CH9 - ENERGY BALANCE/ HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT
CH9 - ENERGY BALANCE/ HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT NUTR 214 - 01
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NUTR 214 - 01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samone Hodges on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 214 - 01 at Radford University taught by Rachel Werkheiser in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
NUTRITION CHAPTER 9 ENERGY BALANCE AND HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT Health risks 0 Overweight O Underweight Misconceptions about weight 0 Focus about the number 0 Focus on controlling weight 0 Focus on shortterm endeavors Body composition important 0 of lean body mass compared to of fat body mass Prevalence of obesity 0 US 39 Underweight not a problem 0 Risks O Siege or famine Hospital stays Wasting disease Cancer 0 O O 0 Heart disease 39 Overweight epidemic gt23 of adults 0 30 of the US 0 Rates are expected to increase in the future 0 Risks O Obesity related illness 0 Chronic diseases 0 In ammation I Adipokine hormones released by adipose tissues Gull bladder disease 0 Kidney stones 0 0 Extreme obesity can result in the same effects than a smoker I Central obesity 1 component of metabolic syndrome 0 Risks O Visceral fat in the organs 0 Increase risk of death from all causes 0 Metabolic syndrome greatly increase the risk of heart disease 0 Fat distribution THE BODY S ENERGY BALANCE 0 Energy budget 0 Change in energy stored energy in energy out 0 Energy out 0 Foods and beverages I Calorie needs what to keep track of 0 Monitor activity and weight 0 Energy output I Basal metabolism BMR 0 Effected by 0 Age height growth pregnant women children body comp fevers stress environmental temp fastingstarvation malnutrition thyroxine I Voluntary activities I Thermic effect of food 0 Estimated energy requirement EER 0 Have to be reference man and woman 0 Taller people I Need more energy 0 Energy needs diminish with age because I Less active loss of muscle mass 0 DRI method based on 0 Gender age physical activity body size weight and growth BODY WEIGHT V BODY FATNESS 0 BMI 0 General guidelines 39 Underweight 39 Overweight 39 Obesity 0 Drawbacks I Cannot be applied to pregnant women I Body builders people with muscle who weigh more are skewed on the BMI chart APPETITE 0 Hunger response to physiological need 0 Hypothalamus 39Ghrelin opposes weight loss impact of sleep 0 Ie sleep deprived people eat more 0 Can occur without hunger 0 APPETITE AND ITS CONTROL 0 Stop signals 39Hormones and sensory nerve messages 39Satiation 0 Various organs APPETITE AND ITS CONTROL CONT 39Satiety 0 Regulates frequency of meals 39Leptin adipokine hormone stop signal 0 Meal composition 0 Protein amp fat 391 and 2 things that help you feel satisfied after eating THEORIES OF OBESITY 0 Setpoint theory 0 Body organs regulate body fatness 0 If you lose weight your body makes adjustments to get back to the set point 0 Thermogenesis 0 Brown adipose tissue BAT 0 More brown fat V white fat tendency to gain more 0 Genetics and obesity 0 In uence tendency to gain weight or stay lean 0 Environmental factors OUTSIDE THE BODY THEORIES OVEREATING 0 External cues to overeating 0 Available foods 0 Human sensations 0 Larger portions 0 Food supply 0 Addictive I Dopamine 0 Physical inactivity 0 More efficient ways of life require less physical labor 0 Neighborhoods 0 National goals to slow or reverse obesity epidemic 1 Make physical activity a routine way of life 2 Make healthy food choices available everywhere BODY LOSES AND GAINS WEIGHT 0 Tissue lost or gain 0 Water 0 Fat or muscle 0 Gradual weight loss 12 Ibs week 0 Fasting O Sacrifices lean tissues 0 Ketosis 0 Breakdown of fat molecules BODY FAT CANNOT BE CONVERTED TO GLUCOSE PROTEIN CAN BE CONVERTED TO GLUCOSE O Ketone particles can feed but prefers not to GAIN WEIGHT 0 Energy yielding nutrients contribute to body stores 0 Four sources 39Alcohol 0 Two types of energy stores 0 Excess of any food will become fat