l39ti1ti2t Proof EEAEI Summer ZEIEIE Lecture 2 instructur Octavian Flarescu I l Practical Capacrtors l A capacitor can be constructed by interleaving the plates with two dielectric layers and rolling them up to achieve a compact size rum I To achieve a small volume a very thin dielectric with a high dielectric constant is desirable However dielectric materials break down and become conductors when the electric field units Vcm is too high Real capacitors have maximum voltage ratings An engineering tradeoff exists between compact size and high voltage rating EEAEI SummErZDDE Lecture 2 7 u 39 J Inductor Symbol nmn L Units Henrys Volts second lAmpere typical range of values pH to 10 H Current in terms of voltage 1 i dzL ZVL 201 L1 VL 1 t z z ij nah 200 L to Note i must be a continuous function of time EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu I Stored Energy INDUCTORS STORE MAGNETIC ENERGY Consider an inductor having an initial current it0 0 191 Vlil we l pmdr t0 1 2 1 2 wt Li Li 2 2 0 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu Inductors in Series V10 V20 Vtquot1tv2t EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu Inductors in Parallel lti1ti2t 151 1 1 1 L eq L 1 L 2 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu I FirstOrder Circuits I A circuit that contains only sources resistors and an inductor is called an RL circuit I A circuit that contains only sources resistors and a capacitor is called an RC circuit I RL and RC circuits are called rstorder circuits because their voltages and currents are described by rstorder differential equations R R EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 19 1 Transient vs SteadyState Response I The momentary behavior of a circuit in response to a change in stimulation is referred to as its transient response I The behavior of a circuit a long time many time constants after the change in voltage or current is called the steadystate response EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 20 39 I Review Conceptual I Any firstorder circuit can be reduced to a Th venin or Norton equivalent connected to either a single equivalent inductor or gapacitor T h IThC L VTh g C E In steady state an inductor behaves like a short circuit 1 In steady state a capacitor behaves like an open circuit EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 39 I Response I The natural response of an RL or RC circuit is its behavior ie current and voltage when stored energy in the inductor or capacitor is released to the resistive part ofthe network containing no independent sources I The step response of an RL or RC circuit is its behavior when a voltage or current source step is applied to the circuit or immediately after a switch state is changed EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 7 Instructor Octavian Florescu I Natural Response of an RL Circuit I Consider the following circuit for which the switch is closed for t lt 0 and then opened at t 0 1 C R L R v Notation 0 is used to denote the time just prior to switching 0 is used to denote the time immediately after switching I tlt0 the entire system is at steadystate and the inductor is 9 like short circuit I The current owing in the inductor at t 0 is ID and V across is 0 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 23 39 I Solving for the Current t2 0 I For t gt 0 the circuit reduces to lo C R L v Applying KVL to the LR circuit I VtitR I At t0 i0Y I I Atarbitrarytgt0 i39t and VtL 60 I I Solution 2 z390e RLt Ioe39 m Z EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 24 39 Solving for the Voltage t gt 0 it 105W 1 C R L v I Note that the voltage changes abruptly 110 2 0 for t gt 0 vt 1R IoRe RLt gt v0 10R EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 25 Solving for Power and Energy Delivered t gt 0 it 105W 1 C R L v p Z 02Re2RLt t t w Ipxdx JIZRe MR0xdx 0 0 L1021 WW EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 26 39 I Natural Response of an RC Circuit I Consider the following circuit for which the switch is closed for t lt 0 and then opened at t 0 Notation 0 is used to denote the time just prior to switching 0 is used to denote the time immediately after switching I The voltage on the capacitor at t 0 is V0 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 27 39 I Solving for the Voltage t2 0 I For t gt 0 the circuit reduces to I Applying KCL to the RC circuit vt v0e IRC I Solution EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 28 39 I 1 Solving for the Current tgt 0 Vl VowRC I Note that the current changes abruptly 10 0 V V itRC for tgt0 zt quote R R V gt 10 0 R EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 29 Solving for Power and Energy Delivered t gt 0 39 IoeitRC pRR t f V2 w J pxdx J e ZXRcdx 0 0 2CV021 earRC EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 30 39 I Natural Response Summary RL Circuit RC Circuit L C v R I Capacitor voltage cannot I Inductor current cannot change Instantaneoust change instantaneously 10 10 v0 v0 it 20 Va 2 v0equot I time constant 2 R I time constant 239 RC EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 31 39 1 Procedure for Finding Transient Response 1 Identify the variable of interest For RL circuits it is usually the inductor current iLt For RC circuits it is usually the capacitor voltage vct 2 Determine the initial value at t t0 of the variable Recall that iLt and vct are continuous variables iLt0 iLt0 and Vcto Vcto Assuming that the circuit reached steady state before to use the fact that an inductor behaves like a short circuit in steady state or that a capacitor behaves like an open circuit in steady state EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu 32 39 1 Procedure cont d 3 Calculate the final value of the variable its value as t 9 00 Again make use of the fact that an inductor behaves like a short circuit in steady state I 9 00 or that a capacitor behaves like an open circuit in steady state I 9 00 4 Calculate the time constant for the circuit 1 UR for an RL circuit where R is the Th venin equivalent resistance seen by the inductor 1 RC for an RC circuit where R is the Th venin equivalent resistance seen by the capacitor Instructor Octavian Florescu EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Summary Capacitor Inductor i v dt d w CVZ w 1Li2 2 icannot change instantaneously v can change instantaneously Do not opencircuit an inductor with current gt infinite voltagen n ind s in series Leg 2L 11 v cannot change instantaneously ican change instantaneously Do not shortcircuit a charged capacitor gt infinite current n cap s in series C 29 1 quot 1 n cap s in parallel ng n ind s in parallel L eq i1 lnstructor Octavian Florescu 34 EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 39 I Summary Cont d I Steadystate 9 nothing is time varying I In steady state an inductor behaves like a short circuit I In steady state a capacitor behaves like an open circuit EE40 Summer 2005 Lecture 2 Instructor Octavian Florescu Lecture 32 ANNOUNCEMENTS Midterm 2 i 358 716 569 hi475 Io13 Midterm1 Y 444 888 572 hi50 Io10 HW9 Problem 3b Assume 1p ltlt 1 negligible on timing diagram OUTLINE Computing the output capacitance Propagation delay examples History of IC devices and technology Reading Rabaey etaJ Chapter 54 pp 158163 EECS lD Fall mus Lemme 32 slidei F39er King MOSFET Layout and CrossSection Top View polysilicon l W l 7 e i L diffused regions Cross Section G ll EECS lD Fall mus Lemme 32 Slide 2 F39er King Source and Drain Junction Capacitance juncliu 39 dew channel w bottom plate I A ND 3 gt3 I side waits subshale NA Ls Cwurce CfltAREA CJSMXODERIMETER CjLSW CJSIIZLS W EECS iD FaH mus Lemme 315mg 3 F39er King Computing the Output Capacitance Example 54 pp 161163 I I I 25um I I I I Meta EECS iD FaH mus Lemme 315mg 4 F39er King I I ml I 1111le I Pnnum IAN lumzll Nun I 21025um NMm l n BMW LXTSUSM mu 1 mamv mm I l Hwy Ismwm 07H Ismwm V I I I I DD I I I I Capacitances for 025pm technology Pms Gate oagaoitanoes W qu I I I I COXNMOS COXPMOS 6 fFum2 Overlay cagaoitances CGDONMOS Con 031fFum quot quot CGDOPMOS COD 027fFum Bottom 39unotion oagacitanoes I l CJNMOS Keqbpnq 2 fFHm2 CJPMOS Keqbppq f 19 fFHm2 Mffuu Sidewall unctlon oagaoltanoes CJSWNMOS Keqwq 028fFum 6ND I I CJSWPMOS Kemch 022fFpm I I EECS40 Fall 2003 Lecture 32 Slide 5 Prof King from extraction y EECS40 Fall 2003 Lecture 32 Slide 6 Prof King Examples of Propagation Delay CMOS Clock Fanout4 Product technology inverter frequency f generation delay Pentium II 025 pm 600 MHZ 100 ps Pentiumlll 018 um 18GHz 40 ps Pentium IV 013 pm 32 GHZ 20 ps Typical clock periods highperformance uP 15 FO4 delays PlayStation 2 60 F04 delays EECS4D Fall mus Lecture 32 SlldE 7 F39er Klng Early History of IC Devices and Technology 1940 s Vacuumtube era Lee De Forest 1906 1mm m 399 lllmneul39 were used for radios television telephone equipme and compute v my but they were expensive bulky fragile amp energyhungry ll llllllllll a Invention ofthe pointcontact transistor Walter Brattain John Bardeen and William hockley Bell Labs 1947 Nobel Prize in Physics 1 reproducibility was an issue however a Invention of the bipolarjunction transistor William Shockley Bell Labs 1950 more stable and reliable easier and cheaper to make EECS4D Fall ZEIEIS Lecture 32 Slide 8 W King Discrete Electronic Circuits In 1954 Texas Instruments produced the rst commercial silicon transistor Before the invention ofthe integrated circuit electronic equipment was composed of discrete components such as transistors resistors and capacitors These components o en simply called discretes wer manufactured se arately and were wired or soldered together onto circuit boards Discretes took up a lot of room a d wer expensive and cumbersome to assemble so engineers began in the mid1950s to search for a simpler approach EECS fall Inna Lecture 32 Slmea pm Klng The Integrated Circuit IC An IC is built ofinterconnected electronic components in a single piece chip of semiconductor material In 1958 Jack S Kilby Texas Instruments showed that it was possible to fabricate a simple IC in germanium Nobel prize in Physics 2000 In 1959 Robert Noyce Fairchild Semiconductor described h w an IC can be made in silicon using silicon dioxide as the insulator and aluminum for the metallic lines Kilby and oyce are considered to be coinventors ofthe IC The rsth was made out ora thin slice E ofgermanium and contains a bipolar g vansistor a capacitor and several 5 sis rs s pu g together Wm wax rum pa Integrated ttrtult In germanium m Pmmng The First Planar IC This chip has four bipolar transistors the bright blue noseconelike features toward the center of the photo and ve resistors the bright blue horizontal and vertical bars The white bars are aluminum connectors normally attached to the external world by wires not shown here soldered to the pads at the edge of the device Actual size 006 in diameter Fairchild Semiconductor 1959 Fairchild Semiconductorand Texas Instruments both introduced commercial ICs in 1960 EECS40 Fall 2003 Lecture 32 Slide 11 Prof King FieldEffect Transistors The eldeffect transistor was invented before the bipolarjunction transistor JE Lilienfeld US Patent 1745175 1930 O Heil British Patent 439457 1935 but it was not successfully demonstrated until 1960 by M Atalla and D Kahng at Bell Labs In 1963 Frank Wanlass Fairchild Semiconductor introduced CMOS technology The rst CMOS integrated circuits were made by RCA in 1968 The MOSFET is smaller and simpler to fabricate than a bipolar junction transistor therefore more MOSFETs can be formed on a givensize chip The need for highdensity memory DRAMs in the 1970 s caused MOS to become the dominant IC technology m Lecture 32 Slide 12 Prof King IC Manufacturing Planar Processing Process steps are sequentially applied to thin slices wafers of silicon in order to fabricate simultaneously and interconnect billions of electronic devices eg transistors on the front surface MOSFET Processing 7 Steps oxidation N anneal implantation deposition lithography etch EECSAD Fall mus Lemme 32 Slide 13 F39er King From a Few to Billions By connecting a large number of components each performing simple operations an IC that performs very complex tasks can be built The degree of integration has increased at an exponential pace over the past 40 years Gordon Moore was the first to note this evolution in 1965 The number of devices on a chip 9 30 reduction in cosllfunclion per yr 2X speed improvement every 3 yrs Moore39s Lawquot still holds today The largest ICs today contain 139 quotquotquot 1m mluupmrexwlhas 10 billion tranSIstors van1mm mansum F39er King EECSAD Fall mus Lemme 32 Slide M Modern lC Technology Increasing of levels of wiring Cu interconnects W 10Ievel metal entering production Photo from IBM Microelectronics Galley Colorized scanningelectron micrograph of the copper interconnect layers after removal of the insulating layers by a chemical etch Scaling MOSFETs to smaller dimensions gate lengths below 20 nm have already been demonstrated by AMD IBM Intel Toshiba etc 9 most advanced transistor designs are based on UCBerkeley research Profs Hu King Bokor Approaching technologyeconomic limits EECSAO Fall 2003 Lecture 32 Slide 15 Prof King EECS40 The Home Stretch To complete this course we will learn How are integrated circuits made gt Overview of microfabrication technology gt CMOS fabrication process Where is the output capacitance which limits performance gt CMOS layout and circuit extraction gt Interconnect modeling What are the future issues for IC devices and technology and circuit design gt Stateof theart technology EECSAO Fall 2003 Lecture 32 Slide 16 Prof King EE40 Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Summer 2004 Alessandro Pinto apintocccsbcrkclcycdu TAS Wei Mao maoweieecsberkelevedu xRenaldi Winoto Winot0eecsberkelevedu Reader xHaryanto Kurniawan harvantouclinkberkelevedu Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 2 Course Material Main reference xhttp WWW insteecsberkeleveduee40 Textbook s Electrical Engineering Principles and Applications by Allan R Hambley Reader available at Copy Central 2483 Hearst Avenue Publications Selected pubs posted on the web Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 3 Course Organization Lectures 3 X week 20 total Labs Experimenting and verifying Building a complete system mixer tone control amplifier power supply control Discussion sessions More examples exercise exams preparation Homework Weekly for a better understanding Exams 2 midterms 1 final Grade VHW 10 LAB 10 MID 20 FINAL 40 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 4 Table of contents Circuit components Resistor Dependent sources Operational amplifier Circuit Analysis Node Loop Mesh Equivalent circuits First order circuit Active devices CMOS transistor Digital Circuits Logic gates Boolean algebra Gates design Minimization Extra TOplCS CAD for electronic circuits Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 5 Prerequisites Math 1B xPhysies 7B Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 6 Illustrates the historical background Electricity Transistor Monolithic integration xMoore s law Introduces signals Analog and Digital Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 7 Hans Christian Oersted 5 Experiment 1820 Michael Faraday s Experiment 1 831 Source Molecular Expression Maxwell s Equations 1831 1 HR K 2 E quota E z 7 m I a 1 HE E E 4quot E n a Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 8 CONTACT GERMANVUM Emitter t 91 39 MOSFET D BJT C G B S E Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 9 History of EB Integration Resistor Jack S Kilby 1958 NW N Capacitor L Monolithic one piece circuits built form 4 P o o 5 a Silicon substrate 39 r T Inductor Diode Transistor 29 35 30 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 10 transistors Gordon Moore 1965 Ponuumn 4 ProcessorI 100300000 I Permmnw lll Processor MOORE S LAW Funlmnw u Procushoi J 10000000 Penmmw Prcccs ov 455 ox Procussol 1000000 if Number of transwtor y 1 100000 per square inch doubles 8 55 4v approximately every18 months 9080 5 39 10000 4003 3 3 7 1000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Implications Cost per device halves every 18 months More transistors on the same area more complex and powerful chips Future chips are very hard to design Fabrication cost is becoming prohibitive Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 11 Today s Chips An Example Alessandro Pinto EE4O Summer 2004 p4 le f mZ Silicide Layer Silicon Gate Electrode 12 nm SiO2 Gate Oxide Strained Silicon 50 nm transistor dimension is 2000x smaller than diameter of human hair Hair size 1024px Signals Analog vs Digital flt glt lln L m o v V u Analog Analogous to some physical Digital can be represented using quantity a finite number of digits Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 13 Example of Analog Signal A 440Hz piano key stroke Properties Dynamic range maXV minV Frequency number of cycles in one second Voltage uV moms 0002 00025 am 00035 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 Analog Circuits It is an electronic subsystem which operates entirely on analog signals t ot K it Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 15 Digital Circuits It is an electronic subsystem which operates entirely on numbers using for instance binary representation sum carry v v OOSI v Ov OU Oi i O i OOO Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 16 Encoding of Digital Signals We use binary digits Two values 0 1 Positional system Encoded by two voltage levels 15V gt 1 0V gtO A 15V 1 5 gt 101 threshold 15 V 0 noise margin 0 V V o gt 15 V Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 17 Why Digital Digital signals are easy and cheap to store Digital signals are insensible to noise Boolean algebra can be used to represent manipulate minimize logic functions Digital signal processing is easier and relatively less expensive than analog signal processing Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 18 Digital Representation of Analog Signals Problem represent ft using a finite number of binary digits Example A key stroke using 6 bits Only 64 possible values hence not all values can be represented Quantization error due to finite number of digits Time sampling time is continuous but we want a finite sequence of numbers Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 19 Digital Representation of Analog Signals Dynamic Range 3030 HV Sarnpling t I Precision 5 11V 7 g 7 4f VVt 1011 0100 0101 0110 0001 Result 0010 1001 1100 0100 0011 0010 0011 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 20 Digital Representation of Logic Functions Boolean Algebra Variables can take values 0 or 1 true or false Operators on variables x a AND b ab a QR b ab xNOT b b Any logic expression can be built using these basic logic functions Example exclusive OR Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 21 Full Adder Example a b sum carry 0 O O O O 1 1 O 1 O 1 O 1 1 O 1 Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE4O Summer 2004 22 Analog signals are representation of physical quantities Digital signals are less sensible to noise than analog signals Digital signals can represent analog signals with arbitrary precision at the expense of digital Circuit cost Boolean algebra is a powerful mathematical tool for manipulating digital Circuits Lect 1 06212004 Alessandro Pinto EE40 Summer 2004 23

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.

### You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

#### "There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

#### "I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

#### "Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.