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Logic and Decision Making

by: Selena Stehr

Logic and Decision Making PHIL 12

Selena Stehr

GPA 3.61

William Bechtel

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William Bechtel
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selena Stehr on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 12 at University of California - San Diego taught by William Bechtel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/226822/phil-12-university-of-california-san-diego in PHIL-Philosophy at University of California - San Diego.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
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infer from mow ng that something is a bird 39 e What are sorne things we interfrom someone is a conVicted feion Multiple category schemes But there is not a right way to categorize the things we can see Different category schemes result in different knowledge claims Scientific progress often occurs as a result of recategorizing something 39 The sun andlmoqrywere once considered planets 39 What Bigge ned when we 7 Changed the categorf Humanswere not always grouped with primate 1 g 1 What changed when such a grouping was made Delineating the phenomenon The way in which we categorize phenomena provides our cognitive handle on it The way We think about it The questions we ask about it The inveS tijgation siwe conduct The we me it Categorize these how many ways can you do it ec CbECA a a B bA a B l C E Bab L l C 1 C E e E Be C EA A E C Categorizing by letter A 6 9e aA bb C 1 EB CC 6 v a B c EE 139 aA Eb C E B cc E I E E Categorizing by Color Ee BAc sAbcEquot C EEE cCrl Eaecab A C bAE 3 Capitals vs lowercase eCEC caa M F 54 Categories and names We tend to put things into categories for which we have names But categonesdo n otyhaver to be nameable V speakers I W ch they want or need to say something The categories available to us39in our langu g though limit what we ca 39 4 say 39 And what we can makergeneralizatigns39about Perfectly good categories but no names c C eAc t c b a B a a 39 bJ B B E a e I C B E a b C 4 BE E e E A CA E C Categorize these apes Categorized by species Species differences not always obvious Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus only differentiated in the 19305 my 4 H 41 3 v 39 Matata 39 2 Categorized by mode of language training Discovering new categories Afrequentfirststep ir i deveinping serentme inquiry is tn deiirreatea panicdiar set at pnenumena tn study CDiiSidEr vitamins 7 Tuday mgy g g me a very naturai category Aithuugh mam bed ie h avem eiu e What they e 39rVIXe buy them and take them iwhe e r member Delineating Vitamins mine 19 EEnmry nu CINE knew abuut vitamins Lirrmrg diseasetu germs was itseif a radicai and very untruvarsiai idEa r SENmEiWEIs iU5 nisiub mr rEEumm inQ ih t ductnrs wash Mair arr s e quoteri Erfurming autnpsies arrg issii mg in mid birth 7 uw peupie put up statues in his nunnr Afterwards aii diseases were treated as duEtU arms 7 Eutwe suii have tn remirrdpecnpiiz abDuLtnEmi Delineating Vitamins 2 Eutfur same diseases nu germs bamerra uuid be fudnd Ricke39ts Eerrberr Eut Eventuaiiy it Was recug uuid be prevented With ve i ad i diet rrrzedtiratthe dis39 3 ry smai 39 US Delineating Vitamins These diseases were still a mystery Foods were assumed to either be incorporated into the tissue ofthe organism orto be burned for energy The amouht o vitamins required made these unctions improbable But at this stage the category had been established Vitamins as substances that aretrequired 39n minute quantities in the diet and which are hot burned or used to build tissue Scientists could now inquire into What role they 39 play Data from observations Although predictions against which hypotheses are tested involve individual entities or events it is the entities or events as categorized that serve as evidence in science It is critical to develop appropriate categories to use in reportingieiIidence and formulating hypotheses Frequent issue to split record each different model of car to lump count each different model of car as a car Exclusive and exhaustive categories Establish categories sot39hat each item ts into a category exhaus jve Establish categories so no items ts into two categories exclusive Lac g How do animals spend their days Develop a coding system for animal behavior an ethogram f head down fo39raging r rearing upon tvlio le39gs while foraging standing quadrupedally and looking c standing adrupedally and looking While ch39ewing u standing bipedally and looking while chewing w walking or other locomotion x other behavior 0 out of sight How do UCSD undergraduates spend their days What would be the userul categones to develop a proflle of how students spend thelrtlmev 0n thelo lrltrarlslt Get exerclsesquot u Work for pay ll l class Off lrlesludng asslgrlrllerlts 0nllnestudyrelass asslgnments Orlrllrlelriersonal Tasks of dally llvlng Eat On the telephonecellphone RelaxSoclallze Start Flrllsrl Hierarchical organization In political contexts hierarchy refers to power relations In taxonomy it simply refers to the inclusion ofmore speci c categoriesinto39rnore general ones What39is true of the more general categories is true of each of the subcategories within it 39 Providesra powerful way oforganizjng and keeping track of information Lac g Categorizing by letter again A E C e e a 39 a h C c e 5 3 a a B n c C E E t a A n b C e e B e c E I E E Highlevel category A e e I c h a E 5 c c h a 5 3 E E c C B 5 a A e C n b 717 E c c B Representing taxonomy in trees Htghemevet ategunes typmatty represented abuve me mare speeme catagunes Wm hnes representmg retatmnsmps


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