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Aerospace Engineering Design I

by: Tevin Aufderhar

Aerospace Engineering Design I MAE 155A

Tevin Aufderhar

GPA 3.52


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Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tevin Aufderhar on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAE 155A at University of California - San Diego taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/226816/mae-155a-university-of-california-san-diego in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at University of California - San Diego.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
12610 MAE 155A Lecture 4 Refined Sizing Initial and Refined Sizing Raymer39s refined sizing method includes more detailed models for empty weight fraction and for mission segments The empty weight fraction estimate depends upon takeoff weight W0 aspect ratio A thrusttoweight TNVO wing loading WUS and maximum speed MW Vmax Missions now may include payload drops and timed segments The 50 takeoff weight estimate W M a 030 W0 me Wpayloml W0 1 warm W0 W0 We z 045 W0 W W W W new payload new payload W0 4 W ew melmd 0 1 030 045 025 39 UCSD z 12610 Refined Sizing Equation Include dropped payload and absolute not fractional fuel weight We W0 me W xedpaylmd deppedpayimd W Ael W W0 0 Fuel weight is computed separately for each mission segment between segment i1 and i W W W171 W 1 W1 VVP1 W weight offuel used WM 1062W 143 i UCSD 3 Dropped Payload A dropped payload segment represents a discrete change in airplane weight Include the dropped payload at the correct place within the overall mission weight a er drop affects fuel useage in later mission segments A specific weight value is computed at the end of each mission segment Start with W0 for i x W WH Wdlappedpayladd or W WH W i UCSD 4 12610 Terminal Mission Segments Engine Start Taxi and Takeoff 0970 to 0990 W 1 Climb and Accelerate starting from M 01 10065 00325M 10991 0007M 001MZ VVLel W14 suosonic supersonic Descent for Landing W 0990 to 0995 Wet Landing and Taxi W 0992 to 0997 Wet i UCSD a Cr uise Mission Segments The cruise mission segments are treated as before 39 t LV expiRC Je ange Wm WUD c speciric fuel consumption to lilHordrag ratio v airspee propeiier ef ciency W RC up propeller exp w Wm 77p L D However we39ll now use the aircraft39s drag polar to specify LD o dynamic pressure 0 saw a atrnospneric density a irspeed cm zero in drag coerricient WS Wll lg ioading e Oswald s efficiency factor i UCSD 12610 Loi fer39 and Timed Segments Loiter mission segments come from endurance expressions Jet 7 exp E endur 41 L D C speci c fuel consumption LID lifttodrag ratio V airspee np propeller ef ciency propeller Wi exp EVCpower W 11pL D Fuel used during a timed segment is found from the definition of specific fuel consumption C speci c fuel consumption W 1 C T d TW thrusttoweight ratio i d time duration of segment WH UCSD Combat Mission Segments Combat legs might be specified by a number of sustained turns If we need to complete 39X39 360 degree turns the required change in heading angle is my mp x27r Aitpx2nx2n d 11 Al Al d V 112 instantaneous 21Vx turn rate IFin4 d 2 from Lecture 3 V g n 1 d time to complete turns x number ofturns n load factor 9 gravity dwdt turn rate V airspeed 39 UCSD 12610 Load Factor in Turns The load factor may be limited by stall conditions or by structural limits Thrustto weight ratio is set by combat weight and thrust n s nmax structural limit 7 T L Liar W B T D n S LICme stall limit W S o The lifttodrag ratio now includes load factor Be sure to change e or maybe even A if the airplane changes its configuration for combat q dynamic pressure 05pV2 p atmospheric density 1 V airspeed D C W n CDEI zero lift drag coef cient M i 7 WIS wing loading nW S S qrrAe A aspect ratio e Oswald39s ef ciency factor n load factor UCSD Empty Weight Fraction Jets W2 W0 a 17W0C1AC2TW0 C3W0 SC4M fx fps units Aircraft Type a b C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Jet Trainer 0 428 010 010 020 024 011 Jet Fighter 002 216 010 0 20 004 010 008 Military Cargol 007 171 010 010 006 010 005 Bomber Jet Transport 032 066 013 0 30 006 005 0 05 frame a 1 Raymer D F39 Aircraft Design zuua UCSD Empty Weigh l39 Fraction Props W2 W0 abW0C1AC2hpW0C3W0 SC4vmi fps units Aircra Type a b C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Unpowered 0 076 0 05 014 0 030 006 Sailplane Powered Sailplane 0 1 21 0 04 014 019 020 005 MetalWood 0 071 010 0 05 010 005 017 Homebuill Composite 0 069 010 0 05 010 005 017 Homebuill Single Engine GA 0 25 118 0 20 0 08 005 005 027 Twin Engine GA 0 90 1 36 010 0 08 005 005 020 Agricultural 0 1 67 014 0 07 010 010 011 Twin Turboprop 0 37 0 09 0 06 0 08 008 005 030 Flying Boat 0 042 0 01 010 005 012 018 frame E 2 Raymer D F39 Aircraft Design ZEIEIE UCSD 11 Summary of Refined Sizing Estimate aerodynamic parameters 39 A CD0 er CLrnax Evalute performance constraints TNV0 and WOIS Compute weight changes and fuel useage in a typical mission Guess W0 and work through mission segments to yield WW Empty weight fraction expression WeNV0 functionW0 A TNVO WOIS Mmax or Vmax Compute takeoff weight W me W W10 WM 0 1 W2W0 Use carpet plots to consider options and evaluate design sensitivity UCSD 12 12610 12610 Defining the Airplane The airplane quottakes shapequot after the empty weight has been computed What we know about the shape of the wing aspect ratio has been chosen CLmaX is related to sweep angle and choice of highIi devices reference area is known from wingloading S W0 WOS What we know about the engines assumed engine type speci es fuel consumption C or CPDW engine thrust is known from thrusttoweight T T Slngle englne T multlnerlglrle Nngm rename thrust for orle engine N number of engines i UCSD 3 First Cut at Fuselage Length fuselage lengthaWoC mils Airciall Type a c Urlpowered Sailplane 0 86 0 48 Powered Sailplane 0 7i 0 48 MetalWood Homebullt 3 68 0 23 Composlte Homebullt 3 50 0 23 Slrlgle Engine GA 4 37 0 23 Twlrl Erlglrle GA 0 86 0 42 Agrlcultural 4 04 0 23 Min Turboprop 0 37 0 5i Flylrlg Boat l 05 0 40 Jet Tralrler 0 79 0 M Jet Flghter 0 93 0 39 Mllltary CargoBomber 0 23 0 50 Jet Transport 0 67 0 43 Table 6 a Raymen D P Airman Design 2mg i UCSD i4 12610 Tail Surfaces Alater lecture on stability and control will provide a detailed explanation of horizontal and vertical tail sizing For now i is suf cient to set tail surface size using historical data S cwbwsw VT Lw SET cmawsw HT emcaltail area emcai tail vulume an Wing area islance 1mm wwgiuvr iUCSD Yahie l mm D 7 micia besivn mus l5 Con rr ol Surfaces t m 0 anu ruuuer 39 quot ofthe Is ie a associated tai ce hinge lines follow a llrie ofconstant percent chord see table Ailerons are either longandthin or shortandwide mam1mm D 7 Aiicia DeSivn 2cm mm D V WWW 2m owlc elevaluvchum as nememage uwr chum We rudder chum aspevcemage ulVTchum i UCSD l a


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