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IntroductionCognitive Psych

by: Faye Kemmer

IntroductionCognitive Psych PSYC 105

Faye Kemmer

GPA 3.85


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Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Faye Kemmer on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 105 at University of California - San Diego taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/226814/psyc-105-university-of-california-san-diego in Psychlogy at University of California - San Diego.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
The Modal Model of memory Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 Waugh amp Norman 1965 3 modes of memory based on capacity how much coding what is stored and duration how long sensory memory several seconds at most Long term shortterm memory memow a minute or two at most 31631 indefinitely if continually rehearsed Jennie 5643868 longterm memory from minutes to a lifetime Rehearsal Storage Retrieval Information Sensory Short term Response memory memory w W x WW Jane 751 0579 qquot Serial Position curves in freerecall an example of short and longterm memory primacy effect better memory for words from the start of the list clue to longterm memory more rehearsal on these words recency effect better memory for words from the end of the list clue to shortterm memory or sensory memory M 100 1 Table 11 Kitten 2 Candle 12 Doorknob E 3 Maple 13 Folder 3 4 Subway 14 Concrete 5 Pencil 15 Railroad 8 50 3 Coffee 16 Doctor 7 Towel 17 Sunshine 8 Softball 18 Letter 9 Curtain 19 Turkey 40 10 Player 20 Hammer 5 0 I I I I I 1 5 1 0 1 5 20 Table Pencil Player Railroad Hammer Serial position 1A 1B Sensory Memory closely tied to perception you continue to seehearfeelsmelltaste something after it s gone this is true of all sensory modalities S D F G P W H J X C V N The Icon vision iconic memory Sperling 1960 showed brief 50 ms displays of letters to be reported whole report could only report 4 or 5 letters of the 12 38 partial report if told aftenlvards by a tone which row to report high middle low they could report 3 of the 4 75 this says that at least 75 of the letters were in the icon memory faded too quickly to report 75 of the letters in whole report delays between the offset of the display and the cue determine how long the icon lasts partial report based upon vowels versus consonants is no better than whole report the information in the icon is relatively unprocessed partial report using visual characteristics report the red letters is better than whole report presenting different visual material immediately following a display can mask erase the icon metacontrast masking mask doesn t need to be in the same exact location The Echo hearing echoic memory using a foureared listening task the same partial report advantage exists cueing is achieved with four lights cueing with sound masks the echo suffix effect worse recall of spoken digits when cued with digit compared to a beep In general sensory memory capacity can store a large amount coding modality specific unprocessed duration around a second or less Usually sensory memory is positive what you saw is what you remember however too much exposure can actually cause sensory memory to be negative aftenmage Shortterm Memory STM People can only remember up to 7 items in a new sequence plus or minus 2 Miller it doesn t matter what the items are numbers letters words this limitation is referred to as the capacity of STM it s also called memory span correlates with IQ test scores and other cognitive measures memory span can be increased by chunking together groups of objects recoding based on meaning NFLCBSRAMTV information is coded acoustically confusions made between letters than sound alike B and G but not between letters that look alike B and F Similar sounding words are difficult but similar meaning is not STM only last about 20 seconds Brown Peterson task people are shown a trigram BKG and then start counting backwards by threes after 20 seconds of counting the trigram is forgotten if allowed to rehearse the trigram it can be retained in STM indefinitely phone number example forgetting in STM could be due to decay of the memory trace interference when the information is displaced by other information proactive interference old information interferes with the learning of new information retroactive interference new information interferes with the retention of old information Waugh and Norman 1965 found that forgetting in STM is due to interference not decay after viewing up to 16 digits one at a time the last digit tells you which previous digit to report the one that came after the previous occurrence eg shown 15965 respond 9 same forgetting for 1 second per number as 4 seconds per number 1390 55 Rm with 4 seconds per 08 1 per second number there would 0 6 quotquot be greater decay but 39 O the same interference 04 3 r o s 02 35 0 I I I I I I i5 o I l 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Number of interfering items 139 Wickens et al 1963 found more evidence of interference in the BrownPeterson task they included trials with numbers and others with letters a switch after 4th trial to new class of stimuli release from proactive interference 80 Numbers gquot New Class H 70 Lettels quot J material Q r E 0 E 50 g 40 Numbers Old Class E 30 material 1 73 20 Letters no 10 0 I I I I I I I I I I 0 1 2 4 5 b 9 10 Time to Search msec Sternberg looked at retrieval from STM participants memorized sequences of possible targets memory set reaction times suggested a serial exhaustive search parallel search predicts no effect of memory set two kinds of serial search selfterminating stop once you find the target B exhaustive continue through all the items C No YesNo 7 Yes o o o o o oYesNo m m E E 11 Q1 E E llllll Fiiiiii Fiiiiii 0123456 0123456 0123456 Size oir memory set Size of memory set Size of memory set A B C Sternberg results only apply to unordered independent stimuli DeRosa and Tkacz 1976 observed parallel search with different stimuli Stimulus VPU 1 rdlnnl Pnsllinn 4 v kk i i F WWWWW ql 3 mg m 33 l fLI39q 47 1quot Kiltth J9 J2 Working Memory a breakdown of STM into separate components Central executive Visuospatial sketch pad Phonological loop phonological loop a 2 second loop of recorded speech memory span is actually less than 7 for longer words explains why there are confusions based on sound explains why verbal STM search is serial exhaustive visuospatial sketch pad STM for visual spatial information change blindness flicker paradigm imagery and mental rotation central executive controls what gets into phonological loop and sketch pad filters out unwanted distracting stimuli dichotic listening Stroop effect allows in task relevant stimuli visual search maintains task goals and objectives LTM and Working Memory in the brain HippocampusAmygdala and LongTerm Memory LTM lesions to these areas result in anterograde amnesia unable to form new longterm memories can still retrieve memories from before brain damage preserved STM this is different than retrograde amnesia the inability to retrieve old memories usually some retrograde amnesia is associated with anterograde amnesia the time period just before the injury is forgotten Frontal lobes and specifically prefrontal cortex important for working memory tasks easily distracted unable to ignoreinhibit irrelevant stimuli 1011 J0 1591 PUP Uqu maqu 91m 119911 sIeu Is sumguml pm tmpumq SP LPHS 11103 Bugds 51101131111 UJIA SIOJJUOJ L HHPQ W Enquup pun a un uq LII PaAOAU 05p imaLuaAOIU pamuypjoos slmmoa umnaquaf Irouoma pun AJOUIQLU mmual U PQAIOAUI sndtuesoddyH UOISSQJ E PUP Uououra AJOLHQIU L11 PQA0AU BIBPSLuv uouotua U paqmu 05w Bsnom 311x95 pun aJnJeJadtuaJ Jsmp Ja nnq mpnpm suouamg my qqu aysuq salqn aj snquBLpodAH AJOIUQIU HI PaAOAUI 05p CHOIJBLUJOJUI AJosuas JOJ HOUR 15 73ngme snumImLL Frontal lobes and Working Memory prefrontal cortex Stroop effect PET study Executive attention N V Cingulatc gyms AQ quot 39 gt I A 1 V k quott n 39 a i 1 lax L 1 J Space Visual m icming Xmxla szuul fcnluru delayed response test prefrontal lesions cause an inability to perform delayed response test 4 i location changes randomly fz q across trials requires maintenance of most recent location normal in associative memory task consistently rewarded object WORKING MEMORY TASK WRONG RIG HT DELAV ASSOCIATIVE MEMOHV TASK RESPONSE If quotquot quot DELAY CUE AND RESPONSE 7 39 77 RIGHT WRONG delayed covert attention single cell recording memory field cells in prefrontal cortex fire during the delay before the monkey moves his eyes to the cued loca on TIME 2 TIME 3 RESPONSE


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