PSYX 233 Intelligence, Reasoning, Creativity, and Wisdom
PSYX 233 Intelligence, Reasoning, Creativity, and Wisdom PSYX 233 - 01
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PSYX 233 - 01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 233 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Christa Marie Neuman (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Fund of Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Intelligence Reasoning Creativity and Wisdom 15 October 20 October The lifespan view same life span concepts as chapter 1 O O O Multidimensionalitv many abilities that underlie intelligence I Emotional vs mathematical vs musical intelligence Multidirectionality many possible ways people developchange over the lifespan I Socioeconomic status education health etc Plasticity range which one s abilities are modifiable Individual variability people differ from each other Primary abilities Researching intelligence 00000 0 Numerical faculty math reasoning Word fluency verbal descriptions Verbal meaning vocabulary ability Inductive reasoning extrapolating from particular facts to general concepts Spatial orientationreason with 3D environments Verbal memory storerecall meaningful language units Pragmatic intelligence acquired bodies of knowledge available from and embedded within culture 0 Intelligence seen as a hierarchy of skills Measuring Intelligence OOO Psychometric approach performance on standardized tests Cognitive structural approach quality and style of thought Informationprocessing approach All of these use Factor Analyses identifies structures that underlie the relations among a set of observed variables I Transforms correlations among observed variables into smaller number of underlying factors that contain information about linear interrelationships I Statistical procedure involved relationship between observed variables and underlying latent factors Fluid and Crystallized intelligence both present to some extent in intelligence tests 0 O Fluid intelligence flexible and adaptive drawing inferences independent of acquired knowledge and experience I Solving mazes puzzles series brainteasers Crystallized intelligence acquired through life experience and education in a particular culture I Trivia definitions historical facts literature etc Personality and stress play a role in cognitive decline 0 Neuroticism associated with frequent negative emotions therefore a decline in the limbic system People with flexible attitudes at midlife experience less decline in intellectual competence Piaget adaptation through activity emerging from increased complex cognitive structure 0 O Adaptation adjusting thinking to the environment Organization reflected in cognitive structure that change across lifespan coordinating thought Assimilation using currently available knowledge to make sense of incoming info I Using dog for all four legged animals I Force fitting into knowledge to make sense of Accommodation changing one s thought to make it a better approximation of the world of experience I Differentiation between cat and dog Four stages of development and cognitive structures 1 Sensorimotor period babies gain knowledge through sensory and motor skills 2 Preoperational children young object egocentricism not logical thought period permanence 3 Concrete operational period logical reasoning unable to deal with abstract ideas love 4 Formal operational period all adult thought hypothesis testing unconstrained by reality problem solving oriented very systematic a Only 6075 adolescents can solve formal operational problems b Only 30 adults complete transition to formal operational thought c Recent research suggests that formal thought isn t frequently used in older adults 5 Postformal thought adulthood recognition that truth varies based on situation only reasonable solutions are realistic ones ambiguity and contradiction are the rule rather than the exception emotion and subjective factors usually play a role in thinking a Scientific method b Never complete objectivity c Mature thinkers understand many perspectives of an issue i Also called dialectic thinking ii Merit different viewpoints able to synthesize into a workable solution Reflective judgement how a person reasons through dilemmas involving moral issues current affairs religion science etc o Kitchener and King 7 stages I Prereflective thought 0 Stage 1 knowledge exists concretely beliefs need no justification 0 Stage 2 knowledge is certain but obtained through direct observation or authority beliefs are often unjustified 0 Stage 3 knowledge is obtained mostly by authorities beliefs are justified by personal opinion when unjustified by authority s views I Quasireflective thought 0 Stage 4 knowledge is uncertain and always ambiguous beliefs are justified by idiosyncratic evidence 0 Stage 5 knowledge is subjective beliefs are justified by context specific evidence and personal experienceinterpretation I Reflective thought 0 Stage 6 knowledge is based on information from a variety of sources beliefs are justified by comparing empirical evidence 0 Stage 7 knowledge comes from reasonable evidence beliefs are based on complete plausible understanding of an issue 0 Reflective judgement increases with age impacted by education occupation exposure to diversity etc I Optimal level of development highest level of informationprocessing capacity of which a person is capable I Skill acquisition gradual process by which people learn new abilities Thinking three different categories 0 Absolutist thinking believing there is only one correct solution to problems and that personal experience provides truth 0 Relativistic thinking realizing there are many sides to an issue the right answer depends on the circumstance o Dialectical thinking see the merit in different viewpoints and are able to synthesize them into a workable solution I Produces strong commitment and a definite plan of action Integrating emotion and logic much research based on people s solutions to realworld problems LabouvieVief adults make choices not so much on logical grounds but on pragmatic emotional social grounds Mature thinkers realize thinking is a social phenomenon that demands making compromises and tolerating ambiguitycontradiction I Sense of self 0 Denny s model two types of developmental functions 0 Unexercised ability the ability a normal healthy adult would exhibit without practice or training fluid intelligence I Doesn t depend on experience Optimally exercised ability ability a normal healthy adult would exhibit under the best condition of training or practice crystallized intelligence such as vocabulary ability 0 Creativity Based on personalpast experience 0 Novel high demand task appropriate must be practical 0 Output tends to increase through 305 peak in 405 decline after 0 White matter Connecting distant brain regions and coordinate cognitive control more apparent in creative people 0 Declines in expert performance not nearly as great as information processing memory and fluid intelligence decline 0 Wisdom 0 Important and difficult matters of life and the human condition 0 Truly superior knowledge judgement or advice 0 Knowledge with extraordinary scope depth balance that is applicable to specific situations 0 Well intended and combines mind and virtue character