FIRST YR JAPANESE I
FIRST YR JAPANESE I JAPAN 1
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Controlling Air Emissions f1 Anthony Fournier Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management University of California Santa Barbara February 2006 Work supervised by Professor Charles D Kolstad kolstadbrenucsbedu and supported by the UC Institute for Global Con ict and Cooperation o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Table of Contents List of Figures and Tables Acronyms in Executive Summary V 1 Int 39 39 1 II 39 g 39 3 A The Role of Marine m 39 g 3 B Marine Vessels 4 C Marine Propulsion amp Power 7 D Operational Costs for Ocean going Vessels 10 E Flag states 11 F Shipping Industry 14 G Trade Distribution 14 H Forecasted trends 15 I quot 39 16 1 Sensitive receptors 17 2 Oxides of Nitrogen NOX 17 2 Particulate Matter PM 18 3 Sulfur Oxides SOX 19 4 Volatile Organic Compounds VOC 20 J Impacts of Marine 39 39 21 III Emission Control T 39 39 g 29 A In engine and operational modi cations 29 B Water based controls 32 C After treatment on board controls 36 D Shore side controls 38 E Fuel quot 39 39 g 41 IV g 39 quot 43 A International Maritime Organization IMO 43 B United States 49 C European Union 50 D California 51 E Asia 52 F Canada 53 V Non Regulatory Emission Control 39 54 A Voluntary Incentive based Approaches 54 B Multi Modal Emission Reduction Plans 57 C Business Initiated Emission Reduction Tools 62 D Information Sharing Groups 63 E Legal Action 64 VI C 39 39 66 Appendix A 68 Appendix B 70 Appendix C 72 Appendix D 73 Works Cited 75 Problems and Opportunities o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 List of Figgres and Tables Figure 1 Vessel Traffic 7 January 2006 Figure 2 World Maritime Freight Waterways Figure 3 Major Oceangoing Vessel Types Figure 4 Total 2004 US port calls by a region and b vessel type Figure 5 Open Registries Figure 6 Typical Exhaust Gas Compn itinn Figure 7 California Shipping Activity Figure 8 Port of Los Angeles Ship Activity Figure 9 Santa Barbara a shipping lanes and b California Coastal Waters Figure 10 Santa Barbara County NOx F Forecast Figure 11 Conventional vs Slide Valve Design Figure 12 Design Principle of EGR T 39 39 Figure 13 HAM System Figure 14 Pressurized Fuel Oil System with Homogeniser Figure 15 Direct Water Injection 39 Wartsila Figure 16 Example of SCR con guration Figure 17 EcoSilencer Scrubbing System and Water Treatment Skid from DME Figure 18 Cold Ironed Ship Schematic Figure 19 ACTI AMEC Ground based system Figure 20 Annex VI Signatory Nations Figure 21 IMO NOx Curve Table 1 Marine Vessel Types 7 12 17 22 24 25 26 30 32 33 34 35 36 38 39 41 45 47 6 Table 2 Main and Auxiliary Engine Characteristics for Various Vessel Sizes Table 3 Main and Auxiliary Engine Operating Parameters Table 4 Sulfur Content Fuel Type Compari on Table 5 Annual Vessel Operation and Support Costs Table 6 Negative Performance Indicators for Flag Nations Table 7 Top 10 Most Important Maritime Countries amp Territories 1104 Table 8 Projected Growth in US Trade Volumes Tonnes Through 2020 Table 9 2004 Oceangoing Vessel Emissions by Type Table 10 California Oceangoing Vessel Emission Estimates TPD Table 11 California Growth Rates by Vessel Types Table 12 2001 Emission Inventory by Port Emission Source Category TPY Table 13 Estimated Onboard Power Requirements for Selected Vessels Table 14 2006 Top 10 IMO Budgetary Member Contributor Table 15 IMO Annex VI Signatory Nations as of 123105 Table 16 IMO Annex VI NOx Limits Table 17 EPA Marine Engine Categories Table 18 No Net Increase Oceangoing Vessel OGV Control Measures Problems and Opportunities ii 10 61 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 IOPC ISO kW MARAD MARPOL ME Problems and Opportunities Acronms American Bureau of Shipping Advanced Cleanup Technologies Inc Auxiliary Engine Advanced Marine Emission Control System Alternative Marine Power Atlantic Merchant Vessel Emergency Response California Air Resources Board Association of SouthEast Asian Nations ARB Air Toxic Control Measure Board of Harbor Commissioners British Maritime Technology Business for Social Responsibility EPA Category 1 Engine EPA Category 2 Engine EPA Category 3 Engine California Air Resources Board California Environmental Quality Act Chloro uorocarbons Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa Direct Water Injection Dead Weight Tonnage ofa vessel European Commission Exhaust Gas Recirculation Engine International Air Pollution Prevention Certi cate Environmental Impact Report United States Environmental Protection Agency European Union General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gulf Cooperation Council Humid Air Motor Hydrochloro uorocarbons Heavy Fuel Oil International Air Pollution Prevention Certi cate Intermediate Fuel Oil International Labor Organization International Maritime Organization International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics International Organization for Standardization Kilowatt Kilowatt hour United States Department of Transportation Maritime Division IMO Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships Main Engine iii o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 MEPC MERCOSUR MGMC MOU NAFTA NGO NNI NOAA NOx NPV NRDC ODS OECD OGV PAH PCB PM PMSA PoLA PoLB PPm PVC ROG SBCAPCD SCAQMD SCR SEAaT SECA SEK UNCLOS UNCTD US DOT USCG VOC VSRP Problems and Opportunities IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee South American Common Market Maritime Good Movement Coalition Memorandum of Understanding North American Free Trade Agreement Non governmental Organization PoLA No Net Increase Plan US National Oceanic amp Atmospheric Administration Oxides of Nitrogen Net Present Value Natural Resource Defense Council Ozone Depleting Substance Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Ocean Going Vessel Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyls Particulate Matter Paci c Merchant Shipping Association Port of Los Angeles Port of Long Beach Parts per million Polyvinyl chlorides Residual Oil Reactive Organic Gases Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District South Coast Air Quality Management District Selective Catalytic Reduction Shipping Emissions Abatement and Trading SOx Emission Control Area Swedish Krona Currency Speci c Fuel Consumption Swedish Maritime Association California State Implementation Plan Sulfur Oxides Toxic Air Contaminants Twentyfoot equivalent unit Total Organic Gases Tons per day Tons per year United Nations United Nations Law of the Sea United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United States Department of Transportation United States Coast Guard Volatile Organic Compounds Voluntary Speed Reduction Program o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Executive Summary Around the world ports are considered areas of high activity and revenue generation that serve as a primary point of entry for international goods and a point of departure for exports They are also notorious for being major sources of air pollution and will continue to be seen as such in the near future The reason that ports will remain a major threat to air quality is that marine vessels the largest source of air pollution operating in the area are part of a dynamic ourishing complex international industry that has been operating for centuries and has just recently begun to be subject to emission control regulations While ports are the most Visible receptors of the emissions generated by marine vessels they are not the only areas that are impacted from these activities as several studies have shown that coastal regions also feel the impact of shipping emissions transported onshore An estimated 85 of ship traffic occurs in the northern hemisphere and 70 of that is within 400 km from land IMO 2000 Each one of these marine vessels can have power capacities similar to power plants and operate Virtually free of emission controls while on shore power plants are subject to permit monitoring recordkeeping and enforcement penalties Marine vessel engines are remarkably well designed as they remain in service for decades and are able to burn the cheapest lowest quality fuel available While this is good from an operational standpoint an uncontrolled engine burning low quality fuel for decades is a nightmare for air quality and public health in any region that the vessel serves The shipping industry is extremely competitive and financially sensitive to disruptions in its routine as delays in service could cost millions of dollars The competitive nature of the industry has driven many ship owners to operate under ags of convenience that are well known for their leniency in implementing and enforcing international maritime legislation The economic growth of developing nations has increased international trade volumes and has also created a demand for larger ships size and capacity with larger engines Economists are forecasting a doubling or tripling of trade volumes in some areas which will bring with it an increase in vessel traffic and air emissions threatening the ability of local communities to meet and maintain healthbased air quality standards Within the past few decades the technologies have been developed for controlling emissions from marine vessels and the major engine f ack 39 Ag that it is 39 39 39 39 feasible to achieve much greater emission reductions than the newly adopted international standards will provide There needs to be some form of motivation to create more of an interest from the maritime shipping industry in implementing these technologies on their vessels That motivation could be voluntary or regulatory in nature and most likely will be a mixture of both in order to be effective International cooperation on this issue needs to increase and regulators and policy makers need to realize that economic growth and environmental protection are not mutually exclusive issues and accept the challenge and responsibility mitigating the air quality impacts of increasing trade volumes Problems and Opportunities V o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 I Introduction Ocean going marine vessels represent one of the largest most dif cult to regulate sources of air pollution in the world and are also an essential component of the international trade and goods movement process These vessels are similar to oating power plants in terms of power and would surely be subject to stricter regulations had their emissions been generated onshore An estimated 85 of ship traf c occurs in the northern hemisphere and 70 of that is within 400 km from land IMO 2000 Figure 1 is an image of the marine vessel traf c for January of 2006 recorded by the United States Coast Guard s USCG voluntary computer based ship reporting system AMVER This image shows the global scale of shipping activities and the highest density shipping lanes for January 2006 Figure 1 Vessel Traf c 7 January 2006 Each colored dot displayed on the chart approximates a onedegree cell 60 minutes of titude by 60 la minutes of longitude and is a monthly approximation of vessel traffic density Source USCG AMVER system over 50 15 49 5 14 4 orfewer No I vessels I vessels I vessels I vessels D vessels These ships are an important link in the international system of goods movement and are increasing in size and power Due largely to the rapid economic development in countries in Asia the cargo that is transported on these ships is expected to double or triple in some areas by 2020 The emissions generated from these vessels threaten the air quality and public health in the communities surrounding ports in coastal communities in regions along inland waterways and even inland areas through emissions transport As the economies of developing countries mature their roles in world markets begin to increase As these nations develop resources and skilled labor they begin to attract trading partners and investors International trade policies also has an impact on the magnitude of trade and the demands and expectations placed on the modes ie airplanes vessels locomotives trucks of goods movement An example of the in uence is the removal of textile and clothing quotas Atlantic Merchant Vessel Emergency Response AMVER System Developed by the USCG and used primarily for tracking vessels for potential search and rescue missions Problems and Opportunities 1 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 1105 that increased China s textile imports to the US by about 60 during the first ve months of 2005 Other factors that also have a strong in uence on goods movement are Natural disasters the threat of rapidly spreading epidemics ie avian u SARS etc security concerns foreign relations labor unions and fuel costs As an example of the complex international nature of the industry a seemingly simple transaction between two companies in different nations could involve people and property from a dozen different nations The vessel could have been built in Korea registered in Panama owned by a Greek businessman chartered to a Danish operator who employs a Filipino crew through a crewing agent in Cyprus insured in the UK transports German cargo in the name of a Swiss freight forwarder from a Dutch port to Argentina through terminals that are leased to port operators from Hong Kong and Australia Kumar and Hoffman 2003 The complexity of the shipping industry and the numerous international stakeholders involved in every shipment shows that the most effective policy would be developed with a good understanding of the industry and international relationships involved This paper is intended to be used as an overview of the shipping industry the pollution generated by ocean going vessels and will summarize efforts being undertaken around the world in an attempt to control these emissions This paper will begin with background information on the shipping industry oceangoing vessels and the air quality impacts presented by ocean going vessels This will be followed by an analysis of several control methods that can effectively reduce the air quality impact presented by these ships Finally the paper will conclude with a summary of the regulatory and policy efforts in place and being developed around the world to control marine shipping emissions Problems and Opportunities 2 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 11 Background A The Role of Marine Shipping The international marine transport of goods is responsible for roughly 90 of world trade As of January 1 2005 there were 46222 merchant vessels 597709000 gross tons involved in international trade registered under the ags of over 150 nations In 2003 the total goods loaded transported cargo tonnage exceeded 6 billion tons for the rst time ever In 2002 worldwide international trade related maritime freight payments exceeded 400 billion roughly 6 of the value of the goods imported Oceangoing vessels are responsible for carrying more than 90 of all goods imported into the US while maritime commerce contributes over 78 billion annually and generates nearly 16 million jobs NOAA 1998 The United States has about 133 ports that are capable of handling vessels of 10000 DWTll or greater The ports of Los Angeles PoLA and Long Beach PoLB combine to form the world s third largest port complex in the world behind only Hong Kong and Singapore with 2003 container volumes of 661 million and 466 million TEUlll UNCTD 2004 respectively The rest of the top ve US ports by both vessel calls and capacity are the ports of Houston New York New Orleans and San Francisco Figure 2 World Maritime Freight Waterways This complex arrangement of shipping lanes shows the impact that marine shipping has on international trade Source US DOT GeoFreight Display tool 2003 In addition to the signi cant impact the maritime transportation industry has on the US and world economies the pollution generated from this mode of goods movement comes at a substantial cost An article Gallagher 2005 written by Kevin Gallagher Boston University Department of International Relations attempted to quantify the economic impact in the United States from air pollutants generated by vessels This study showed that the economic costs ii Deadweight tonnage CDWT A ship s loaded capacity including bunkers and other supplies necessary for the ships propulsion Twenty foot Equivalent Unit TEU 7 Standard unit of measurement for the capacity of a containership A TEU refers to a container with dimensions of 8 x 8 x 20 Problems and Opportunities 3 Cnntrnlling air ernissinnsrrnm marine vessels rmurorr per year for 502 and about 82 rmurorr per year for NOX Gallagher39 eeorr ng errrrssrorrs 3750 M 502 ng the Srmrlarlythe NOK errrrssror eost ranged from 1700 to 9500 per tor B Marine Vessels wdn w r t rrrtematrorrany andmay be regrstered by the U 5 Coast Guard U s agged or underthe ag s thefollowmg T w r quott w r mp r ero t types m greater detarl and provrdes rrrforrrratrorr about each type39 s preserree m the world and US shrpprrrg market Figure 3 Major Oeearrgorrrg Vessel Types seuree SOLENT Cnmamers E Bulk C arrier Problems and Opportumtres 4 Cnntrnlling air emissinnsrmm marine vessels General Car n Sh Vehicle Rnar Vessel Hmmme Ramp Oil and Prndllct Tanker Problems and Opponumues 5 Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 owe Panama 1134 vessels Greece 11356 857 vessels 560000 19316 an Containership of above b e Panama 587 Vessels Germany 18279 945 vessels containers Bulk Carrier 1500 Panama 1503 27 160 vessels Gree 1334 vessels chips cement and or other 5000 15000 80000 100000 wheels loadIng unloading 12 or m ore or provides 40000 Passenger Panama 1598 35000 85000 vessels Russia 6 1107 vessels 5 63 5000 General Cargo 30000 25000 100000 18 150 Sources MARAD 2004 UNCTD 2004 MAN 2005 CARB Oct 2005 oml nation refers to the leader in the number ofvessels in terms of country of ownership and ag of registry 3 Vessels over 10 0 A Total 2004 US calls for vessels over 10000 dwt 59885 5 Other Ro ro passenger partial containerships reefers general cargo 6 Passenger calls represent 2004 voyages by cruise ships not factored into total US calls iv Figure 4 is a graphical representation of the 2004 US port calls both US and foreign agged by regional activity and by vessel type MARAD 2005 Greater detailed charts on the breakdown of vessel type by each regioniv can be found in Appendix A The charts in Figure US regional definitions 1 North Atlantic All ports from Eastport ME to Baltimore MD 2 South Atlantic All ports from Alexandria VA to Miami FL 3 Puerto Rico 4 US Gulf All ports from Key West FL to Problems and Opportunities o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 4a show that the Gulf Coast region 31 is the most frequently Visited port in 2004 followed by the North and South Atlantic regions 19 each and the Paci c Southwest region 18 Figure 4b shows that the most common vessel type were tankers 31 and containerships 31 followed by drybulk vessels 19 Figure 4 Total 2004 US port calls by a region and b vessel type Both US and foreign agged Source MARAD 2005 2004 Vessel Calls in the US by Region 2004 US Port Calls by Type Total 59885 calls Total calls 59885 Gas Carrier US Gulf Coast North Atlantlc General 2 Comblnatlon 31 19 Pacl c Roro 1 Northwest 9 11 Puerto Rico 2 Dry Bulk SoLth Atlantic Paci c 19 19 Sou hwest Contalnoershlp 18 31 A In 2003 US ports were Visited by 44 of the world s active shipping eet 6157 vessels over 10000 DWT making a total of 56759 calls These calls were broken down by vessel type as tankers 33 containerships 30 dry bulk carriers 18 and roro vessels 9 and others 10 MARAD 2004 During the period from 19992003 the average vessel size calls X vessel DWT increased by 10 for all vessel types with the largest increases being in tankers and containerships 20 and 23 respectively The average TEU capacity of the containerships Visiting the US during this ve year period had increased by an average of 29 while the number of containership calls only increased by 4 over this same period The number of containerships Visiting the US during this period increased by 20 to 1025 MARAD 2004 This shows that the shipping industry is accommodating the increased shipping volumes by increasing the individual vessel capacity as opposed to the overall number of vessels and that more vessels have been Visiting the US C Marine Propulsion amp Power 1 M Marine vessels used in international shipping are typically powered by diesel engines that turn a propeller As vessels can vary in design and application their engine revolutions and power vary by hull shape and propeller design The part of a vessel s hull that is beneath the water line is important to the propulsion of the vessel Since this part of the hull is in direct contact with the ocean it is important to properly maintain a vessel in Brownsville TX 5 Paci c Northwest All US ports from Barrow AK to Coos Bay OR 6 Paci c Southwest All ports from Crockett CA to San Diego and all Hawaiian ports Problems and Opportunities 7 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 order to minimize the resistance of the drag so that the vessel operates at its optimal efficiency The major factors in uencing a vessel s resistance is its displacement speed and hull form In addition a vessel also experiences air resistance and resistance due to waves and eddies residual resistance As a ship ages its paint breaks down begins to erode accumulates biological growth eg bamacles and can even experience localized bucking All of these factors can be classified as hull fouling and will increase the resistance and will result in a loss in ship speed and propulsion efficiency N Propeller The propeller design selected for a ship must be able to produce an adequate amount of thrust to overcome the resistance and move the vessel at the speed it s being designed for There are two primary types of propellers used for oceangoing vessels fixedpitch and controllable pitch propeller A fixed pitch propeller is commonly cast from copper is used to increase vessel maneuverability and cannot be changed during operating conditions A controllable pitch propeller is three to four times more expensive than the fixed pitch model has a larger hub that slightly lowers propeller efficiency and can change the propeller performance with changing operational conditions e g weather conditions E Engines and boilers Diesel marine engines are the main power source for propulsion systems in ocean going vessels In response to increasing oil process and the large quantities of fuel needed to operate vessels the engines were designed to burn the cheaper lower quality residual fuel These engines provide reliable service and typically have lifetimes on the order of decades In a report Entec 2005 done by Entec for the European Commission a study was done on the average number of engines installed per ship and resulted in 14 main engines and 35 auxiliary engines The engine power analysis was broken down to small medium and large engine categories and is summarized in Table 2 and Table 3 Table 2 Main and Characteristics for Various Vessel Sizes Source Entec 2005 ME Main Engine AE Auxiliary Engine Problems and Opportunities 8 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Table 3 Main and Parameters Source Entec 2005 ME Main Engine AE Auxiliary Engine a 2Str0ke diesel engines The largest diesel engines in use operate on the twostroke cycle principle This type of engine is commonly found as the main engine in the slower speed less than 150 rpm engine larger merchant vessels This cycle generates more pollution than the fourstroke engines because it mixes lubrication oil with the fuel to lubricate the crankshaft bearings therefore there are large amount of unburnt fuel and oil that exit the engine through the exhaust The diesel 2stroke engine operates by rst compressing the intake air and then injecting the fuel for combustion Because this process compresses only air as opposed to air and fuel the engine has a higher compression ratio which helps it produce more power and operate more ef ciently than other types of spark ignited engines e g gasoline As a result of the high compression ratios diesel engines need to be deigned stronger which requires more raw materials and increases the cost of the engines A majority of the large 2stroke slow speed diesel engines in use in oceangoing vessels are manufactured by Sulzer MAN BampW or Mitsubishi The combustion process in twostroke engines differs from that of fourstroke engines Twostroke engines tend to have larger combustion chambers and a different fuel injector orientation than the fourstroke engines leading to a different localization of the combustion The slower speed low revolutions of the twostroke engines means that the combustion time is a lot longer than that of medium and high speed fourstroke engines The more time that the fuel and gases have in the combustion chamber the more complete the combustion will be making for higher in chamber temperatures and more ef cient process when compared to the fourstroke process quot 4Str0ke diesel engines Diesel fourstroke engines are commonly found in the medium to large merchant vessels These types of engines are favored on ships that are limited in their headroom eg cruise ships passenger ferries etc Generally these medium speed engines operate between 250 and 850 rpm In comparison to the twostroke cycle the four strokes are not as powerful but are considered to be more ef cient require less maintenance are cheaper and lower polluting A majority of the 4stroke medium speed diesel engines in use in oceangoing vessels are manufactured by Wartsila Pielstick Sulzer or MAK Problems and Opportunities 9 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 c Auxiliary Engines Auxiliary engines on oceangoing vessels are primarily used to provide power for uses other than propulsion Auxiliary engines are usually coupled with generators to produce electrical power As seen in table 3 these engines operate at a higher load when at berth 40 load or manoevering 50 load than they do during cruise operations at sea 50 load Auxiliary engines are typically 4stroke medium speed eng1nes d Boilers Auxiliary boilers supply steam to the auxiliary services that are necessary for the ship s operation at sea but not to the main propulsion machinery Domestic boilers supply steam to services that are not essential to the ships operation at sea Boilers can operate on either residual or distillate fuel oil 4 Fuels Starcrest Fuel 2005 Most ocean going vessels use bunker fuel also known as Intermediate Fuel Oil IFO Heavy Fuel Oil HFO or Residual Oil R0 in their main engines and either bunker fuel or a Distillate fuel in their auxiliary engines Bunker fuel contains high levels of sulfur ash and nitrogen compounds and generates higher emissions than distillate fuels Specific fuel consumption SFC for large slow speed engines has been estimated to be 194 209 gkWhr by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and Lloyd s Register Engineering Services respectively For medium speed engines IVL and Lloyd s estimates SFC as 209 and 226 gkWhr respectively Entec 2002 Table 4 compares the sulfur content of different types of diesel fuels Table 4 Sulfur Content Fuel Type Comparison D Operational Costs for Ocean going Vessels The operating costs for oceangoing vessels involved in international trade varies by vessel type age route frequency of travel and vessel operating characteristics The major costs can be divided into operating costs periodic maintenance costs voyage costs and capital costs Operating costs e g crew stores repairs and maintenance insurance and administrative costs can make up 25 to 40 of a ship s total annual costs Periodic scheduled maintenance Problems and Opp01tunities 10 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 e g drydocking or special surveys can account for 5 to 10 of a ship s total annual costs Voyage costs eg fuel oil port fees costs canal dues etc can make up from 30 to 70 of a ship s total annual costs Capital costs make up the rest of a ship s operating costs and can vary significantly on the nancing arrangement made for the original construction of the vessel Table 5 summarizes a typical cost breakdown for a variety of vessel types BMT 2005 Table 5 Annual Vessel Operation and Support Costs E Flag states The United Nations Law of the Sea UNCLOS delegates the overall responsibility for implementation and enforcement of international maritime regulations for all ags vessels that y its ag Flag states also have the responsibility of implementing and enforcing regulations developed by the International Labor Organization ILO and the International Oil Pollution Compensation IOPC Fund There are three major types of ag nations the traditional ag state open registry ag states and a hybrid of the rst two types Traditional nations have national restrictions in terms of ownership shipbuilding crewing and trading CABOTAGE LAWS Flag states with open registries also known as ags of convenience seldom have the national restrictions of the traditional states The majority of these ships are registered under the ags of foreign nations and it s common for the ship owner to reside in a nation different from the registry nation A study ISL 2005 done by the Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics ISL ISL MarketAnalysis 2005 Ownership patterns of the World Merchant F leet analyzed the ownership trends in the world shipping eet At the beginning of 2005 14480 merchant vessels representing approximately 65 of the world s total shipping tonnage were agged not by the home nation of the vessel owner but under foreign ag This share of the world shipping tonnage is up from about 62 in 2001 and for each major vessel type the general trend is increasing towards foreign agged vessels The vessels that were under national ag registered with the ag of the owner s country were found to be of average 186 years old 4 years older than the foreign agged vessels The study showed that 935 of the world s shipping tonnage could be attributed to 30 nations At the beginning of 2005 the top ten shipping nations represented 715 of the world s merchant shipping tonnage ISL 2005 In the shipping industry the major open registries nations are Panama Liberia Bahamas Malta and the Marshall Islands At the beginning of 2005 the dwt of vessels registered with open registries was 4327 million dwt a 10 increase from 2001 Panama is the world s leading open registry at the start of 2005 with 4399 vessels with 1819 million dwt see Figure 5 The Panamanian open registry is dominated by general cargo ships container ships tankers and bulk carriers The Liberian ag has a large population of tankers attributed to it Problems and Opportunities 11 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 while the Bahamas is the leading registry for passenger vessels and Cyprus has a large population of bulk carriers ISL 2005 At the start of 2005 OECD nations had about 35 of its foreign agged shipping tonnage registered in Panama followed by about 12 registered in Liberia German ship owners used the Liberia registry for 39 of their aggedout tonnage the Marshall Islands ag for 11 of this tonnage and also Antigua and Barbuda The Japanese owned eet registered 84 of its foreign agged tonnage under the Panamanian ag Greek ship owners have frequently used Malta and Cyprus as their foreign ags for registry ISL 2005 In a 2003 annual report reviewing Maritime Transport for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development it was shown that well below 10 of the tonnage of open registry nations was owned or operated by interests connected to that nation This review also showed that in international registries 3080 of the total registered tonnage had a connection to the country of registry UNCTD 2004 Figure 5 Open Registries Source UNCTD 2004 Foreign flagged Open Registry dwt o by Nation All Vessels Bahamas 970 Panama 4200 Others 2970 In 2005 the United States ship owners had 3 l of their foreign agged tonnage registered with the Marshall Islands and 35 with the Bahamas In 2003 approximately 77 of the US dwt was agged under a foreign nation The US eet at this time was made up of 948 foreign agged vessels and 592 US agged vessels This information is based on the country of residence of the controlling interest of the eet A group of shipping industry organizations BIMCO INTERCARGO INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF SHIPPING INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING FEDERATION and INTERTANKO collaborated to developed a criteria to evaluate the performance of individual ag states ICS et al 2004 The criteria focused on standards for safety environment and social performance Table 6 is a summary of the performance of the top 20 largest shipping ag states ranked according to gross tonnage at the beginning of 2005 Problems and Opportunities 12 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Table 6 Negative Performance Indicators for Flag Nations Source et a1 2004 Negative Indicators ICS et al 2004 1 Not on Paris MOU Vlnite list Port State Control 2 Paris MOU black list Port State Control 3 Not on Tokyo MOU white list Port State Control 4 Tokyo MOU black list Port State Control 5 Not in USCG Qualship 21 Port State Control 6 USCG target list Port State Control 7 SOLAS 74 and 88 Protocol Nonratification Conventions 8 MARPOL 7378 Nonratification Conventions 9 LL 66 and 88 Protocol Nonratification Conventions 10 STCW 78 Nonratification Conventions 11 lLO 147 Nonratification Conventions 12 CLCFUND 92 Nonratification Conventions 13 No of non IACS bodies A739 14 High age ship numbers Average Age 15 High age GT Average Age 16 Not on STCW white list Reports 17 Not completed full lLO reports Reports 18 IMO meetings low attendance IMO This analysis of ag state performance is an ongoing eff01t that is intended to help the shipping industry make wise decisions when evaluating different ags The analysis also informs vessel owners of the actions of their ag of choice while also indirectly encouraging them to put pressure on their ag administration to make any improvements that might be necessary for them to come into compliance with international maritime regulations This can also be an important tool that can be used by companies selecting shippers for their goods by helping them with the evaluation of the eet by looking at the ag it is registered to Problems and Opp01tunities 13 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 All ships must be surveyed in ordered to be issued certi cates which establish their seaworthiness type of ship etc and this is the responsibility of the ag State of the vessel However the ag State quotAdministrationquot may quotentrust the inspections and surveys either to surveyors nominated for the the purpose or to organizations recognized by itquot SOLAS Chapter 1 regulation 6 These quotrecognized organizationsquot are often the classi cation societies The International Association of Classi cation Societies IACS is a NonGovernmental Organization which was granted Consultative Status with IMO in 1969 F Shipping Industry The 2004 UNCTD report provided an analysis of the most important maritime Countries and Territories at the beginning of 2004 This study attempted to quantify the shipping interests of each nation not by ag of registry but by the location of the primary controlling interest Table 7 provides a summary of this analysis looking primarily at the eet and dwt of the country territory The table shows that the top 5 most important maritime nations are Greece Japan Norway Germany and China Greek and Japanese interests have the largest total eets in terms of vessel size and dwt About 90 ofthe vessels in each ofthese two eets are registered with an open registry ag or ag of convenience China and Singapore have the lowest percentage of vessels registered in open registries of the top 10 list provided in Table 7 with 59 and 41 respectively Table 7 Top 10 Most Important Maritime Countries amp Territories 1104 Source UNCTD 2004 National Open Open Foreign Foreign Open World a Total A Total gt Open Registry consists of major Panama Liberia Bahamas Malta Cyprus and Bermuda and six minor open registry nations gt The country territory indicates where the controlling interest ie parent company of the fleet is located G Trade Distribution In 2003 the total loaded goods exceeded 61 billion tons This total trade value can be broken down into exports by content as follows Africa s was 89 America was responsible for 207 Asia had the largest share at 372 Europe had the second largest share at 251 while Oceania had the smallest share at 8 This total trade value can be broken down by trading bloc as European Union EU 174 Gulf Cooperation Council GCC 160 North Problems and Opportunities 14 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 America Free Trade Agreement NAFTA 102 Association of SouthEast Asian Nations ASEAN 69 South Common Market MERCOSUR 52 and the Common Market of Eastern and South Africa COMESA 16 UNCTD 2004 The total loaded goods in the world during 2003 can be broken down by cargo type Tanker cargo in 2003 made up about 36 of all loaded goods with roughly 22 billion tons of cargo Dry cargo made up about 40 of all loaded goods with approximately 25 billion tons of cargo Finally dry bulk made up about 24 of all loaded goods with roughly 15 billion tons of cargo UNCTD 2004 H Forecasted trends 1 Activities in the US A report Haveman 2004 produced by the Public Policy Institute of California in 2004 called California s Global Gateways Trends and Issues analyzed and projected trade growth for both the United States and California Table 8 summarizes the projected increases in trade volumes tons both imports and exports to 2010 and 2020 The authors of the report broke the mode of transportation of these goods out by either air or vessel The table shows that by 2020 total trade imports exports volumes in the US will be about 375 times greater than 2002 levels and total trade volumes in CA will be approximately 314 times greater than 2002 levels This table also shows that the authors expect a signi cantly larger growth in the use of vessels to transport trade as opposed to air and by 2020 the total trade volumes moved by vessel are expected to increase by about 375 and 315 times 2002 volumes for the US and CA respectively Table 8 Projected Growth in US Trade Volumes Tonnes Through 2020 Source Haveman 2004 2002 2010 2020 E aor rs mporis Exports mpor s ons Imports US Total Total 319500000 816800000 566900000 1499500000 1113100000 3155200000 Air 2300000 3500000 3700000 4300000 5800000 5500000 31720000 813 300000 495 1107300 000 149 700000 563200000 1 CA 35900000 92000000 65300000 147800000 125800000 276700000 400000 700000 800 000 1100000 35500000 64600000 7 147000000 27 600000 2 Activities in Asia Due to steady economic and port development China is becoming a major player in the marine transportation industry In 2003 12 major South and East Asian exporters were responsible for nearly 50 of the world s total 2003 exports UNCTD 2004 Some estimates CDN 2004 predict that by 2010 China will be able to handle three billion tons of cargo and 100 million TEU by 2010 Problems and Opportunities 15 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Honk Kong is currently the largest container port complex in the world with 2002 container volumes exceeding 19 million TEU The Port of Hong Kong published a study HK 2004 Hong Kong Port Master Plan 2020 which analyzes the future growth of maritime trade and forecasts that the total ocean container throughput for Hong Kong could increase to exceed 40 million TEU by 2020 This plan also looks at several approaches to plan to accommodate this growth in trade volumes and expected increase in port competitiveness This plan fails to mention any of the air quality impacts that the signi cant increases in trade volumes presents 1 Emissions This section will look at the major NOx PM SOx and VOC pollutants generated from oceangoing vessels First the sensitive receptors of pollutant exposure will be identified Then regional concerns of air quality priorities will be discussed Then each major pollutant will be looked at in terms of the following Pollutant description residence timequot of the pollutant health and other impacts formation of the pollutants in diesel engines and summarize existing healthbased ambient air quality standards The primary pollutant of concern varies from region to region Some factors that can in uence the main problem pollutant are the climate of the regions meteorological characteristics local ecosystems proximity to communities and the composition of the local emissions sources An example of this variation in pollutant priority can be seen when comparing the East and West coast ofthe US as the East coast has been particularly concerned with 80x emissions while the West coast has been predominantly concerned with ozone formation Diesel exhaust See Figure 6 consists of hundreds of gasphase particlephase and semi volatile organic compounds including typical combustion products such as carbon monoxide CO carbon dioxide CO2 sulfur dioxide SO2 oxides of nitrogen NOx reactive organic gases ROG water vapor and excess air nitrogen and oxygen The chemical reactions which take place in the combustion chambers of engines are controlled by the pressures temperatures local fuelair mixing processes and action times Any alterations in the controlling factors of chemical processes to reduce a target pollutant may result in an increase in other pollutants of concern In the 2stroke marine engines commonly found as the main engine in oceangoing vessels the combustion process takes place under high temperatures and pressures V Residence time The average time a pollutant spends in the atmosphere Problems and Opportunities 16 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Figure 6 Typical Exhaust Gas Composition Source MAN 2004 Heat 1 Sensitive receptors e population subgroups most susceptible to ozone health effects include individuals exercising outdoors children and people With preexisting lung disease such as asthma and chronic pulmonary lung disease and even heart disease Children are more at risk from ozone exposure because they typically are active outside during the summer When ozone levels are highest Also children are more at risk than adults from ozone exposure because their respiratory systems are still developing Adults Who are outdoors and moderately active during the summer months such as construction Workers and other outdoor Workers also are among those most at risk These individuals as Well as people With respiratory illnesses such as asthma especially asthmatic children can experience reduced lung function and increased respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and cough When exposed to relatively low ozone levels d 39 prolonged periods of moderate exertion Appendix B lists the California and US Federal healthbased Ambient Air Quality Standards 2 Oxides of Nitrogen NOx a Description NOx is a geneml term that encompasses the following compounds nitric oxide N O nitrogen dioxide N02 and other oxides of Nitrogen NOx is a precursor to the f atmosphere in the presence of heat and sunlight The highest levels of ozone are produced When both ROG and NOx emissions are present in signi cant quantities on hot clear summer days Nitrogen dioxide N02 a component of NOx along With particles in the Problems and Opportunities 17 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 air can often be seen as a reddishbrown layer over many urban areas N02 and Ozone are listed as Criteria Air PollutantV1 as de ned by the United States EPA b Residence time The average residence time of NO and N02 in the atmosphere is on the order of days c Health and Other Impacts Ozone is powerful oxidant that can damage the respiratory tract causing in ammation and irritation which can result in breathing difficulties Shortterm exposure to high ambient ozone concentrations have been linked to increased hospital admissions and emergency Visits for respiratory problems Peters 2001 Repeated exposure to ozone can make people more susceptible to respiratory infection and lung in ammation and can aggravate preexisting respiratory diseases such as asthma Prolonged six to eight hours repeated exposure to ozone can cause in ammation of the lung impairment of lung defense mechanisms and possibly irreversible changes in lung structure which over time could lead to premature aging of the lungs and or chronic respiratory illnesses such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis NOx emissions are also a key component in the formation of acid rain see SOx section for more details on the formation of acid rain it Formation in Diesel Engines Bludszuweit 1999 In the diesel marine engine process NOx is formed by one of three methods Thermal formation prompt formation and fuel formation due to high Nitrogen contents in the fuel A majority of the NOx emission generated by internal combustion engines is through the thermal process Nitrogen Oxide NO is formed in engines as a result of high incylinder combustion temperatures high excess air ratios and the long periods of time the gases remain in the reaction zones primarily in slow 2stroke engines A fraction of this NO that is formed will then go on to oxidize into N02 N Particulate Matter PM a Description Particulate Matter is listed as a Criteria Air Pollutant by the US EPA Almost the entire diesel particle mass is in the ne particle range of 10 microns or less in diameter PMlO Approximately 94 percent of the mass of these particles are less than 25 microns PM25 in diameter The organic fraction of the diesel particle contains compounds such as aldehydes alkanes and alkenes and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH and PAHderivatives Many of these PAHs and PAHderivatives especially nitroPAHs have been found to be potent mutagens and carcinogens NitroPAH compounds can also be formed during transport through the atmosphere by reactions of adsorbed PAH with nitric acid and by gasphase radicalinitiated reactions in the presence of oxides of nitrogen Fine particles may also be formed secondarily from gaseous precursors such as 02 NOx or organic compounds Vi Criteria Air Pollutant A pollutant for which acceptable levels of exposure can be determined and for which an ambient air quality standard has been set Problems and Opportunities 18 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 b Residence time Fine particles can remain in the atmosphere for days to weeks and travel through the atmosphere for hundreds to thousands of kilometers while coarse particles deposit to the earth within minutes to hours and within tens of kilometers from the emission source c Health and Other Impacts In 1998 the Air Resources Board identi ed diesel PM as a toxic air contaminant TAC Diesel PM is by far the most important TAC and contributes over 70 percent of the estimated risk from air toxic contaminants today Diesel PM is of speci c concern because it poses a lung cancer hazard for humans as well as a hazard from noncancer respiratory effects such as pulmonary in ammation ARB 1998a Because of their small size the particles are readily respirable and can effectively reach the lowest airways of the lung along with the adsorbed compounds many of which are known or suspected mutagens and carcinogens d Formation in Diesel Engines The composition of this mixture of gases liquids and solids that are actually emitted into the air will vary depending on engine type engine age and horsepower operating conditions fuel lubricating oil and whether or not an emission control system is present Due to the nearly identical combustion process as smaller diesel engines marine engines burning heavier bunker fuel are expected to produce PM with similar exhaust Particulate Matter emissions consist primarily of soot metal oxides and sulphates and they originate from incomplete combustion or impurities in the fuel and lubricating oil Secondary reactions of N0x and S0x can also produce PM L Sulfur Oxides S0x1 a Description Sulfur dioxide S02 is a gaseous compound of sulfur and oxygen and is classified as a Criteria Air Pollutant by the United States EPA S02 is formed when sulfurcontaining fuel is burned by mobile sources such as locomotives vessels and offroad diesel equipment Sulfates S04 2 are the fully oxidized ionic form of sulfur Sulfates occur in combination with metal and or hydrogen ions In marine vessels emissions of sulfur compounds occur primarily from the combustion of petroleumderived fuels that contain sulfur This sulfur is oxidized to sulfur dioxide S02 during the combustion process and subsequently converted to sulfate compounds in the atmosphere Sulfur emissions like N0x also contribute to the secondary formation of PM b Residence time The average residence time of S02 is 25 hours The average residence time for Sulfate is 80 hours c Health and Other Impacts S02 causes a wide variety of health and environmental impacts because of the way it reacts with other substances in the air Effects from S02 exposures at levels near the one hour standard include 39 39 iction J 39 J by yup which may include wheezing shortness of breath and chest tightness especially during exercise or Problems and Opportunities 19 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 physical activity Continued exposure at elevated levels of S02 results in increased incidence of pulmonary symptoms and disease decreased pulmonary function and increased risk of mortality Sulfur dioxide S02 and nitrogen oxides NOx are the primary components of acid rain Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water oxygen and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid The acidic deposition wet or dry causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations and many sensitive forest soils In addition acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints including irreplaceable buildings statues and sculptures that are part of our nation39s cultural heritage l Formation in Diesel Engines The emissions of S02 and S03 are directly linked to the content of sulfur in the fuel as Virtually all sulfur contained in the fuel is oxidized to S02 and S03 during and immediately after the combustion Since sulfur is seen as an important lubricant for the engine and it is not seen as feasible for the nearfuture for ships to have the capabilities to remove the sulfur from the fuel from the ship the oilindustry will be the key stakeholder in reducing SOx emissions 4 Volatile Organic Compounds VOC a Description Volatile Organic Compounds VOC contain carbon and are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapor pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere VOC contributes to ozone formation and may even be toxic themselves They are called organic because they contain the element carbon in their molecular structures VOCs have no color smell or taste VOCs include a very wide range of individual substances such as hydrocarbons for example benzene and toluene halocarbons and oxygenates b Residence time The residence time for VOCs can vary considerably Formaldehyde has an atmospheric residence time of CHZO is 39 hours while methane can have an atmospheric residence time of about a decade c Health Impacts VOC also leads to the formation of Ozone see health impacts under NOx and Ozone Some VOCs benzene xylenes and toluene are carcinogens and formaldehyde and ethylene are known to harm plants l Formation in Diesel Engines VOC emissions are primarily a function of the fuel characteristics VOC can also be released into the atmosphere as fuel is loaded or unloaded Crude oil tankers can have particularly high levels of VOC emissions These vessels emit VOC during loading unloading and during transit As the temperature of the cargo changes expansion occurs Problems and Opportunities 20 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 and pressure builds up so the vessel crew needs to release some pressure and with that VOC are emitted J Impacts of Marine Emissions Emissions generated by ocean going vessels can impact the air quality of onshore communities whether they have an active port or not The port areas are the most recognizable receptors of pollutants emitted from these vessels but coastal areas also suffer from impacts of emissions generated near shore This section will first look at emission inventories studies and projections in the United States and then internationally 1 United States WOODTHOMAS 2005 In 1996 CompressionIgnition CI marine engines were responsible for 7 of the total mobile source NOx emissions in the United States with approximately 907000 tons of NOx The United States EPA predicts that by 2030 emissions from marine CI engines quadruple its share of total mobile source NOx emissions to 28 The EPA also predicts PM emissions from these marine engines to have a similar growth In 1996 CI marine engines were responsible for 6 of the total mobile source PM 25 emissions in the country and this is expected to grow to 25 by 2030 The EPA SO2 emission analysis looked speci cally at the contribution of large marine engines C3V11 engines as part of the total national mobile source SO2 inventory This analysis showed that in 1996 C3 engines accounted for 21 of the total mobile source SO2 emissions in the US and is expected to grow to 81 by 2030 N State Example California CARB Oct 2005 In October of 2005 the California Air Resources Board ARB nalized a study CARB Oct 2005 of emissions generated in California by oceangoing vessels This study focused on marine emissions generated in ports inland waterways and in California Coastal waters See Appendix C The study used 2004 as the baseline year and reported 9875 Visits by a total of 1938 oceangoing vessels during this year Figure 7 shows the breakdown of these 2004 CA Visits by vessel type This graph shows that containerships were responsible for nearly half of the oceangoing vessel Visits to CA in V Category 3 C3 engines are identified by the US EPA as engines at or greater than 30 L per cylinder displacement burn heavy fuel oil and are used predominantly for propulsion Problems and Opportunities 21 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Figure 7 California Shipping Activity Source CARB Oct 2005 2004 Oceangoing vessel visits to CA Total visits 9875 Auto 76 Bulk 96 R0 R0 Tanker 03 197 Reefer 05 Passenger 70 39 Container G enera 480 73 Table 9 summarizes the pollutants emitted by each vessel type in terms of tons per day for 2004 This data are for the total emissions generated by the main and auxiliary engines This table shows that containerships are responsible for the most emissions when compared to other vessel types Table 9 2004 Oceangoing Vessel Emissions by Type Source Oct Table 10 is a summary of the emissions generated in CA by oceangoing vessel activity for 2004 and projected out to 2010 and 2020 This data takes into account emissions from both the main and auxiliary engines This table shows that ARB is predicting a doubling of NOX and PM emissions emitted by oceangoing vessels by 2020 Table 10 California Oceangoing Vessel Emission Estimates TPD Source CARB Oct 2005 Pollutant 2004 2010 2020 NOX PM 186 243 396 Table 11 summarizes the forecasted growth in CA vessel numbers by type for 2010 and 2020 This analysis also uses 2004 inventory data as a baseline This table shows that Problems and Opportunities 22 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 vessel types with the largest projected growth rates are passenger ships container ships and tankers Table 11 California Growth Rates by Vessel Types 3 Port example Port of Los Angeles Starcrest El 2005 In July 2005 Starcrest Consulting Group LLC nalized an analysis and report Starcrest E1 2005 commissioned by the Port of Los Angeles to develop a portwide emission inventory Starcrest used 2001 as its emission baseline The report focused on the following port emission sources Oceangoing vessels cargo handling equipment trucks harborcraft and locomotives Table 12 summarizes the emissions inventory in terms of tons per year by source category for the port in 2001 The table shows that oceangoing vessels are responsible for 36 of the total NOX 21 of the total organic gases TOG 14 of CO 56 of PM10 53 of PM25 and 86 02 emitted in the port area Table 12 2001 Emission Inventory by Port Emission Source Category TPY Source EI The Starcrest analysis reported that a total of 769 vessels called on the port with 2717 total calls in 2001 Figure 8 is a graphical breakdown of the oceangoing vessel eet that Visited the Port of Los Angeles in 2001 This graph shows that the most frequent vessel types calling on the port were container vessels at 59 followed by cruise ships at 12 and tankers at 10 Problems and Opportunities 23 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Figure 8 Port of Los Angeles Ship Activity Source Starcrest E1 2005 2001 PoLA Vessel Calls by Type Other Tug RoRo 06 10 Reefer 2 7 Auto Carrier 0 Misc Tanker 54 A 03 General Cargo 24 Bulk Carrier 75 Containership A 583 7 Cruise Ship 118 4 CA Marine Emission Studies CARB 2005 a California Marine Vessel Emission Studies The impact of emissions generated offshore has been studied for decades A tracer study CARB 1983 was conducted in 1977 with a naval research vessel traveling 8 to 20 miles from the coast The location of the study was between Long Beach and the Santa Barbara Channel The study resulted in tracer gases being recorded at monitoring stations that ran the entire length of the study area Another tracer study CARB 1984 was conducted in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1980 and once again the emissions generated off shore were felt onshore and this particular study showed that very little dilution occurred as the emissions traveled over the water The emissions were sampled for the tracer gases from onshore sites airplanes and other boats The 1997 Southern California Ozone Study was another tracer study CARB 2000 This study was the focused on collecting trajectory data for ship emissions traversing shipping lanes and would also assess the accuracy of modeling to simulate the transport processes of the ship emissions The results of the study showed that the tracer gases were detected on shore and that the dispersion of the pollutants is strongly in uenced by meteorological conditions In 1983 the California Air Resources Board released a report to the legislature on Air Pollution from Marine Vessels The report analyzed meteorological data for coastal California to determine boundaries within which emissions released will be transported to shore This boundary also known as the CA Coastal Waters ranges from 25 to 102 miles from the coastline b California Health ImpactAnalysis CARB PM 2005 In 2005 the California Air Resources Board issued a draft study on diesel particulate matter exposure for the region encompassing both the ports of Los Angeles and Long Problems and Opportunities 24 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Beach The region of study was approximately 163435 acres in which 1977770 people resided The study looked at diesel emissions generated by various port sources Ocean going vessels cargohandling equipment harborcraft trucks and locomotives Ocean going vessels made up 73 of the PM emissions in the study area and were analyzed in different modes of operation hotelling maneuvering and in transit in CA coastal waters The study showed that the sources in the region studied were responsible for 21 of the total PM emissions 1970 tons of PM per year in the South Coast Air Basin There was shown to be an elevated cancer risk throughout the region ranging from 50 to 500 per million people within 15 miles of the port The annual noncancer impacts in the area were estimated to be39 750 Asthma attacks 29 premature deaths 6600 lost days of work and 35000 minor restricted activity days The study also showed that PM emissions from the breakwater in had a much greater impact than the PM emitted outside the breakwater39 therefore marine vessel maneuvering and hotelling had a stronger impact than the transiting emissions despite the higher emission rates the vessels experience while in transit c Coastal nonport Example Santa Barbara SBCAPCD 2004 Santa Barbara County is a coastal community on the south central Ca1ifomia coast without a port Within 5 to 10 miles of the Santa Barbara shore are the heavily traveled north and southbound shipping lanes See Figure 9 21 These shipping lanes are frequented by vessels traveling along a great circle route to or from Asia and yessels traveling up the CA coast and pass well within the Ca1ifomia Coastal Watersv39 boundary Figure 9 b Figure 9 Santa Barbara a shipping lanes and b Ca1ifomia Coastal Waters mammalian 39 39 1 1 n mmcuw L The Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District SBCAPCD began an annual emission inventory in 1999 to track the emissions generated off its coast and put together a report to summarize its findings SBCAPCD 2004 The report found that the emissions V California Coastal Waters Was de ned by the CA Air Resources Board in 1983 as the boundary offthe coast of CA Where emissions generated between the boundary and the coast Will be transported onshore Problems and Opportunities 25 Cnntrnlling air Emissinnsfrnm marine vessels generated offshore and the enpeetedrnerease ln shlp traf c and ernrssrons wlll t A t standards w APCD forecasted ernrssrons from rnanne vessel as part oflts Clean Alr Plan rt foundthat by 2020 the rnerease ln rnanne vessel ernrssrons wlll eaneel out all onshore reduetrons rfnothrng ls done to eontrol these ernrssrons see Figure 10 Figure 10 Santa Barbara County NOX Emlsslons Foreeast Suuree sBcAPchum an Pemamzw Maul enraan may and usvesrels n uanru ms znln The 2004 rnarrne shlpplng ernrssron rnventory resultedrn the followlng Over7200 transrts of the SB eoastlrne 9 of the vessels that transrted the eoastlrne vvere responsrble for 50 ofthe rnarrne mlsslon 59 vessels ernrtted over 50 tons of NOX 92 of the NOK ernrssrons were from forelgn vessels Appronrrnately l9 vessel tr 2 S ansrts per day Approxlm ately 40 Tons of NOK and 3 tons of PM ernrtted dally otutbw 5 Intematlonal a Canada 0 Levelton Engrneerrng Ltd eornpleted therr analysls ofmanne vessel L d Apn12002 ernrssrons generated ln the ovver Fraser Valley for Envrronrnent Cana a and the 1 AL 1 Bl m V d looked atrnanne ernrssrons ln the Lower FraserValley and greater Vaneouver areas of southwestern Bnush Columbla The ernrssron sourees analyzedrn thrs study were habor r F F m Fl hm l t the predornrnant eontnbutor ofNOx 58 sex 95 PM 82 and Green House Gases 58 ln the regron In 2000 the report estrrnates that oceanrgolng vessels ernrtted 10584 tonnes ofNOx 4866 tonnes of sex and 745 tonnes ofPM The study also between May and September Problems and Opportunrtres 2o o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 b Europe Entec 2002 A report nalized in July of 2002 by Entec UK Limited for the European Commission quantified the emissions from ships as they moved between ports in the European community The study used the year 2000 as the period of analysis however only four months January April July and October were analyzed to reduce the amount of data being reviewed During 2000 there were 1831838 vessel movements in the region The study resulted in the following emissions estimates for 2000 3617 Kte yr of NOX 2578 Kte yr of S02 and 21 Kteyr of PM in port Approximately 29 of this emission estimates occurred in the North and Baltic Sea areas The Entec report also showed that the majority of the S02 emissions generated in the area of interest occurred in trade Between the original 15 EU member states 40 from the EU original 15 to nonmember states 14 and from nonmember states to the EU original 15 13 A majority of the vessel movements 51 occurred between non member EU states and then between the original 15 EU member states 22 Finally the report estimates that under a business as usual analysis marine emissions would increase to 4015 Kte yr of NOX 2845 Kteyr of S02 and 24 Kteyr of PM in port c Mediterranean Sea Emissions Modeling Marmer 2005 A study done on vessel emissions in the Mediterranean Sea by Elina Marmer Baerbel Langmann of the MaXPlanckInstitute for Meteorology was published in Atmospheric Environment in 2005 The Mediterranean Sea is subject to high vessel traffic and mean summer sulfate levels 78 mgm39z much greater than the mean summer sulfate levels found throughout the rest of Europe 47 mgm39z The study focused on the region for a 21 month period while focusing mainly on the summer of 2002 The authors differentiated between emissions generated onshore and emissions generated by vessels so they could analyze the individual impacts The study found that 54 of the total summer sulfate aerosol column over the region in the summertime was due to Ships and this contributed over 50 to the direct radiative forcing in the area When the model was run without the ship emission contributions there was a significant reduction of sulfate 29 ozone 15 nitric acid 66 hydroxy radicals 42 and formaldehyde 24 d Danish Port Emission Analysis Saxea amp Larsena 2004 A study was done by Saxe and Larsen in Copenhagen Denmark to model the dispersal of NOX S02 and PM in three Danish harbors Elsinore Helsingor Copenhagen and Koge The study found that NOX emissions generated by vessels made up a significant amount of the total NOX levels in central Copenhagen and that ferries operating in the port of Elsinore also contributed significantly to the total NOX pollution of the neighboring communities In Copenhagen PM was found to be about 815 of all urban road traffic generated PM The PM emissions from ships had a lesser effect in Elsinore than they did in Copenhagen The low magnitude of vessel activities in Koge lead to a relatively low contribution of pollution to the regional air quality e Emissions in the Turkish Straits Kesgin amp Varder 2001 A study was done in 2000 by Kesgin and Vardar on exhaust gas emissions from marine vessels in the Turkish straits The study showed that domestic ferries in Istanbul in 1998 Problems and Opportunities 27 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 were responsible for 4 0f the total NOX and 07 of the total PM from motor vehicles In 1998 the Bosphorus Strait and the Canakkale Strait were transited by 49304 and 38777 vessels respectively Approximately 62 0f the transiting vessels in the Bosphorus Strait and 76 0f the transiting vessels in the Canakkle strait were foreign agged The total pollutants emitted in 1998 for these straits Bosporous Canakkle were 12818 tons ofNOX 1194 tons of CO 388 tons of VOC and 194 tons of PM Roughly 66 of these emissions were generated in the Canakkale strait f S02 Ship Emissions in Asian Waters Streets et al 2000 A study focusing on the impact of S02 emissions from shipping activities found that due to the rapid development of Asian economies the shipping trade grew by an average of 54 per year during the time 0fthe study 19881995 It is also estimated that SO emissions from shipping grew by 59 per year during this period due largely in part to the increasing need for raw materials and fossil fuels The study found that Southeast Asia was most heavily impacted by these ship emissions The most heavily impacted regions Sumatra the Malaysian Peninsula and Singapore were found to receive more than 10 of their atmospheric deposition from shipping activities This acidic deposition significantly threatens the ecosystems of these regions The atmospheric deposition from these vessels during the summer months turned out to be at least 25 greater than during the winter or spring The study showed that the two routes that were responsible for the most emissions in the area were from the Gulf through the Indian Ocean and from Singapore to Taiwan across the South China Sea The total SO2 emissions in the study are increased from about 545 Gg per year in 1988 to about 816 Gg per year in 1995 In 1995 the two Asian ports with the largest SO2 emissions were Singapore 2625 Mg per year and Chiba Japan 1514 Mg per year Crude oil maritime shipments alone were found to be responsible for an 82 annual growth in SO2 emissions Problems and Opportunities 28 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 III Emission Control Technolog39es Emission control technologies can be implemented either as a feature of the original design of the vessel or as a retro t control device added onto an existing vessel New build installations of these controls is the preferred option as the space needed for the selected technology can be allocated in the original planning layout and fuel and engine components can be selected that are compatible with the control technology The retrofit option is a lot more difficult as the quantity of available space for control hardware varies from ship to ship compatibility with other ship components may make it impossible for some methods to be implemented so the emission control technology options are a lot greater for new builds Since vessels are designed and constructed to be in service for decades the careful selection of the appropriate control method is crucial A detailed and analytical look at the selection process of appropriate technologies can be found in a paper written for the US Department of Transportation Maritime Division MARAD in 2003 by Dr James Corbett and David Chapman called Decision Framework for Emission Control Technology Selection Corbett 2003 This paper identified the important objectives that need to be considered for technology selection suggests a ranking scheme for technologies takes into account the Net Present Value NPV analysis combining the capital cost and annual operating costs and even introduces a decision tree for technology selection The NPV analysis is extremely important because some of the technologies have significant annual costs and may even decrease the fuel efficiency of the power system by increasing fuel consumption or decrease the available power of the engine This section will analyze several different control technologies The technologies can be categorized as 1 In engine modifications 2 Waterbased controls 3 Aftertreatment on board controls 4 Shoreside controls and 5 Fuel switching These technologies will be studied in terms of target pollutants emission reduction efficiency and estimated cost annual and capital The best approach for reducing emissions may not be a single solution described in this section but may be a combination of technologies A In engine and operational modi cations 1 Fuel iniection Slide Valves Emission Reductions NOx PM 302 CO VOC 25 to up to 0 o o 20 A 50 0 A 0 A 60 Costs Small engine 3000 Mediumengine Large engine Description kW 10000 kW 25000 kW Capital Cost 10920 36400 91 000 Annual Operation amp Maintenance Costs Problems and Opportunities 29 Controlling air emissions from marine vessels Change in Fuel Consumption 0 Lifmpan 25 years Since PM is a product of incomplete combustion and unburnt fuel the optimization of the fuel injection system could result in the reduction of fuel consumption and a reduction of PM emissions The fuel injection valve of an engine can be optimized to achieve different objectives There are fuel ef cient valves eg slide valves that optimize the fuel injected into the cylinder and therefore also reduce PM emissions There are also NOx optimized valves that are optimized to reduce NOx emissions Figure 11 shows a comparison of a traditional slide valve and a slidetype valve With the main difference being the sac volumes of the valve The replacement of typical valves With emissions optimized valves is simple as they replace existing valves These valves differ from conventional valves in their spray patterns and they are designed to reduce the dripping of fuel from the injector into the combustion zone post injection This fuel that enters the combustion zone late is subject to lower temperatures and therefore results in the emission of unburnt fuel PM and VOCs The retro tting of older engines With slide valves will require some additional engineering costs in order to properly select and t the valves for the engine Entec NOx 2005 Figure 11 Conventional vs Slide Valve Design Source MAN 2004 as sandam Comenuonal Mel vans Shd type fuel vans Sac volume 1690 me Sac volume 0 ms lvanr Prl nnerali nal Emission Veducl ions PM 30 Problems and Opportunities 30 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Costs Small engine 3000 Medium engine Large engine Description kW 10000 kW 25000 kW Ca ital C ost 134705 149705 215725 Annual Operation amp Maintenance Costs Change in Fuel Consumption 0 Lifespan 25 years Since NOx is a byproduct of high cylinder temperatures a lowering of the combustion temperature by retarding the engine timing would also result in NOx reductions In some engines the timing adjustment can be made while in service The NOx reduction generated by this operational change is around 23 Retarding the engine timing too much will result in a loss in fuel ef ciency and an increase in the emission of PM MATSON Other operational modi cations that could be made to reduce emissions are Increasing the compression ratio increasing the turbo ef ciency use of a fuel injection system that can be easily adjusted e g common frail exible injection system etc increase in cylinder pressure and decrease in the engine s air intake temperature Nonengine related modi cations like the optimization of hull and propeller design could also reduce the amount of work and power needed for vessel propulsion and therefore the emissions generated by the vessel s power system S Exhaust Gas 39 39 quot EGR Emission Reductions NOX PM 302 CO VOC 35 0 0 NC NC available available Costs No EGR system installations are known by the author so no accurate cost analysis can be provided Change in Fuel Consumption 0 Lifespan No EGR system installations are known by the author so no accurate lifespan analysis can be provided Exhaust Gas Recirculation EGR takes the exhaust gas from the engine and cools and re routes it back into the engines air intake Figure 12 illustrates the basic design principle involved in EGR technology Using the exhaust gas as intake air reduces the oxygen content from 21 for typical air to 13 for exhaust air of the air going into the cylinder which limits the NOx that can be formed and reduces the amount of combustion that can take place The EGR process of injecting exhaust gas into the intake air also increases the speci c heat capacity of the intake air therefore reducing the combustion temperature and reducing NOx formation Problems and Opportunities 31 Controlling air emissions from marine vessels I Figure 12 Design Principle of EGR Technology Source Aabo Niels Kjemtrup Seawater moms Freshwater waters 151 stage Hem changa mm water separator 2nd Stage Flowchange mm 1 mterseparamv Freshwater dram There are many different components to an EGR system The system requires the use of an electrostatic precipitator and catalysw to remove the particulates from the exhaust gas before injecting it as intake air There is also a need for Wetscrubbing technology to remove the sulfur components of the exhaust stream prior to reintroduction into the engine A cooling unit is also needed to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas before it returns to the engine The importance of removing the s fur species and particulates of the exhaust gas shows that the system Would be best suited for vessels that burn a high quality fuel that has low sulfur content Entec NOx 2005 B Waterbased controls Water based controls reduce emissions from diesel engines by introducing Water at diffe ent stages of the combustion process Introducing Water into the combustion cylinder reduces the aximum peak combustion temperature and the formation of NOx because of the evaporation of the Water The incylinder evapomtion of the Water also improves the atomization o and causes it to burn more completely As the concentration of Water introduced into the combustion chamber changes so will the concentration of the pollutants emitted 1 Humid Air Motor HAM Emission Veduc nnx 1 PM 70 0 Problems and Opportunities I Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Cum Small engine 3000 Medium engine Large engine Description kW 2 OkW aitalCost Retro t 573500 L74EL5EIEI 04055000 apital Cost New build 573500 1 B15 5DD 03430000 Charge in Fuzl Cunxmnp nn 0 Lgfeqnm 1215 yams The Humid Air Motor HAM uses heated intake air saturated with wate vapor typically produced by 39 r t 39 39 39 i i h L 39 Figure 13 shows the basic design ofa HAM systen The technology needs to be integrated with a t itiscss i requira39nmts ofthe systen The quantity ofwate introduced into the mgine is about 39 39 39 W I This rat ae tofuel 39 39 39 the orde of 7080 Give the large amount of wate vapor needed for this control effectiveness ofthe design EntecNOx 2005 e 13 HAM S stem Source Aabo Niel Kiemtmnl Jamming T Fmshvabar lnlsdors a7 enema sc one vetsi strafing 5w dmln 2 Walequot qul inn 2anale Emissiun Rem nm problens and Opportunities 33 a Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Costs The cost information for this technology was not available in the same form as for a majority of the other technologies The cost of this equipment will vary between 550000 to 750000 depending on the availability of water storage tanks on the vessel and the need for a distillation unit Change in Fuel Consumption 3 Water emulsion is the process of introducing water into the fuel prior to injection into the combustion cylinder The water emulsion process can be greatly improved by introducing a fuel mill into the system that grinds the fuel up allowing for better emulsion and more complete combustion Figure 14 is a schematic of a water emulsion system Typically this control method will yield a 1 reduction in NOX for 1 concentration of water in the emulsion This onetoone ratio is consistent up to about 30 water content at which point the combustion temperature decreases too much resulting in an increase in PM emissions This emission reduction technology is also associated with a slight loss in the maximum power capacity of the engine This system is unable to use seawater in its operation so there is a need for either distillers or additional tanks for fresh water This technology has the advantage that the system can easily be turned on or off during operation and therefore can reduce the emissions generated as the vessel travels close to shore or is in port Figure 14 Pressurized Fuel Oil System with Homogeniser Source MAN 2004 From centrifuge quotl quotl I Aut deraerating valve 1 T x T mum pumps Fresh water supply Problems and Opportunities 34 Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 3 Water Iniection Emission Veduc ons PM 50 0 Cosm quot a39 rquot 39 39 Large engine Description kW 10000 KW 25000 KW Ca ital Cost New Build 169665 338223 Annual Operation amp Maintenance Costs 41488 135700 338750 Change in Fuel Consumption 0 Lifespan 25 years Water injection is the process of directly introducing Water into the combustion cylinder Figure 15 is a schematic of the operating principles behind a Water injection system This technology like the Waterfuel emulsion system needs fresh Water to operate The system uses electric pumps to inject the Water into the combustion chamber at pressures of 200400 bar The Water is injected into the chamberjust before the fuel is injected Figure 15 Direct Water Injection Schematic Wartsila Source Wan iln 700 Pressure transformer Flow fuse w WARTSILA This system can also be turned off Without impacting the performance of the engine as it is not integrated With the fuel delivery system Installation of the system is possible When the Vessel is underway Typically the Water to fuel ratios are 4070 and therefore signi cant tank capacity or distilling unis Will most likely be required for the system This Water to fuel ratio Would reduce NOx formation by 5060 EntecNOx 2005 Problems and Opportunities 35 Controlling air emissions from marine vessels o C Aftertreatment onboard controls 1 Selective Fatalv c Reduction SCR Emission Veductions PM 90 0 Costs Large engine 25 000 r 2263880 C 282438 656763 1509254 Annual Operation amp Maintenance Costs 169400 427576 1001500 Change in Fuel Consumption 0 Lifespan 15 years The Selective Catalytic Reduction SCR process is an a ertreatment technology that can be used to effectively reduce exhaust gas emissions The SCR process involves injecting a reagent eg Ammonia or Urea into the exhaust stream which then passes through a catalyst to achieve upwards of 90 NOx reduction Figure 16 shows an example of an SCR installation on an engine Figure 16 Example of SCR con guration Source MAN 2004 GS3SMC deNOx 39 1 SCRreactor 2 Turbocharger bypass 3 Temperature sensor after SCR 4 Large motors for auxrtrary btowers 5 Urea tnjector 6 SCR bypass 7 Temperature sensor before SCR 8 Addrtronat ange rn exnaust gas recerver This system requires a lot of space and additional weight eg catalyst Urea tanks etc and therefore would be easier for installation on new build ships as opposed to retro w Problems and Opportunities 36 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 A majority of the installations of SCR technology have taken place on smaller fourstroke engines as opposed to the larger twostroke main engines The SCR system needs exhaust gas temperatures at or above 270 degrees Celsius to be effective The catalyst in the system has to be changed out as it decays and is sensitive to the pollutants in the exhaust gas The soot alkaline metal oxides phosphorus oxides and sulfur compounds typically found in the exhaust of an engine operating on bunker fuel can deactivate the catalyst therefore the use of low sulfur fuel can extend the life of the catalyst The use of Urea NH3 in the system breaks down the NOx emissions to N2 and H20 A NOx reduction efficiency of 90 can be achieved using a urea injection rate of 15 g kWh The system also has the potential for ammonia slip which is the entrance of pure not reacted with NOx Urea into the exhaust stream due to overestimation of the amount of Urea needed to react with the NOx in the exhaust Ammonia is an air pollutant and its presence in the exhaust stream can corrode the exhaust system EntecNOx 2005 2 Seawater Scrubbin Emission Reductions NOX PM 302 CO VOC 0 25 6994 0 0 Small engine 3000 Medium engine Large engine Change in F nel Consumption 0 Lifespan 1 5 years Seawater scrubbing technology utilizes the natural alkalinity of Seawater to reduce the SOx emission from the exhaust stream After mixing the seawater with the exhaust gas the solid particles are removed and the seawater is then returned to the ocean which is a natural reservoir for sulfur as it contains high quantities of Sulfur This scrubbing technology provides an alternative to fuel switching for vessel operators traveling in SECA areas Figure 17 is a schematic of the EcoSilencer seawater scrubbing system By allowing the vessel operator to burn high sulfur fuels the system will lower fuel costs and reduce the sensitivity to the lowsulfur fuels market Problems and Opportunities 37 a Controlling air emissions from marine vessels a Figure 17 EcoSilencer Scrubbing System and Water Treatment Skid from DME Source MAN 2004 Fresmmter Hot New Seawater SUpp v Wm B 955 j Coohng water i Recrrculaung Cleanbrrne U 9 53quot Sludge Scrubber tank EcoSHencer Waste ump Sludge out Water supply mohng water Water bnne Cremaan wath Sludge The seawater scrubbing technology has been found to reduce exhaust gas S02 levels by 6994 from vessels operating on fuel with a Sulfur content of 25 The scrubbing action is also believed to reduce the quantity of particulates PM in the exhaust stream Studies of the EcoSilencer seawater scrubbing device have shown that the discharge water produced by the system conforms to the IMO OILPOL petroleum hydrocarbon limit 15 ppm that can be discharged overboard The primary costs of the Seawater scrubbing system are in the initial capital investment The operation and maintenance costs of the system involve routine pump maintenance and sludge disposal from the discharged seawater The costs of the system can be made up and even exceeded by the savings from the price differential between Bunker fuel and low sulfur fuels that are required for vessels operating in SECA designated regions EntecSOx 2005 D Shoreside controls 1 Shore Power Emission Reductions Emission reductions from shore power will vary by vessel type and the amount of time the engines spend at berth in port Since the technology assumes the ship s engines will be turned off while in port the emission reductions can be assumed to be equal to the emissions produced in port minus the emissions generated during connection and disconnection from the coldironing hardware Costs The costs for coldironing a vessel are dependent on the types of vessels being evaluated The Environ study found a range from 12 million to 67 million in capital costs from the vessels that it studied These costs take into account capital costs on the vessel side terminal side electricity provider and work barge Environ 2004 Problems and Opportunities 38 Cnutrnlling air emissinusrrnm marinevessels Chmgzin Fuel Canmmp on Reduotaoh m fuel oonsumphoh as the shlp s ehgmes Wlll be tumed off Ltfzxpmt The Ehvuoh report assumed a 15 year useful llfe for the eoulpmeht majolthleat to the au qualle and publlc health ofthe nearby commumtles Whlle on port avessel operateslts auxlllary ehgmes ahdm some cases ltsmam ehgme o oduce elecmclty for the vesse and to powelunloadlng an loadlng operatlons Sholerpowel also calleduoolduomhgquot or shlp elecm cauon 15 the process ofconnectmg the shlp to 01 Although g Figure L L Powered dockslde oohflgutatloh Figure 13 Cold honed Shlp Schematlc m mu t sap MM s M so me how r V F th tt l Table an Ehvuoh study prepared for the Port of Long Beach Problems and Opponunlhes 39 problems and Opportunities 0 Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Grass Vesselene Regisrrred Innnnge bulk rmipr quot 39 iii 39 quot 39 39 39 1028 hours 622 hours and 511 hours Environ 2004 potential problems arise in the capacity ofthe local grid to handle the large power demands ofthe ships the uniformity ofthe 39 quot theinmallatinn L 39 3 L L39r r c 39 39 39 pin in 39 39 handling ofhigh voltage cables This technology has been in use since the late 1980s is used in 39439 39 39 39 tanuai 39 39on o in an their electrical systems A znrpd Man39 mp 39 39 mmf MFY Ilamm 50 co a a Not Cnm A detailed cost analysis for this technology ms not available Operating costs 39 L 39 tire nsy g Urea a Controlling air emissions from marine vessels a Change in Fuel Cansunqnian 0 Lifespan 10 years Advanced Cleanup Technologies Incorporated ACTI is a company in Oxnard California specializing in hazardous waste management and is developing a method for treating marine emissions from marine vessels while berthing in port or anchored The company s approach called the Advanced Maritime Emissions Control System AMECS utilizes SCR technology and a scrubber technology in the multistage emission reduction system Figure 19 shows a schematic of one of the ACTI AMECS ground based system The AMECS system can have the emission control system either on a barge or dockside Figure 19 ACTI AMEC Ground based system So The unique characteristic of this approach is that the system uses adjustable hoods to cap the exhaust stacks while the vessel is in port and transfers the vessel s exhaust gas through a line that connects the hood to the emission control system This design is developmental but the emission controls it utilizes are proven effective emission reduction technologies and would provide another emission control option for ship owners that would help them reduce their in port emissions This system would allow ship owners to reduce emissions without modifying their vessel and could be used on just about every vessel type The drawback to this approach is that the emission reductions would not occur in regions where the vessel is transiting operations and in other ports that were not equipped with such controls ACTI CD E Fuel switching Emission Reductions Switching fuels from 2 7 to 15 Sulfur content 0 18 44 0 0 Problems and Opportunities 41 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Switching fuels fron 2 7 to 0 5 S annr content NO PM 302 CO VOC x 0 20 81 0 0 Cost 39 nels rom 2 7 to 15 S nl nr content Small engine Medium engine Large engine 3000 kW 10000 kW 25000 kW 0 0 0 Annual Operation amp Maintenance Costs 196134 642118 1602796 nels rom 2 7 to 0 5 S nl nr content Small engine 3000 Medium engine Large engine Description kW 10000 kW 25000 kW Capital Cost 0 0 0 Annual Operation amp Maintenance Costs 252171 825580 2060738 Vessels operating in regions that are designated as SECA areas under IMO Annex VI have options for I 39 with the J 39 ofthe 39 quot The vessels can either operate on fuel with a Sulfur content of 15 or utilize aftertreatment technology that brings the SOx content of the exhaust gas down to 6 g kWh or less The Seawater scrubbing technology described earlier is an example of the aftertreatment approach and this section looks at the costs involved in the fuel switching approach The sulfur content assumed for the baseline has Sulfur content consistent with the world average of 27 not the IMO standard of 45 Entec SOx2005 The costs associated with fuel switching shown above assume no capital cost is required for adjustments in the vessel s fuel delivery system The costs also assume that the vessel switches its current tanks over to carry only the lower sulfur fuel therefore this analysis would apply to vessels that operate predominantly within a SECA area Vessels that split their time in between regions inside of and outside of the SECA region may be able to store various grades of fuel onboard and switch to the lowsulfur fuel only when within the SECA boundaries Problems and Opportunities 42 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 IV Regglations The International Maritime Organization IMO is the primary regulatory agency tasked with developing regulations for the control of pollution from international shipping activities These regulations once approved are implemented and enforced by the member states The regulations section of this document will look into activities by the IMO US EPA European Union and other agencies that are attempting to control air pollution from oceangoing vessels This section will primarily cover regulatory actions both mandatory and voluntary A International Maritime Organization IMO In 1948 at a conference in Geneva the United Nations UN adopted a convention establishing the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMCO later renamed the International Maritime Organization IMO The IMO convention went into force in 1958 The purpose of the IMO was de ned as a forum for the cooperation among governments in terms of regulations and practices relating to technical matters affecting international shipping The IMO was to support and adopt the highest feasible standards for maritime safety navigation and the prevention and control of pollution from ships Based in London the IMO is one of the smallest braches of the UN in terms of staff and has a membership consisting of 166 nations The IMO is responsible for developing and adopting regulations and delegates the power to implement and enforce the regulations to its member states The shipping industry and other maritime interests are represented at IMO with consultative status and are often involved in the development of IMO legislation Following the Torrey Canyon oil spill in 1967 in which 120000 tonnes of oil was spilled the IMO began to focus on the problem of pollution in the maritime industry In 1973 the IMO adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships MARPOL which was modified in 1978 In addition to accidental oil spills this convention also addressed pollution created from chemical cargo packaged goods sewage garbage and air pollution The Marine Environment Protection Committee MEPC was created by the IMO to serve as the primary technical working group for matters relating to marine pollution The IMO has identified six areas of focus regarding pollution from ships at sea identified as annexes to the original MARPOL 7378 actions Annex I entered into force on October 2 1983 and focused on preventing pollution from oil Annex II entered into force on April 6 1987 and was designed to control pollution by noxious liquid substances Annex III entered into force on July 1 1992 and targeted the prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form Annex IV entered into force on September 27 2003 and was designed to prevent sewage pollution from ships Annex V entered into force on December 31 1988 and was created to prevent the pollution by garbage from ships Annex VI entered into force on May 19 2005 and was developed to prevent air pollution from ships IMO 1997 Costs of the IMO are shared between the 166 Member States primarily in proportion to the size of the respective eet of merchant ships The biggest eets in the world are currently operated by Panama and Liberia and so they pay the biggest share of IMO budget Problems and Opportunities 43 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 The top ten contributors for 2006 were assessed as shown in Table 14 the gures show the amount payable and as a percentage of the total budget The IMO budgetary analysis in Table 14 shows that four of the top ten contributors to the 2006 IMO budget are made up of nations classi ed as Open Registries accounting for over onethird of the entire budget Table 14 2006 Top 10 IMO Budgetary Member Contributors Source IMO WEB Member Nation Contribution 0o of IMO Budget 1 Panama 4141951 1847 2 Liberia 1730648 772 3 Bahamas 1128559 503 4 United Kingdom 1040068 464 5 Greece 973151 434 6 Singapore 900531 402 7 Japan 842596 376 8 Marshall Islands 802983 358 9 United States 771737 344 10 China 749093 334 1 Annex VI Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships MARPOL Annex VI Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships was part of the 1997 MARPOL protocol and adopted on May 19 2004 when the minimum requirements for rati cation of the annex were achieved a minimum of 15 member states representing at least 50 of the world s shipping tonnage One year after the rati cation the regulations of Annex VI went into force for the member nations that have rati ed the Annex As of November 2005 Annex VI has been rati ed by 30 nations representing over 63 of the world s shipping tonnage See Table 15 and Figure 20 Panama Cyprus Liberia and Singapore are amongst the nations that have rati ed the Annex while the United States China Canada and Mexico are among the nations that have yet to ratify IMO 1997 Problems and Opportunities 44 Cnntrnlling air Emissinnsfrnm marine vessels DatafmmIMO webme planeduanganhnemaplanl nu Ndauweaa acam m ectsVlsltedcaunines 2 Agpllcablllty amp Comgllance l m n n n r V Annex VI applles to all shlps reglsteredto llne nanons mathave ratlfled llne leglslatlon and shlps operating ln Waters controlled underthejunsdlcuon of nanons that have ratlfled the leglslanon The H that ratlfy Annex VI after May 18 2005 Wlll be subjectto llne leglslanon llnee months from slgmng on ABS 2005 Lnfonnanon on llne Problems and Opponunmes 45 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Annex VI legislation covers the following pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen NOx Sulfur Oxides SOx Ozone depleting substances and Volatile Organic Compounds VOC The legislation also addresses fuel oil quality and onboard incinerators The Annex will apply to ships of 400 gross tons and greater used on international voyages Each compliant vessel will be issued an International Air Pollution Prevention Certi cate IAPPC by their ag nation and an Engine International Air Pollution Prevention Certi cate EIAPPC by the ag nations administration USCG for the United States or an organization acting on its behalf US EPA for the United States Vessels of ag nations that have yet to ratify the Annex and intend to operate in waters controlled by nations that are signatories to the Annex will have to obtain a statement of compliance from their ag nation 3 NOx Requirements The NOx requirements under Annex apply to diesel engines over 130 kW which have been installed on a ship built after January 1 2000 or the engine has been subject to a major conversion since January 1 2000 Major conversions include an increase in power greater than 10 and any technical or operational modi cations that could increase NOx emissions Boilers gas turbines and emergency equipment are not subject to the NOx requirements of Annex VI Table 16 below lists the NOx requirements for engines subject to Annex VI Ox Limits Slow Speed lt130 17 g kWh Medium Speed 130 1999 45 x n M q kWh High Speed 2000 98 g kWh Source IMO 19939 The NOx emission limits are a dutycycle weighted value under defined conditions eg humidity fuel type inlet air temperature and coolant temperature The IMO has issued a NOx technical code to aid in the understanding of the NOx requirements and certi cation procedures Figure 21 is a graphical representation of the NOx limits that Annex VI sets for engines shown in Table 16 The NOx technical code is an important document that lists the requirements of the engine s technical le that is required to demonstrate compliance and is also available on the IMO website httpwwwimoorg Problems and Opportunities 46 O Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Figure 21 mo NOx Curve Source Wartsila 2005 rs weighled glkwm NOx amiss lm 2000 1000 1 Rated engine speed trpm 4 sex Reggirements Annex VI sets the maximum sulfur limit for marine fuel oil at 45 percent mm This 39 39 39 39 39 39 znn lofglobal sulfur fuel was 2527 percent mm Annex VI a u and m 4 Areas SECA an 39 39 sultirr limit ofl5 percent mm or a maximum sex emission limit of60 g SOx kWh The Baltic Sea Maylo a a r m designated as SECA In the future other areas eg Mediterranean US Coastal Waters r 39 39 Ann VI Lquot L either completely switch all fuel used to the 15 Sulfur fuel or utilize segregated tanks vessel crosses SECA boundaries compliance with SECA requirements This book will contain the date time and position 1 HI r u u lll Au a man cu cl 39 SECA quot uni uric lU territory the vessel A SECA is adopted by Amendment to Annex VI A county must apply for designation of a SECA 39 39 A designate a SECA will enter into force 25 months after adoption unless 13 of the parties Problems and Opportunities 47 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 5 Ozone Depleting Substances ODS The rati cation of Annex VI prohibits the installation of systems on vessels that use Ozone Depleting Substances ODS such as chloro uorocarbons CFC Systems that utilize Hydrochloro uorocarbons HCFC are permitted onboard vessels until January 1 2020 Existing systems using ODS can remain in use and be recharged after the adoption of Annex VI however the deliberate venting of the ODS is prohibited 6 Incinerators Annex VI requires that all incinerators installed on or after January 1 2000 meet speci cations set by the MEPC MEPC 7640 speci cations for Incinerators Incinerators installed before January 1 2000 can continue in use but cannot incinerate the following materials Oil or chemical cargo residues or associated contaminated packaging Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs 7 an older form of stabilized transformer oil Garbage containing more than trace quantities of heavy metals these include mercury cadmium lead as for example found in some cell type batteries 0 Re ned petroleum products containing halogen uorine chlorine bromine etc compounds 0 Polyvinyl chlorides PVC except in incinerators certi ed to either MEPC 7640 or MEPC 5933 The operators of the equipment must be trained as to how to correctly operate incinerators and the ue gas outlet temperature is to be monitored together with start up controls 7 Future Developments The rst meeting ofthe IMO MEPC 53rd MEPC session London July 1822 2005 following the entry into force of Annex VI resulted in a discussion of potential future amendments to the regulation Thee committee realized the need to review and consider revisions to the annex and directed the subcommittee on bulk liquids and gases to address the following issues by 2007 Review the development of emission control technologies Consider the potential for tighter NOx and SOx standards Consider the inclusion of Volatile Organic Compounds VOC emissions from cargoes in the regulation 0 Study PM emissions from marine engines and recommend actions to be taken to include PM in the regulation Consider reducing NOx and PM emissions from exiting engines 0 Consider inclusion of alternative fueled engines in the regulation Review the texts of Annex VI NOx Technical Code and related guidelines and recommend necessary amendments Problems and Opportunities 48 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 B United States The United States EPA has developed emission standards for engines that vary by type and size of marine engine These standards apply only to newly manufactured engines that are on vessels operating under the flag of the United States In its rulemaking the EPA has identi ed ve different types of marine diesel engine categories Table 17 Category 1 Cl engines are similar to on road diesel engines are used for propulsion on recreational and small commercial harbor craft vessels and for auxiliary power on larger vessels Category 2 C2 engines are similar to locomotive engines and are used for propulsion on commercial vessels and as auxiliary engines on oceangoing vessels Category 3 C3 engines are used for propulsion on oceangoing vessels and some great lake vessels Table 17 EPA Marine Engine Categories Propulsion engines used in oceangoing maritime activity are typically covered under the EPA s Commercial Category 3 engine category The tier 1 emission standards for these engines mirror those set by the IMO under Annex VI Table 16 These standards like those set by the IMO only address NOx emissions while the second tier of EPA standards for the other marine categories now address PM CO and total hydrocarbon emissions While the EPA has set a second tier of engine standards for the smaller engines Cl and C2 engines it has not set tighter emission standards for the C3 engines The 2003 EPA C3 engine rulemaking development was catalyzed by the settlement of a lawsuit by Natural Resource Defense Council NRDC and Bluewater Network requesting that the agency set the strongest standards for C3 engines as required to protect public health under the Clean Air Act The NRDC and Bluewater were not satisfied with the EPA efforts as they believed that the standards were not strict enough and would fail to provide any real emission reductions The NRDC and Bluewater proceeded to challenge the agency s rule in court however this time the judge ruled that the EPA was within its authority to delay stricter standards for C3 engines including the applicability to other pollutants until 2007 Bluewater Bluewater Network believed that the engine standards should be applied to all vessels that operate in US waters not just US aggedvessels however EPA deferred the responsibility for regulating emissions from foreign vessels to the IMO The EPA also stated that under 2l3a 3 of the Clean Air Act their authority to regulate emissions from marine vessels is limited to new marine engines making it clear that it does not believe that it has the authority to regulate inuse marine engines EPA 1999 EPA has expressed its intentions to work with the IMO to develop stricter international emissions standards for marine vessels as a parallel effort to its own C3 engine rule developments The EPA will consider applying standards to foreign Problems and Opportunities 49 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 agged vessels Visiting US ports and waters and consider IMO developments in its pursuit of more stringent C3 emission standards by its 2007 deadline EPA CHARMLEY The United States has not yet rati ed IMO Annex VI regulations The US treaty 1087 was received by the Senate and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relation on May 15 2003 The Senate s Foreign Relations Committee had a hearing on Annex VI on September 29 2005 where it had its questions about the treaty answered and are hopeful that the treaty could soon move to the Senate oor for their advice and rati cation Ratification of the Annex VI treaty is supported by environmental groups local air agencies the US EPA community and public health groups ports and the shipping industry The support comes from many different interests as ratification would represent US support for worldwide standards for ship emissions Along with the treaty for US ratification the Senate will be evaluating the US EPA and USCG development of legislation for US implementation and enforcement of the Annex VI regulatory requirements EPA CHAMLEY The EPA is also in the process of evaluating the feasibility of a SECA in the United States Ratification of Annex VI by the US is required before a SECA application can be submitted to the IMO The EPA feasibility study will consider technological feasibility economic impact and the following air quality impacts Emission contribution from ships existing landbased measures public health and ecological impacts and the impact of SECA SOx limits The EPA is also evaluating the potential for submitting a multinational SECA application including Canada and Mexico EPA CHAMPLEY The EPA foresees the completion of the feasibility study and submittal of a SECA application to the IMO by the spring of 2007 EPA JOHNSON C European Union The European Union s EU commission on transportation and the environment adopted a strategy to reduce air pollution generated by oceangoing vessels Adopted in November 2002 the strategy quantified the magnitude of ship emissions in the region and identified measures to reduce the shipping contribution to acidification groundlevel ozone formation eutrophication health climate change and ozone depletion The EU strategy will implement the European SECA designations set forth by Annex VI North Sea in 2006 and the Baltic Sea in 2007 and recognizes the need for tougher NOx emission standards The EU Sulfur Directive was finalized in April of 2005 published in the EU Journal on July 22 2005 entered into force on August 11 2005 and its first provisions will apply starting from August 11 2006 The directive establishes SECA implementation measures for the sulfur content of fuel to be less than 15 for the North and Baltic Seas and allows scrubbing technologies to substitute for the use of the lower sulfur fuels The directive also calls for passenger vessels operating in European territorial seas to use marine fuel with a sulfur content of less than 15 by 2006 and all ships in EU ports to use marine fuel with sulfur content less than 01 by 2010 Finally the directive contains a review clause where the commission is to consider the following items for inclusion into the directive by 2008 1 Economic instruments 2 Fuel specifications for inclusion in EU funding agreements 3 Ships string emission trading schemes 4 More EU SECA designations and 5 The possibility of reducing the marine fuel sulfur cap from 15 to 05 EC 2005 Problems and Opportunities 50 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 The EU commission on transport and the environment has also supported nonregulatory approaches to controlling emissions from oceangoing vessels and funded research of possible emission control measures The commission has funded a study NERA 2004 on the feasibility of emission trading approaches to marine air emissions as well as studies evaluating the existing control options for marine emissions Entec 2005 D California The California Air Resources Board CARB has been involved in the development and evaluation of measures to reduce emissions created by international trade With several large ports participating in International Trade and growing trade increases CARB has been one of the lead agencies responsible for attempting to control emissions from marine vessels and port related activities The 1998 classification of diesel PM as a Toxic Air Contaminant and the development of CARB s Diesel Risk Reduction Plan have identified marine vessels and port related activities as a major source threatening the air quality in California In 2004 Governor Schwarzenegger s Goods Movement Action Plan created a task force multi agency working group to evaluate future increases in trade generate jobs increase mobility reduce traffic congestion improve air quality and protect public health enhance public and port safety and improve California s quality of life This working group faces the challenge of balancing economic growth and air quality and public health impacts in California Along with the ARB the other major state agencies responsible for developing a Goods Movement Action Plan are the California Business Transportation and Housing Agency BTampH and the California EPA On November 17 2005 the CARB Board approved an Air Toxic Control Measure ATCM preventing the incineration of passenger vessels within three miles of the California Coast The measure began as a result of CA legislative action defined in Senate Bill 471 and applies to all passenger vessels foreign and domestic The regulation goes into effect on ll06 and represents one of the first state actions that are designed to reduce air emissions from vessels used in international activities This legislation is expected to reduce the public39s exposure to toxic air contaminants such as dioxins and toxic metals for residents living near ports and along the California coastline On December 8 2005 the CARB Board unanimously approved a rulemaking ATCM that will require oceangoing vessels operating within 24 miles of the California coast to burn a lower sulfur fuel in their auxiliary engines This ATCM will apply to all oceangoing vessels Visiting a CA port and would impose significant fines for Violations of the rule The ATCM will also allow for vessels to reduce emissions from its main engine as an Alternative Compliance Plan The hearing of this rule represents the first state regulatory action in the United States attempting to reduce emissions from engines on foreign and domestic oceangoing vessels RULE CARB 2005 CARB has also announced its intention to develop another regulation for oceangoing vessels in 2006 This regulation would attempt to reduce the emissions from oceangoing vessels that Problems and Opportunities 51 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 frequently Visit California ports The success of this regulation will greatly depend on the success of the auxiliary engine ATCM approved on December 8 2005 Other legislative attempts at reducing air emissions from ships operating in California were introduced in 2005 California Senator Alan Lowenthal introduced five bills SB760 SB761 SB762 SB763 and SB764 in 2005 targeting emissions from goods movement Senate Bill 760 would impose a 30 fee per TEU processed at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach The revenue generated from this fee would be used to increase port security and for clean air projects in the port areas Senate Bill 761 would reduce the truck idling time in the port areas Senate Bill 762 would create intermodal authorities at the ports of Los Angeles Long Beach and Oakland Senate Bill 763 would give priority berthing to ships that use a marine fuel with less than 02 sulfur content Finally Senate Bill 764 would nalize the No Net Increase NNI Plan initiated by former Los Angeles Mayor James Hahn The NNI plan would establish a plan of action to prevent emissions from the Port of Los Angeles from exceeding a 2001 baseline by 2008 Lowenthal 2005 E Asia Unlike the activities in Europe and the United States air quality measures for marine vessels in Asia have not developed much beyond the requirements of IMO Marpol Annex VI With the recent economic boom in Asian countries the increase in trade activity and the start of reducing emissions from onshore facilities the region will likely see marine vessels emerge as a major source of air pollution A majority of Asian nations have yet to ratify the legislation of Annex VI 1 Hong Kong As a major shipping representative at IMO Hong Kong is not yet a signatory to the IMO s Marpol Annex VI legislation but is in the process of developing implementing legislation Hong Kong is also considering additional air quality measures that would apply to marine vessels Currently Hong Kong s marine department is in charge of implementing and enforcing its shipping and port control ordinance Section 50 of the Shipping and Port Control ordinance Cap 313 for ship emissions This ordinance is basically designed to prevent opacity nuisance emissions from vessels and does not set limits for the criteria pollutants Between 2000 and 2002 the marine department received 51 complaints of Violations of the ordinance issued 18 warnings and prosecuted and convicted 1 Violator CTA 2005 2 Singapore Singapore unlike Hong Kong is a signatory to IMO s Marpol Annex VI It also has a nuisance law Regulation 66 of the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore Regulations 1997 and is aimed at preventing the excessive emission of ash or black smoke Singapore has updated its Bunker regulations practices and procedures for consistency with Annex VI requirements 3 China China has not yet ratified IMO Marpol Annex VI and like the Singapore and Hong Kong has established an opacity limit for maritime ship emissions This regulation sets opacity Problems and Opportunities 52 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 limts for marine diesel engines based on the engine s displacement China also has established standards for marine incinerators regulating opacity dust SO2 NOx and HZS HAO 2005 F Canada In Canada regulators have yet to adopt the IMO Annex VI legislation The provision to do so is tied up in a larger piece of legislation the Canada Shipping Act originally adopted in 1964 which is being held up by other unrelated measures and isn t expected to be approved until November 2006 The Canadian Shipping act only addresses black smoke emitted by marine vessels within one mile of shore The current Canada Protection Act CEPA does not address emissions from oceangoing vessels On March 13 1991 the Canadian government entered into agreement with the US government on air quality matters to control transboundary transport of air pollutants between the two countries The Air Quality Agreement signed in 1991 has been revised to included three annexes Annex 1 the Acid Rain Annex focuses on the commitments of both nations to reduce sulfur dioxide S02 and nitrogen oxides NOx emissions the primary precursors of acid rain Annex 2 the Scienti c and Technical Activities and Economic Research Annex Canada and the United States agree to coordinate their air pollution monitoring networks use compatible formats and methods for monitoring and reporting and cooperate and exchange information about the causes and effects of air pollution and the use of marketbased programs such as the US Acid Rain Program to address air pollution issues Finally Annex 3 was added in December of 2000 and commits the two nations to reducing emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds VOCs7the precursor pollutants to groundlevel ozone which is the major component of smog USCAN As a result of this agreement Canada s marine standards typically correspond to those set in the US It seems unlikely that either nation will apply for a SECA without some sort of international cooperation as there will be the threat of marine cargo being shifted out of the country as air quality regulations would be seen as an economic disadvantage for shippers Studies will be conducted hopefully in collaboration with the US to determine if the Great Lakes and St Lawrence Seaway and East and West North American coasts should be similarly designated More stringent global standards may be considered in the future to further limit NOx fuel sulfur content and standards for marine engines Taylor 2005 Problems and Opportunities 53 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 V Non Regglatogx Emission Control Initiatives This section describes several nonregulatory approaches that have been utilized to reduce emissions from oceangoing vessels The approaches were divided into ve categories 1 Voluntary incentivebased approaches 2 Multimodal emission reduction plans 3 Business initiated emission control efforts 4 Information sharing groups and 5 Legal driven emission reduction The voluntary incentivebased approach focuses on financial incentives and the development of marketbased systems for reducing emissions from oceangoing vessels The multimodal emission reduction plans focus on creating strategies for reducing emissions from all of the modes of transportation e g Marine vessels trucks locomotives etc involved in the transportation of goods The business initiated efforts are actions taken by private industry to reduce air pollution from marine vessels Information sharing groups are assembled to create forums for collaboration cooperation and information sharing on different approaches to reducing marine air emissions Finally legal driven emission reductions are achieved as a result of lawsuits A Voluntary Incentive based Approaches 1 Sweden Differentiated Fairway Dues SMA 2005 In April 1996 the Swedish Maritime Administration SMA Swedish Ship Owners Association the Swedish Ports and the Stevedore Association agreed to develop aggressive measures to significantly reduce NOX and SOX emissions from ships On January 1 1998 the Swedish collaborative began its environmental incentive program to reduce emissions from ships visiting their ports The system is completely voluntary but provides its participants the incentive of paying reduced fairway dues for reducing their air emissions The fairway dues have two parts one based on the size of the ship Gross Tonnage and the other based on the volume of the ship s cargo The portion of the fee based on the gross tonnage of the ship is the part that is differentiated with emission reductions The differentiated fee can be charged to cargo ships a maximum of 12 times per year while ferries and other ships can be charged a maximum of 18 times per year For tankers emitting NOX at a rate greater than 12 gkWh they will have to pay a fee of SEK 530 per gross ton while other vessels operating at a 12 gkwh NOX rate will pay SEK 50 By reducing the NOX emission level to 2 gkWh the tanker fee would be reduced to SEK 370 while the other vessels would pay SEK 340 for a similar emission rate Emission rates between 2 gkWh and 12 gkWh will have their fees adjusted linearly In addition to the NOX based fee reduction ship operators can have their fairway dues reduced an additional SEK 09 per gross ton for using fuel with a Sulfur content of 05 for passenger ships and 10 for other ships This program or a version of it is currently active in at least 20 Swedish ports and the original program has increased its environmental benefit by introducing stricter conditions in 2005 for the fee reduction The target pollutants of this system are NOX and SOX and can be obtained by using lower sulfur fuel and retrofit control devices The basic principle of the system is that the polluter pays for its impact on air quality while Problems and Opportunities 54 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 the environmentally conscious ship operators can reduce their operating costs by reducing their emissions The differentiated fairway dues system has created a market and encouraged the development of emission control technologies not only for Swedish waters but for the world As of May 2005 38 vessels were registered in the Swedish system using NOx control devices e g SCR or HAM The fairway dues existed before the program began are charged by the gross tonnage per vessel and are used for ice breaking and other maritime services The competitive nature of the ferry systems operating in Swedish ports has made it difficult for operators not to participate in the program and the individual vessel operators have taken great pride in their commitment to reducing emissions This program benefited from a large captive eet of vessels and an existing fee structure that could be diff quot J as 39 39 39 quot without taking away from the original purpose ofthe fee SMA 2005 N Shipping F 39 39 mt m quott and Trading Demonstration SEAaT proj 2005 Shipping Emissions Abatement and Trading Demonstration SEAaT is a selffunded shipping interest group formed in 2002 to raise awareness and acceptance of feasible Costeffective solutions for emission reductions The group was founded by representatives from the shipping and oil industries and members also include ship owners brokers technology companies and fuel suppliers The groups secretariat and consultants operate out of London In April 2005 SEAaT started a 9 month Sulfur Emissions Trading offset pilot project The main objectives of the project are 1 To gain an understanding of the benefits and challenges of emissions trading 2 To assess the environmental impact of Sulfur offsetting and 3 To allow for the participants to develop their own strategies for complying with emission reduction legislation The pilot project will take place in the North Sea region that will go into force as an IMO designated SECA in 2007 The data collected will include fuel consumption and route information location of the vessels while they operate in the proposed North Sea SECA area and at port Vessels will be tagged as either emission credit generators or emission credit purchasers The generators will be able to generate the emission reduction credits by operating on 02 Sulfur fuel Virtually operating on 02 Sulfur fuel or Virtually operating abatement equipment that is capeable of reducing emissions to the 02 Sulfur fuel equivalent Any reductions below the 15 Sulfur fuel limit equivalent SECA requirement will be used to offset emissions from the higher polluting vessels The objective is for the group to achieve SOx reductions that meet or exceed those that will be enforce when the region officially becomes a SECA in 2007 The pilot project will explore the following concerns identified for a potential offsetting scheme What kind of agreement is necessary to ensure the group works effectively How difficult will administration and coordination be What is the optimum syndicate size Can market liquidity be achieved Problems and Opportunities 55 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 What are the economic bene ts to participantsindustry society What is the cost of reaching a range of environmental bene ts What reporting is necessary How might changing circumstances fuel prices fuel grades technology affect the operation of an offsetting group How does where the emissions occur affect offsetting hot spots 0 How is noncompliance managed How are the group rules enforced The participants in the project include 40 vessels of various types routes and sizes from six of the area s major vessel operators Teekay Stena Line BP PampO Ferries NOL and OOCL SEAaT has hired British Maritime Technology BMT as an independent third party contractor to manage the project BMT tasks include Project setup reporting analysis and final reporting The project is scheduled to conclude in December 2005 and a final report will produced early in 2006 SEAaT proj 2005 o More information about SEAaT and the pilot project can be found on the following website httpwwwseaatorgindexhtm LA Port of Los Angeles Long Beach Vessel Speed Reduction Program In May 2001 the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach began implementation of a voluntary Vessel Speed Reduction Program VSRP The program was a collaborative effort between the two ports US EPA California Air Resources Board ARB the South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD the Marine Exchange of Southern California and the Pacific Merchant Shipping Association PMSA The program calls for participating vessels to reduce their speed to 12 knots or less within 20 miles from Point Fermin Vessel speed is directly related to the engine power required by the propulsion engines of oceangoing vessels and engine power is directly coupled to engine exhaust emissions therefore a reduction in vessel speed will result in a reduction of exhaust emissions An arriving or departing ship would slow to 12 knots for the 20mile inbound or outbound transit and thus reduce the power requirements of the propulsion engine This program is most effective for ships that generally travel at faster speeds greater then 20 knots such as containerships auto carriers and cruise ships PoLA NNI 2005 The program is the first of its kind and is seen as an on going success story as it is responsible for eliminating over 100 tons of vessel generated NOx emissions during the first quarter of 2005 This works out to a little over one ton of NOx emissions reduced per day Participation in the program is currently estimated at 70 of the shipping lines that call on the ports Future revisions to the program are looking at extending the 20 mile radius to 40 miles and the possibility of making the program mandatory 4 Alaskan Low Sulfur Fuel Use Agreement Under a voluntary agreement between the State of Alaska and tanker operators ships are operating on 05 sulfur or lower residual fuel while entering Valdez or alongside Problems and Opportunities 56 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 On average 35 tankers call at the port per month Assuming a fuel consumption rate of four tonsday while alongside and an average port duration of three days per vessels the total incremental cost amounts to about 330000 all operators Environmental bene ts would be in the order of 250 tons of SOx reduction per year A 10 to 15 ton reduction in PM are likely also achieved BMT 2005 V39 Maritime Goods Movement Coalition MGMC The Maritime Good Movement Coalition MGMC is a group of stakeholders representing the maritime goods movement sector in the Southern California region looking to put together a longterm comprehensive marketbased program to meet the challenges of a growing good movement industry As of December 2005 the coalition consisted of port representatives terminal operators and fuel and energy providers The coalition recommends that a goods movement plan contain the following o A long term 20 year goods movement master plan 0 An emissions trading market for all emission sources involved in goods movement 0 A system of enforcement and monitoring to ensure goals are met In July 2005 the Port of Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners gave their preliminary approval to participate in and spend 500000 to help start the MGMC The Board also expressed the potential for contributing an additional 2 million to help launch the maritime emission market program This program would provide goods movement sources the exibility to select the appropriate emission reduction technologies or purchase emission reduction credits that have been banked by other sources A white paper SCHARY produced in February 2006 compares the SEAaT emissions trading program described above with the proposed MGMC A summary table from this paper describing the main attributes of each program can be found in Appendix D The SEAaT program is more developed than the MGMC program and focuses solely on SO2 emissions while the MGMC is being designed to focus on PM NOx S02 and ROG emissions The market driver for the SEAaT program is the internationally recognized SECA designation under IMO MARPOL Annex VI while the MGMC proposes to use the California State Implementation Plan SIP as its primary driver The MGMC is looking at a trading zone is the Southern California Los Angeles area and an additional zone in the Northern California San Francisco area Each zone would also address hot spot areas of high emission concentrations by designating priority trading zones The MGMC is evaluating both an open market and cap and trade approach Unlike the SEAaT program that allows trading solely arnong vessels closedmarket the MGMC is looking at allowing trading among any source openmarket that is subject to emissions performance targets B Multi Modal Emission Reduction Plans 1 California Goods Movement Action Plan Problems and Opportunities 57 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 On January 27 2005 California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released a policy statement identifying the improvement of goods movement as a high priority issue that has a signi cant impact on the economy and quality of life of Californians In response to the forecasted growth in goods handled in California the Governor established a Cabinet level working group made up of logistics industry local and regional governments neighboring communities business labor environmental groups and other interested stakeholders to improve and expand California s goods movement infrastructure with the following objectives Generate jobs Increase mobility and relieve traffic congestion Improve air quality and protect public health Enhancing public and port safety Improve California s quality of life An initiative lead by the California EPA and the California Business Transportation and Housing Agency is responsible for developing a goods movement action plan A lot of the measures identified in this plan are similar to those identified by the Port of Los Angeles No Net Increase NNI Plan however the primary difference is that the goods movement action plan addresses goods movement activities throughout the state and within 24 nautical miles of the coast and the NNI plan focuses on emissions generated within the port boundaries Both of these plans take a multimodal approach to emissions generated from the expected increase in trade and both identify the need for a diverse group of stakeholders and a mix of voluntary and regulatory measures The list below summarizes the mitigation measures and emission reduction tools that the working group identified for oceangoing vessels VSRP Vessel Speed Reduction Program 2001 20 miles from PoLN PoLB EPA Category 3 engine standards 2003 EPA Nonroad diesel fuel rule 2004 ARB Aux engine rule proposed 12805 to ARB board Cleaner marine fuels Emulsifled fuel use Expanded VSRP Installation of engines w lower than IMO required emission standards Dedication of the cleanest vessels to CA Shorebased electrical power Extensive retrofit of existing engines Highly effective controls on main and existing engines SECA development Expanded use of cleanest vessel in CA service Maximum use of shore power or alt controls For more information on the Goods Movement Action plan see httpwwwarbcagovgmpgmphtm Problems and Opportunities 58 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 2 Port of Long Beach Green ag and Green Port Programs a Green Flags Program On October 31 2005 the Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners preliminarily approved a 22 million incentive program to reward ship operators and their vessels for their participation in the Voluntary Speed Reduction Program VSRP Vessels that operate within the parameters of the VSRP 12knott speed limit for its voyages to and from the Port of Long Beach will be given green ags The ags will allow the vessel operators to pay a 15 discounted dockage rate for the next year for its contribution to air quality The Dockage fee is de ned as The charge calculated in accordance with the dockage charges named assessed against a vessel for berthing at or making fast to a municipal wharf pier bulkhead structure or bank inside berth or for mooring to another vessel so berthed outside berth PoLB 1995 This dockage fee is to be assessed to the vessel by the overall length in meters and will accrue with each 24hr period the vessel spends at berth The dockage fees range from 77 per day for vessels under 30 meters in length to 11242 per day for vessels with lengths between 375 and 390 meters Vessels over 390 meters in overall length shall be charged a dockage fee of 1124200 per day plus 2900 per day for each meter of overall length in excess of 390 meters PoLB 1995 b Green Port Policy PoLB 2005 On January 31 2005 the Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners BHC voted unanimously to adopt the Green Port Policy The policy intends to interact and educate the community on its environmental programs which address the following aspects Air water wildlife soil sediment and sustainable practices The policy s guiding principles are to Distinguish the Port as a leader in Protect the community from harmful side effects of Port operations Promote sustainability Employ best available J to Engage and educate the community I I 39J 1 39 39 impacts There were several measures identified in the policy to reduce air emissions from ocean going vessels 0 Vessel Speed Reduction Program V SRP and the aforementioned Green Flag program Shore Power The Port has committed to a goal of providing shore power See emission reduction technologies section to all new and existing container terminals Shore power is being incorporated into new leases that specify targets for vessel compliance and selected existing berths are being retrofrtted with shore power Problems and Opportunities 59 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Retro tRe power Requirements for Infrequent Callers 7 Port lease language will require the use exhaust controls or clean fuels in the auxiliary engines of vessels that do not use shore power Main Engine Fuel Improvement 7 the Port is considering incentives as part of the Green Flag Program for the use of lowsulfur initially 15 diesel or equivalent Auxiliary Engine Fuel Improvement 7 lease language will require the use of fuel with 02 or lower sulfur content or equivalent or exhaust gas treatment in auxiliary engines while ships are at berth Vessel Smoke Stack Emission Reduction 7 PoLB Security will continue to issue warnings and citations to vessels in order to eliminate excess smoke and reduce vessels emissions while at berth West Coast Sulfur Emissions Control Area SECA 7 in January 2005 the BHC adopted a resolution urging the United States to ratify Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution From Ships MARPOL Annex VI adopted in 1997 enters into force on May 19 2005 and will set limits on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances Annex VI calls for a global cap of 45 mm on the sulfur content of fuel oil land calls on IMO to monitor the worldwide sulfur content of fuel once the Protocol comes into force 0 For more information on the Port of Long Beach Green Port Program see httpwwwpolbcomenvironmentgreen port policyasp 3 Port of Los Angeles No Net Increase NNI Program In October of 2001 in response to a request from the Mayor of Los Angeles the Port of Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners adopted the No Net Increase NNI policy The policy stated that there would be no net increase in air emissions from future port operations from the baseline year of 2001 The former Mayor of Los Angeles James Hahn appointed a diverse task force to develop the policies that would achieve the No Net Increase policy The task force consisted of representatives from federal state and local air quality agencies neighborhood community representatives maritime rail and commerce representatives port labor representatives Harbor department and environmental and health experts PoLA NNI 2005 On June 24 2005 the task force submitted their 603 page No Net Increase plan to the former Mayor of Los Angeles and Councilwoman Hahn The comprehensive document identified 68 specific measures applying to a range of sources e g marine vessels harborcraft cargohandling equipment trucks and locomotives and implementing various technologies and policies to achieve the no net air pollutant increase from the 2001 baseline The 68 total measures include 31 regulatory measures and 37 non regulatory measures The plan also contains forecasted growth estimates legal and financial analysis and recommendations and stakeholder opinions The ARB estimates that the plan will prevent 2200 premature deaths over the next 20 years and save 14 billion in health care costs Currently the plan sits on the desk of current Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villarigossa awaiting approval PoLA NNI 2005 Problems and Opportunities 60 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 The No Net Increase Plan contains 17 control measures designed to educe emissions from oceangoing vessels The total cost of implementing these 17 measures out to 2025 is estimated to be more than 9 billion PoLA NNI 2005 A summary of these control measures can be found in Table 18 Table 18 No Net Increase Oceangoing Vessel OGV Control Measures NNl Source Cost data is in 2005 dollars and includes regulatory and industry costs as well as capital and operational costs through 2025 o For more information on the Port of Los Angeles No Net Increase plan see httpwww nortof 39 org DOCNNI Final Report ndf 4 Port of Los Angeles Comprehensive Real Estate Leasing Policy On February 1 2006 the Port of Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners approved a comprehensive leasing real estate leasing policy for Port tenant selection The policy creates a transparent process and includes environmental requirements that will be used to negotiate future port leases The new policy directs leases to include the following environmental provisions 1 Air emission controls 2 Water storm water and sediment quality 3 Trash management and recycling 4 Lighting and noise control and facility appearance 5 Hazardous material management requirements 6 Facility restoration and decommissioning requirements and 7 CEQA mitigation measures and reporting requirements Some of the air emissionreduction provisions include 0 Compliance with vessel speed reduction programs Problems and Opportunities 61 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 0 Use of clean Alternative Maritime Power AMP or coldironing technology plugging into shoreside electric power while at dock where appropriate 0 Low sulfur fuel use in main and auxiliary engines while sailing within the boundaries of the South Coast Air Basin 0 Use of alternative fuel in all new yard tractors and 0 Clean low emission truck and locomotive use within terminal facilities C Business Initiated Emission Reduction Tools 1 Business for Social Responsibility BSR Clean Cargo Working Group Business for Social Responsibility BSR is a global organization that helps member companies achieve success in ways that respect ethical values people communities and the environment BSR provides information tools training and advisory services to make corporate social responsibility an integral part of business operations and strategies A nonprofit organization BSR promotes cross sector collaboration and contributes to global efforts to advance the field of corporate social responsibility BSR 2005 A subgroup of BSR called the Clean Cargo Working Group operates with the primary objective of helping its members pursue sustainable product transportation by sharing information and promoting best practices in the industries This group is made up of ocean carriers freight forwarders and shippers of cargo Some of the oceangoing vessel operators that are part of the working group include APL Limited MaerskSealand AP Moller Hanjin Shipping co Ltd HapagLloyd Container Line Hyundai Merchant Marine K Line NYK Line OOCL PampO Nedlloyd and WalleniusWilhelmsen Some of the cargo members of the working group include Chiquita Brands Inc amp Great White Fleet Ltd HewlettPackard Company The Home Depot Inc IKEA NIKE Inc Nordstrom Inc Starbucks Coffee Company and The CocaCola Company The working group s Vision is to benefit the people and environment The working group focuses on the following aspects of global goods movement Air quality resource management biodiversity management systems impact on local communities and labor and human rights The group has created a methodology for its members to follow to calculate emissions evaluate environmental performance and provides guidance on improvements of environmental performance to promote environmentally and socially responsible transportation through open dialogue and business to business collaboration BSR 2005 o More information about the BSR Clean Cargo Working Group can be found at httpwwwbsrorg SR WGOCCGF indeY cfm 2 International O quot for m 39 quot quot ISO The International Organization for Standardization has developed a set of standards ISO 14000 for businesses environmental practices The ISO 14000 series was primarily developed at the Uruguay round of the GATT negotiations and the Rio Summit on the Environment held in 1992 While GATT concentrates on the need to reduce nontariff barriers to trade the Rio Summit generated a commitment to protection of the environment across the world The environmental field has seen a steady growth of Problems and Opportunities 62 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 national and regional standards and the ISO standards were looked at as an International method of encouraging best environmental practices in the business world To be classi ed as an ISO 14000 organization a business needs to make environmental improvements in its corporate policy and plan to continue to improve its environmental performance into the future The corporate bene ts of ISO 14000 include Reduction of waste savings in consumption of energy and materials improved corporate image and a framework for continued environmental performance Some ship operators are classi ed as ISO 14000 and as a part of their environmental improvements have reduced their emission of air pollutants 3 European Union Clean Marine Award The commission developed an award system for lowemission shipping called the Clean Marine Award The award scheme was part of the original 2002 EU strategy on marine vessel emissions and was created to give positive publicity for environmentally responsible shipping speci cally lowemission initiatives and to disseminate best practice The award program is managed by the European Commission EC and EU Shipping port and NGO interests Awards are made on a biannual basis beginning in 2004 and recognize achievements in three categories 1 EU Ship Operator 2 EU Shipper and 3 EU Authority EU CMA o More information on the Clean Marine Award can be found at httpenrnna en 39 t 39 t 39 marineind htm D Information Sharing Groups 1 Port of Los Angeles Port of Shanghai Agreement The ports of Los Angeles and Shanghai have established a cooperative working arrangement On November 25 2002 the two ports entered into a Memorandum of Understanding MOU to cooperate in the establishment of green ports The MOU identi ed efforts to share technological information designed to improve air and water quality that is threatened by port operations On September 2 2005 the two ports signed a Friendship Agreement and letter of intent to collaborate on air quality issues On October 12 2005 the Port of Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners approved the acceptance of a grant to facilitate the exchange of ideas regarding air pollution between the two ports from the US Department of Transportation Maritime Division MARAD for 185000 The development of this relationship between the two ports will result in an exchange of best management practices technological knowledge air quality information and the development of a Chinese multi sector maritime advisory group modeled after the California Air Resources Board Maritime Working Group PoLA Agenda 2005 This model for information sharing could eventually lead to the development of a largerscale Paci c Rim Ports Air Quality Working Group N US EPA West Coast Collaborative amp Clean Ports USA In a nonregulatory initiative the US EPA developed a national Clean Diesel Campaign As part of the Campaign the West Coast Collaborative was created in June 2004 with the objective of reducing diesel emissions along the west coast of the US The collaborative Problems and Opportunities 63 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 consists of international Canada and Mexico federal state and local governments private companies and environmental groups The collaborative focuses on reducing diesel emissions from the following sectors Agriculture construction locomotives marine vessels and ports and trucking The marine vessel and ports working group has been an important forum for sharing information regarding emissions projects and research being conducted throughout the region This collaborative has been an important tool in addressing this regional problem and has allowed partners learn from each other and work together to make progress towards a common goal WCC 2005 The US EPA s Clean Ports USA initiative is also part ofthe National Clean Diesel Campaign Clean Ports USA is an incentivebased voluntary program designed to reduce emissions from existing diesel engines and nonroad equipment at ports with comprehensive strategies and information for the diverse range of ports and their staff The initiative provides information on best practices technologies available funding and case studies for reducing emissions in port areas For more information on the West Coast Collaborative see httpwww quot 39 quot org For more information on the Clean Ports USA program see httpwwwepaH 39 quot 39 h inde htm E CARB Maritime Working Group The California Air Resources Board initiated the Maritime Working Group in 2001 The working group was designed as a forum for communication cooperation and coordination open to all interested stakeholders on the issues of air quality and maritime sources of pollution The goals of the working group were to 1 Promote constructive dialogue and participation 2 Identify key issues and offer creative solutions and 3 Provide an opportunity to receive input on emission reduction strategies Currently the working group members consist of government representatives Federal state and local port representatives community and environmental groups industry associations shipping companies and fuel and technology companies 0 For more information on the Maritime Working Group see httpwww arb ca Vmsprog froad mm 39 htm E Legal Action 1 EPA Emission Standards for Marine Engines In January of 2001 the EPA pledged to establish emission standards for oceangoing vessels The pledge was part of a settlement that ended a lawsuit filed by Ea1thjustice legal defense fund on behalf of Bluewater Network a San Francisco based NGO The lawsuit challenged EPA s failure to set any NOX standards for these engines The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish regulations to reduce air pollution from nonautomobile engines that significantly contribute to pollution in areas with poor air quality The Problems and Opportunities 64 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 settlement is directly responsible for the Category 3 engine marine engine standards that the EPA nalized in 2003 Earthjustice 2001 As mentioned in the regulatory section the Bluewater Network and NRDC were not satis ed with the EPA initial Category 3 emission standards The standards mirrored those engine standards identi ed by the IMO in its Annex VI regulation The Bluewatre Network and NRDC then led a follow up lawsuit to force the EPA to set tougher standards This lawsuit failed as the judge ruled that the EPA was within its authority to delay stricter standards for C3 engines including the applicability to other pollutants until 2007 N China Shipping Terminal Settlement In 2001 the City of Los Angeles was sued for allegedly approving the construction of the China Shipping Line terminal without considering or providing a plan to mitigate the environmental impacts from the project on the neighboring communities The California Environmental Quality Act CEQA requires the project conduct a review of the impact that the project will have on the environment The plaintiff in this case was an assemblage of partners National Resources Defense Council NRDC the Coalition for Clean Air Communities for a Better Environment and two San Pedro homeowner associations In March of 2003 a settlement was announced that allowed the terminal to open and created a series of environmental programs designed to reduce air emissions in the port area The settlement called for The Port of Los Angeles to commit 50 million over ve years to mitigation projects 0 10 million for repowering replacing or retro tting diesel trucks 0 20 million for air quality mitigation 0 20 million for community aesthetic mitigation To undertake new Environmental Impact Reports EIR on all phases of the China Shipping terminal project Evaluate the feasibility of using cleaner marine fuels Install shorter cranes when the terminal expands The use of alternative fueled equipment at the new terminal The use of Alternative Maritime Power AMP by vessels hotelling at the terminal Creation and implementation of a traf c mitigation plan for the area around the terminal On June 21 2004 the Port of Los Angeles unveiled the AMP feature of the China Shipping terminal and became the world s rst electri ed container terminal The terminal allows the ships to plug into electrical outlets so they don t have to run their diesel engines to produce electricity at port The AMP program is expected to eliminate 3 tons of NOx and 350 pounds of PM for each ship that uses it Problems and Opportunities 65 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 VI Conclusion Marine vessels play an important irreplaceable role in the international transportation of goods Unlike onshore goods movement modes of transportation e g trucks and locomotives marine vessels have no alternative transportation mode able to cross large bodies of water carrying large quantities of cargo with such ef ciency With the rapid growth of economies of developing nations like is being seen in Asia trade activity is increasing and along with this comes an increase in ship traf c and the need for larger ships that are able to carry more cargo Many areas around the world are predicting a doubling or tripling of trade volumes over the next couple of decades creating the need for balance between maintaining or improving air quality and economic growth Marine vessels represent one of the largest underregulated Virtually unregulated threats to air quality If these vessels were treated as onshore sources they would have been subject to regulatory emission controls years ago The emissions from these vessels threaten the air quality and public health in port communities while berthing or maneuvering and in coastal communities while transiting along the coast Air pollutants emitted by ships and port related equipment are also creating an international network of environmental justice communities that share the common link of being disproportionately exposed to emissions while bene ting very little from the pollution generating activities The shipping industry is extremely dif cult to regulate as up to a dozen different countries could have a nancial interest in the movement of goods from one country to another The industry allows ship owners to register their vessels with foreign nations that least threaten their pro ts while the actual ship owners can be almost impossible to identify The laws that govern the sea also restrict the amount of regulation a nation has over foreign vessels so the areas that are being exposed to these toxics and other pollutants may have little or no ability to directly control these em1ss1ons One of the major concerns of ports in establishing regulations to control marine emissions is port competitiveness Ports pro t from the activities of the shipping companies that operate at its facilities and nancial penalties for emitting air pollutants can drive their business to other ports nearby that have not established comparable regulations Shipping companies face the same problem if they take actions to reduce their emissions and their competitors don t then they would be at an economic disadvantage because of the high capital and potential operating costs involved with installing emission control technologies Recent international regulations have done little to achieve significant emission reductions from these sources that resemble power plants in terms of their power capacities The IMO Annex VI regulations set a sulfur content cap 45 S on marine fuels that is greater than the global average 27 S therefore not achieving any real reductions NOx limits set under these regulations only apply to engines built after 1 12000 and engines that experience major modi cations after ll2000 Engine f have quot 391 J these 39 quot have been building engines to meet these standards for years and since the engines that power these vessels remain in service for decades the emission reductions resulting from this regulation are minimal Another major criticism of the IMO regulation is that the implementation and enforcement of Problems and Opportunities 66 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Annex VI is left up to the nation that the vessel is agged under Since a majority of vessels that operate in international trade are agged under open registries ags of convenience notorious for their loose enforcement of international regulations the effectiveness of the IMO legislation becomes questionable Controlling the emission of toxics and other air pollutants from marine vessels is complicated endeavor that will require the international cooperation of various industry stakeholders regulatory agencies and community groups and the use of a toolbox of control measures e g regulations incentives voluntary measures development of technologies etc The non regulatory approaches to controlling emissions from marine vessels has the potential to achieve real nearterm air quality benefits that would complement the longterm emission reductions achieved through regulations Incentive programs like Sweden s differentiated fairway dues system the marketbased emission trading schemes being demonstrated by SEAaT and the Voluntary Speed Reduction Program at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach are examples of voluntary approaches Information sharing between ports and multisector working groups shows that the stakeholders are realizing the importance of collaboration in addressing the issue of maritime air emissions These groups work to prevent reinventing the wheel by sharing information on projects studies technologies and other measures that have and have not worked in reducing emissions These groups are becoming international in their participants and allow for collaboration between stakeholders identify the concerns and interests of the various parties and work towards the development of technologies and control measures The major marine engine manufacturers have acknowledged that the technology exists to achieve significant emission reductions from marine vessels There needs to be some form of motivation to create more of an interest from the maritime shipping industry in implementing these technologies on their vessels That motivation could be voluntary or regulatory in nature and most likely will be a mixture of both in order to be effective International regulations that attempt to reduce emissions from inuse vessels and address PM as a pollutant of concern would be a good start to developing an effective regulation These changes are being considered by a subcommittee of the IMO as amendments to Annex VI and need to be supported for inclusion in the legislation International cooperation on this issue needs to increase and regulators and policy makers need to realize that economic growth and environmental protection are not mutually exclusive issues and take responsibility for the air quality impacts of increasing trade volumes Problems and Opportunities 67 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Appendix A 2004 Regional distribution of ship calls by type foreign amp domestic MARAD 2005 2004 Product Tanker Calls in the US by Region 2004 Crude Tanker Calls in the US by Region Total 11572 calls Total 7744 North Atlartlc 22 NorthAtlartlc 17 Pacl c Northwest 4 Puerlo Rlco 2 Puerlo Rlco 1 South Atlantlc Southwegt South Mam pacmc 12 my 1 Southwest 12 2004 Container Calls in the US by Region 2004 Container Capacity in the US by Region Total 18279 Total 58881858 TEU s GulfCoast North Atlartlo Paomo Us eulmow Non gm c Pacl c South Atlahtlo 7 17 Northwest South Mantle 5 Northwest 33 10 32 12 Puerto Rlco Puerto Rlco 3 1 Paclflc Southwest 30 Problems and Opportunities 68 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 2004 RoRo Vessel Calls in the US by Region Total 5317 2004 General Cargo Calls in the US by Region T otal 3967 North Atlantic US Gulf Coast us Gulf Coast South Auamic 7 Notth Atlarttc 28 23 29 29 Paci c Northwest 6 Paci c Northwest 11 South Atlantic Paci c ngzhmw 20 Southwest 17 2004 Gas Cartier Calls in the US by Region Total 9 6 Pam c North Attahttc NO TWS 17 4 Puerto R100 5 ac c Southvest South Attarttc 7 8 Problems and Opportunities 69 c Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Append B US AmbientUr Quality Standards CARE Nov 2005 Ambient Air Quality Standards Averaging Calilornia Standards Federal Standard Pollutant T quotquot9 Cunnenlralinn 3 Methnd Primary 3 Secondary 3399 Methnd 7 1 Hour Due m 150 m3 l 3393 Dame 0 pp g Ultravlulel 012 ppm 235 gm Same as Ultravlulel 3 Pnolomeuy a Prlmary slanaam Phommelry EHour u upplllu pgnl nun ppmltl57 uglm39 Respirable l a 24 Hum 30 ppm 150 uglm Pamculare Gravlmelrlc or Same as T ga ijpxw Matter Annual Bela Allenuallon 3 Prlmaly Siandard 2n ugm 50 llng Analyse FM10 Anlnmelle Mean Fiquote 24 Huur No separate Stale Slandam 55 ngma nema Se mmquot Pamculate same as p and Gravlmetrlc a er Alllluzi Gravlmeirlc or 3 Prlmzly Simian A l 12 ppm ls pgnn quota we FM25 Antnmelle Mean Bela Allenuallon 3 Hour 9 u ppm lumpm3 9 ppm 10 mgln NunrDlsperslve Carbon NunrDisperslve None Monoxide 1 Hum 20 ppm 23 quotlgma 35 ppm 40 mgln NW NulR CD 5 Hour 3 7 7 7 Lake Terms 6 W 7 9 Nitro en quot a39 7 3 Diox i de Arlmmellc Mean Gas Phase 0 053 ppm l mu Wm Same as Gas Phase Prlmarysiandard N03 1 Huur u 25 ppm nu ngnr 7 Annual 3 Anlnmetlc Mean D 03 9939 5 9m Speclmpnolomelry quotIfquot 24 Hour 0 04 m we m3 5 IA rn 365 r m3 7 Pa amsamme Dioxide pp v9 Wmmlel m1 l l 9 J Method Fluurescence 3 so 3 Hour 7 7 o 5 ppm 1300 pglml l Huur u 25 ppm 555 uglmz 7 7 7 an Day Average 1 5 llglm3 i 7 Lealzig Alumlc Absorpilon 7 Same as ngn volume Calendar ouaqer 7 1 a NEWquot prlmary 3 3quotng Absurpilon Visibility vlSlbllliy of len mlles or more a n7 7 an R d 8 HM mlles urmoleiorLaKeTahue duels No 9 fc39ng pamcles wnen relanve nummlly ls less man Pamdes 7n percenl Melnua Bela Altenuatlun and Tape Federal Sullales 24 Hum 25 ppm Hydrogen 1 Ham 0 m m 42 m Ulimvlulel sul de W 9 Fluorescence s andards Vinyl Gas cnlclrlue9 24 H u m Wquot 26 quotg m Chromawgrapny pp n Alr l a 2006 Se California Air Resources Board 5605 Problems and Opportunities c Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 1 California standards for ozone carbon monoxide except Lake Tahoe sulfur dioxide 1 and 24 hour J i s w nilrn n din ide values lllal are not in be exceeded All others are none be equaled or exceeded California ambient air quahly i li f l in the r H I A l 39 ntinu 70200 of39l ille l7 oftbe Califolm39a Code ofRegulallons 2 National standards other llan ozone panieulate matter and those based on annual averages or annual quot 39 39 l l t ye Ti 1 1 39 39w n39 itln39ee V ars anoined M g a as K e is equal 10 or less than the srandard For me the 24 hour standard is attained nhen the expeded nnnlhiottla or aenuleat illlaZ4 llour k I 39150llgmlisequal l t ForPVM tl Al v A 39 H 1 rl 39 Iquot concentrations averaged o r r t1 e y are are equal to or less than the sianddrd Colllact US leA for flmher clarification and cun em ledel al policies parenthesesareh dm t I T 4 760lon 39 quot 4 75 C anda pm in this table refers to ppm hy Volume or nncrunroles of reference pressure of 760 to pollutam per mole of gas 4 Any equivalent procedure which can he shoun to the satisfaction cfthe ARB to give equivalent results at or near the level of the air quality standard may be used 5 National Primary Standards The levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin ofsafety to protect the public beallh 6 National Secondary Standards The levels ofair quality necessary to protect the public welfare mm any known or antleipaled adverse effects ofa pollnrant 7 Reference method as descrihed by the EPA An equivalent methodquot of measurement may he used but must have a 39 V quot h Y the EPA 8 New federal 8hour 39 1 h US EPA on July 18997 Contact U EPA for fiuther clarification and cnnent federal policies 9 The ARB ha id vili ed lead and vinyl chloride n level of t a t 39 A 39 e posnre for ff ll California Air Resmu39res Board 7903 Problems and Opportunities 71 Cnntrnlling air Emissinnsfrnm marine vessels AEEEn Ix c Cahfomxaboundanes for calculating oceanrgomg vessel emxssxons RULE CARE mus 1 Problems and Opponumues o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Appendix D Comparison of the SEAaT Trading Program and the Marine Goods Movement Coalition s Proposal MGMC Source SCHARY Element S EAaT MGMC39 Market Driver Baltic Sea SECA starts May Signi cant reduction of emissions from goods 2006 North Sea SECA starts movement required and attainment of ozone and PM25 Nov 2007 and fuel limit 1 standards as identi ed in CARB s State Implementation sulfur for inland waterways Plan for each nonattainment region due 20072008 Jan 2010 Pollutant S02 PM NOX S02 ROG Unit of Trade Tons of S02 S02 content Option 1 7 Open Market Trading credits generated by in fuel X Fleet fuel required emissions performance standard minus actual consumption emissions rate standard multiplied by applicable activity level Option 2 7 Cap and Trade Allowances allocated to regulated sources measured as emissions performance standards multiplied by current activity levels Cap or Goal 15 SECA Emissions performance targets established in GMAP Option 1 7 Open Market Trading approach would require the program to periodically adjust performance targets and timetables to ensure environmental goal is met Option 2 7 Cap and Trade Allowances would ensure cap is met Baseline Year April 2005 To be determined pending development of forthcoming attainmpnt plans Source Categories Ships 7 46 total Some regulated sources would be required to be in the program others could opt in or be regulated in a separate program Trades with No Yes 7 noncapped sources can optin as a category or Sources possibly on sourceproject basis to sell credits Outside of Cap Size of North Sea Priority zones designated as subsets of larger Los Trading Zone Angeles zone Separate Bay Area zone Allowances created at outset of program per ship Allocation of allowances to Option 1 credits generated by reduction activity Option 2 allowances allocated to some sources based Sources through records showing on current activity levels but more allowances needed sulfur content in fuel 7 credit for growth could be purchased Not yet decided but buyers are those whose fuel may be appropriate to allocate allowances to terminal gt 15 operators rather than to speci c vessels that visit the ports Tools to Not yet 7 plan to study Priority Zones will be established for purposes of address hot impacts rst accelerating investments to address air quality impacts spots Priority sources would be identi ed as contributing to the 39 1 risk in such zones Problems and Opportunities 73 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Element SEAaT and not allowed to purchase credits from outside those zones to use inside the priority zone Emissions Ship owners provide fuel Not addressed monitors or consumption and position emissions data from which sulfur factors emissions are calculated Use of third No SEAaT plays that role as Not addressed party certi ers neutral program of emissions 39 39 39 l Emissions Only reporting at outset of Sources required to log and report their emitting Data Reporting amp Frequency Phase I so far which ends Dec 2005 Collecting data daily onboard and reported to SEAaT weekly Time entering SECA area Fuel consumption in SECA area at berth amp at sea Sulfur content of fuel consumed in SECA area at berth amp at sea Route taken in SECA area Time on leaving SECA area Position on leaving SECA area Distance traveled inside SECA area activities when located within the goods movement zone to be determined and will be subject to periodic inspections Who administers trading system SEAaT Proposes a newly established jointpowers authority the Goods Movement Authority consisting of representatives of agencies and entities with expertise in the goods movement sector eg Ports of LA amp LB and their cities CARB SCAQMD SCAG and appropriate advisory role for USEPA There would be one for Southern CA and an analogous one for Northern CA Problems and Opportunities 74 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Works Cited 1 Aabo Niels Kjemtrup Kjeld Aabo and Niels Kjemtrup both from MAN BampW Diesel A S Denmark PAPER NO 126 Latest on Emission Control Water Emulsion and Exhaust Gas ReCirculation for INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON COMBUSTION ENGINES CIMAC Congress 2004 Kyoto 2 ABS 2005 American Bureau of Shipping ABS Understanding MARPOL Annex VI A guide for Ship Owners 2005 E ACTl CD Advanced Cleanup Technologies Incorporated Advanced Maritime Emissions Control System AMECS CD Oxnard California Received 2005 3 Anderson 2005 Bruce Anderson Starcrest Consulting Group Haagen Smit Symposium Presentation Policy Levers for Reducing Emissions from Goods Transport April 1821 2005 More information can be found at the following website httpwwwwestcoastcollaborativeorg lesclearinghouse mau39 T 39 39 quot quot 39 39 quot2quot0ProiectsT laagen Sm quot 39 u 0Policv0nquot01 evers20for20Reducin 20Emissions2ndf U Becker 2005 Bill Becker STAPPAALAPCO Haagen Smit Symposium Presentation Policy Levers for Reducing Emissions from Goods Transport State Policy Options April 18 21 2005 More information can be found at the following website httpwwwwestcoastcollaborativeorg lesclearinghouse marineEmission20Reduction20ProjectsHaagen 3 l quot 39 u 0Policv0nquot01 evers20for20Reducin 20Emissions1ndf 0 Bludszuweit 1999 S Bludszuweit H Jungmichel B Buchholz Motoren und Energietechnik GmbH Today s Targets amp Technologies for Reducing Emissions from Large Marine Diesel Engines Motor Ship Conference 1999 March 1999 Athens 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwwwmet Miquot 39 39 1999 epdf 7 Bluewater Bluewater Network Safeguarding the Seas Stopping the pollution of our oceans by ships and fast ferries and preventing deadly collisions with whales 0 More information can be found at httpWWW 39 39 39 ss shins shtml 8 BMT 2005 BMT Fleet Technology Limited for Environment Canada Management Options for Marine Vessel Air Emissions March 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwwestcoastcollaborativeorg lesclearinghouse mau39 39 quotquotm 39 quot u20BMTquot quotquot 39 quot9 mtinn 20Repor M gt0 B SR 2005 Business for Social Responsibility A Path to Sustainable Transport BSR s Clean Cargo Working Group 2005 Problems and Opportunities 75 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwbsrorgCSR WGOCCGFDocsCC 2005 Infopdf O CARB 1983 California Air Resources Board Report to the California Legislature on Air Pollutant Emissions from Marine Vessels Volume 1 June 1983 CARB 1984 California Air Resources Board Report to the California Legislature on Air Pollutant Emissions from Marine Vessels Appendices H to 1V Volume VII June 1984 N CARB 2000 California Air Resources Board et a1 Air Quality Impacts from NOx Emissions of Two Potential Marine Vessel control Strategies in the South CoastAir Basin November 2000 W CARB 2002 California Air Resources Board CARB Oceangoing Marine Vessel Emission Control Technology Matrix October 30 2002 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww arb m R ndf 4 CARB 2005 California Air Resources Board O shore Emissions Impacts on Onshore Air Quality 2005 U CARB Nov 2005 California Air Resources Board ARBAm11ientAir Quality Standards As of 111005 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwwwarbcag0Vagsaags2pdf 6 CARB Oct 2005 California Air Resources Board Emissions Estimation Methodology for OceanGoing Vessels October 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww arh ca 39 7005 annd ndf 1 CARB PM 2005 Pingkuan Di California Air Resources Board CARB Draft DIESEL PARTICULA TE MA TTER EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTST UDY F OR THE PORTS OF LOS ANGELES AND LONG BEACH October 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww arb m E hm 39 ndf 18 CARB SECA CARB CARB Maritime Air Quality Working Group Meeting Sacramento CA May 17 2005 ARB updates More information can be found at the following website httpwww arb m R 39 incw 39 51705051705mwoarb prespdf 19 CDN 2004 China Daily News China emerging force in global marine transport 9262004 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww chinadailv rnm quot 39 39 0200409 76 rnntent 377823htm 20 Cooper 2003 DA Cooper Exhaust emissions from ships at berth Science Direct 5122003 Problems and Opportunities 76 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot 39 obMIm amp ima ekevB6VH3490GXD51 44amp cdi6055amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate092F302F2003amp sk9 99629972ampviewcampwchpdGLthb szzSampmd5992907b7ba65d64ebdb25f6b0ceb95deampiesdarticlepdf N Cooper 2004 Cooper DA and Gustafsson T Methodology for calculating emissions from ships Update of emission factors I VL report U 878 IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Gothenburg Sweden 2004 N N Corbett 2003 James J Corbett PE University of Delaware and David S Chapman PE University of Delaware DECISION FRAMEWORK FOR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SELE CTI ON Prepared for MARAD December 2003 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww marad dnt 39 39 39 20f0r20Technnlnavquot quot 39 39 ndf Deni innon Framework N W CTA 2005 Clear The Air website Hong Kong Boats Ships and Ferries Accessed November 27 2005 o More information can be found at httpwwwc1eartheairorgh1ltboatshtm N 4 DOT 2002 US Department of Commerce China Environmental Technologies Export Market Plan September 2002 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww e nort 39 39 39 39 y information ChinaFMdef N u Earthjustice 2001 Earthjustice news release EPA to Regulate Air Pollution from Big Ocean Vessels Report Finds Ships to be Dirtiest Transportation Source January 16 2001 o More information can be found at httpwww 39 39 39 displa htm1ID53 N 6 EC 2005 DIRECTIVE 200533EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL Marine fuel sulfur directive EU Official Journal L191 July 6 2005 o More information can be found at the following website http europa euinteur 1eX1eXLeXU1iServsiteenoj20051 1911 19120050722en00590069pdf N 1 Eddington Lee and Rosenthal Jay 2003 The Frequency if O shore Emissions Reaching the continental U W Coast Based on Hourly Surface Winds from a 10 Year Mesoscale Model Stimulation Geophysics Branch Technical Note March 2003 N 00 Entec 2002 Entec UK Ltd Quanti cation of emissions from ships associated with ship movements between ports in the European Community July 2002 o More information can be found at the following website httn39 enrnna en 39 39 irpdfchapterl ship emissions ndf N D Entec 2005 Entec UK Limited European Commission Directorate General Environment Service Contract on Ship Emissions August 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httn39 enrnna en 39 39 39 htm3 Problems and Opportunities 77 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 Task report 1 Preliminary Assignment of Ship Emissions to European Countries Task report 2a Assignment Abatement and MarketBased Instruments Entec NOX2005 Task report 2b NOx Abatement Entec SOX 2005 Task report 2c SOx Abatement Task report 3 Shoreside electricity Task report 4 Economic Instruments OOOOOO W O Environ 2004 Environ International Corporation Los Angeles CA for the Port of Long Beach ColdIroning CostE ectiveness Study March 30 2004 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww nnlb pde 4 39 oldIronin D t ndf W EPA CHAMLEY United States EPA Bill Charmley Office of Transportation and Air Quality BunkerWorld Conference 2005 US EPA Marine Update October 6 2005 More information can be found at ttpwww mu marineEPA 221120050 39 39 39quot 20Cnnf n20Charmlev 20Fina1pdf W N EPA JOHNSON Roxanne Johnson US EPA CARB Maritime Air Quality Working Group Meeting Sacramento CA May 17 2005 US EPA Updates on Reducing Emissions from Diesel Marine Vessels More information can be found at the following website httpwww arb m f 39 incw 39 51705051705mwoena prespdf W W EPA 1999 United States EPA Of ce of Air and Radiation Office of Mobile Sources Summary and Analysis of Comments Control of Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines November 1999 o More information can be found at httpwwwepa 39 im ci fr r9902 ndf w 4 EPA 2003 US Environmental Protection Agency EPA 40 CFR Parts 9 and 94 Control of Emissions from New Marine CompressionIgnition Engines at or Above 30 Liters per Cylinder Final Rule February 28 2003 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwepagovotagurlfrfr28fe03pdf 35 EPA 2004 United States EPA Regulatory Update Overview of EPA s Emission Standards for Marine Engines August 2004 o More information can be found at httpwww em 39 39 20f04031pdf 36 EU CMA European Union Environment Clean Marine Award website Accessed 112605 0 More information can be found at httn39 enrnna en39 39 39 39 39 htm 37 Fraser et a1 2004 Fraser Marchman Padilla Martinez Thomson Reducing Air Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines A Regional Approach June 3 2004 Problems and Opportunities 78 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 o More information can be found at the following website httn39 dent 39 39 39 39 nalpdf 38 Gallagher 2003 Gallagher and Taylor International Trade and Air Pollution The Economic Costs of Air Emissions from Waterborne Commerce Vessels in the United States September 2003 o More information can be found at the following website httpase tufts 39 39 39 quot 39 wwkin papers0308W 39 nmmerre PDF 39 Gallagher 2005 Kevin P Gallagher International trade and air pollution Estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States 2222005 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot ience obMIm amp ima ekevB6WJ74GHBPP62 3amp cdi6871amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate102F312F2005amp sk99 9229997ampviewcampwchpdGLthb szzSampmd589d1995ba19bdf0e5c862ca290e4f6faampiesdarticlepdf 40 Ha 2005 Kong Ha Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department Haagen Smit Symposium Presentation Transportation Emissions in Hong Kong April 1821 2005 41 Hao 2005 liming Hao Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering Tsinghua University Beijing Haagen Smit Symposium Presentation Legal and Regulation Challenges for Reducing Emissions from Goods Transport in China April 19 2005 More information can be found at httpwww 39 39u f39 39 39 39 mau39 m 39 39 quotquot 39 39 nnquot0ProiectsT Iaagen 3 quot 39 quotquot0 hallen e0n20for0 39quotm 39 39 F 39 39 nn20in n20 hin m 42 Haveman 2004 Jon D Haveman and David Hummels Public Policy Institute of California California s Global Gateways Trends and issues ISBN 1582130833 2004 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww nnir pu39USR 404THRpdf 43 HK 2004 Hong Kong Legislative Panel on Economic Services Hong Kong Port Mater Plan 2020 November 22 2004 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww1egcogovhkyr04 n quot 39 39 1122cb12304epdf 44 ICS et a1 2004 ICS ISF BIMCO Intercargo and Intertanko Shipping Industry Flag State Performance June 2004 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwmarisecorg ag performance 45 IMO 1997 International Maritime Organization IMO Legislation IMO MARPOL 7378 Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Adopted September 1997 entered into force May 19 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww imn 39 39 f asn Itopic id Ann Problems and Opportunities 79 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 4 6 IMO 2000 MARNEK Det Norske Veritas Econ Centre for Economic Analysis and Carnegie Mellon University for International Maritime Organization Marine Environment Protection Committee MEPC 458 Agenda Item 2 Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships March 31 2000 o More information can be found at the following website httpllnfccc in F39 39 39 and 39 39 39 from intl 39 39 V fimoghgmainpdf 4 1 IMO 2005 IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee MEPC 53ml Session Agenda Item 4 Prevention from Air Pollutnion from Ships London July 21 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httn39 enrnna en 39 I irpdfreport wgpdf 4 oo IMO WEB IMO website IMO Frequently Asked Questions Accessed 2 1106 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwwwimoorghomeasp 4 D ISL 2005 Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics ISL ISL Market Analysis 2005 Ownership patterns of the World Merchant Fleet April 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwis1or products servich 39 quot 39 pdf quotOMIVI 42005shortpdf V O JGR 2005 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH VOL 108 NO D17 4560 doi1010292002JD002898 Oyvind Endresen and Eirik Sorga rd Jostein K Sundet Stig B Dalsoren Ivar S A Isaksen and Tore F Berglen Gjerrnund Gravir Norway Emission from 39 39 39 sea 39 and 39 39impact 2003 4 U 1 Kesgin amp Varder 2001 Ugur Kesgin Nurten Vardar A Study on Exhaust Gas Emissions from Ships in the Turkish Straits Atmospheric Environment 35 2001 18631870 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot 39 obMIm amp ima ekevB6VH342D29Y3H Tamp cdi6055amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate042F302F2001amp ud1 amp sk999649989ampviewcampwchpdGLbVlb szWAampmd5c910e1aa7aff518e33d6b1e7b2a78541ampiesdarticlepdf U N Kumar amp Hoffman 2002 S Kumar J Hoffmann Handbook of Maritime Economics LLP London 2002 o More information can be found at the following website httpbe11rnrnaeduskumarIAMEB001ltpdf U W Levelton 2002 Levelton Engineering Ltd for Greater Vancouver Regional District and Environment Canada MARINE VESSEL AIR EMISSIONS IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEYFOR THE YEAR 2000 April 30 2002 u 4 Lina 2005 Bin Lina CherngYuan Linb Compliance with international emission regulations Reducing the air pollution from merchant vessels Science Direct 12605 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot 39 obMIm amp ima ekevB6VCD4FRKVN51 1amp cdi5952amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate032F192F2005amp sk99 Problems and Opportunities 80 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 9999999ampviewcampwchpdGLthb szzSampmd5ab3b2aad6d81c337df4f0b130e7df0b6ampiesdarticlepdf U U Lowenthal 2005 CA Senator Alan Lowenthal s proposed marine vessel legislature SB 760 S376 S3762 S3763 S3764 Proposed February 22 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwwestcoastcollaborativeorg lesclearinghouse marineLowenthal20CA20520Billdoc U 6 MAN 2004 MAN BampW Diesel AS Copenhagen Denmark Emission Control MAN BampW Twostroke Diesel Engines 9 104 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww manbw mm f11esof4458p9000pdf U 1 MAN 2005 MAN BampW Diesel AS Copenhagen Denmark Propulsion Trends in Container Ships 11905 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww manbw mm lesof4672P9028pdf U DO MARAD 2004 US Department of Transportation Maritime Division Vessel Calls at US Ports 2003 July 2004 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwmaraddotgovMarad Statisticsvcalls2003pdf U D MARAD 2005 US Department of Transportation Maritime Division Vessel Calls at US Ports 2004 excel data set 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwmaraddotgovMarad Statistics200520STATISTICSvcalls2004Xls 6 O Marrner 2005 Elina Marmer and Baerbel Langmann Impact of ship emissions on the Mediterranean summertime pollution and climate A regional model study Science Direct 41205 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot ience obMIm amp ima ekevB6VH34GGWHYD1 Ramp cdi6055amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate082F312F2005amp sk99 9609973ampviewcampwchpdGLthb 5 5 quot 395566bda9739 quotquot39 quotquot Cm anf9f9939a8ampiesdarticlendf 6 MATSON Ramani Srinivasan Matson Navigation Company Inc MA TSON Exhaust emission reduction technologies from large marine diesel engines 0 More information can be found at the following website httpWWW marad dnt quot 20Technolo ies2020Matson df 6 N Mercator 2005 Mercator Transport Group in association with Herbert Engineering Corp and MDS Transmodal Ltd Forecast of Container Vessel Speci cations and Port Calls Within San Pedro Bay February 22 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpWWW um 39 nro DOC SPB Vsl Forecast ndf Problems and Opportunities 81 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 6 W NERA 2004 NERA Economic Consulting London Evaluation of the Feasibility of Alternative MarketBased Mechanism To Promote LowEmission Shipping In European Union Sea Areas March 2004 o More information can be found at the following website httn39 enrnna en 39 I irpdf04 nera reportpdf 6 4 NOAA 1998 Of ce of the Chief Scientist NOAA Year of the Ocean Discussion Papers US Marine Transportation System 1998 o More information can be found at httpwwwvntn9R nnaa 39 trans 316htrnl 6 U NRDC 2003 NRDC News Release City of Los Angeles and Community and Environmental Groups Reach Record Settlement of Ch allenge to China Shipping Terminal Project at Port March 5 2003 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww nrdr quot quot 1 HQ 66 NRDC 2004 NRDC Accomplishments Big Ships Air Pollution To Be Regulated by EPA 62804 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 39 quot 39 quot 39 htrnlID82 6 1 Palmer 2000 William Palmer prepared for Transportation Development Centre of Transport Canada CostBene t Study of Marine Engine NOx Emissions Control Systems A Case Study of the M V Cabot February 2000 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwtcgccw ulc 39 quot 39 pdf1430014373epdf 6 DO Paro 2005 D Paro Wartsila Haagen Smit Symposium Presentation Technical Improvements for Ships April 1821 2005 More information can be found at the following website httpwwwwestcoastcollaborativeorg lesclearinghouse mau39 T 39 39 quot quot 39 39 quot2quot0ProiectsT laagen Smit0 quot 39 nquot0Technical quot 39 nu20f0r0 quot0 hin 397 ndf 6 D PoLA Agenda 2005 Port of Los Angeles Executive Director s Report to the Board of Harbor Commissioners Special Meeting of October 12 2005 APPROVAL OF COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES HARBOR DEPARTMENTAND THE UNITED STATES MARITIME ADMINISTRA TI ON F OR USCHINA COOPERA TI ON IN MANAGING AIR POLLUTION FROM MARINE VESSELS AND PORTS October 12 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httn39 laritv0rgum 39 quot quot2745 10122005 ndf O PoLA NNI 2005 Port of Los Angeles No Net Increase Task Force No Net Increase Final Report July 24 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpWWW um 39 nro DOC NNI Final Rennrt ndf PoLA VSR 2005 Port of Los Angeles Vessel Speed Reduction Program eliminates 100 tons of Emissions from Air in 3 Months August 17 2005 Problems and Opportunities 82 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww um 39 nro PressREL20VSRPr00ramndf 72 PoLB 1995 Port ofLong Beach TARIFF NO 4 NAMING RATES RULESAN RE GULA TIONS GOVERNING THE PORT OF LONG BEA CH CALIFORNIA FOR PILOTAGE DOCKAGE WHARFAGE WHARF DEMURRAGE AND WHARF STORAGE F REE TIME BERTH AND AREA ASSIGNMENTS PUBLIC LANDING WA TER AND ELECTRICITY HANDLING EQUIPMENTAND GENERAL RULESAND REGULA TIONS May 19 1995 o More information can be found at httpwww nnlh 39 39 F39 39 39 39 39 39 quot 39 a n IBlole2267 73 PoLB 2005 Port of Long Beach Long Beach Harbor Department Green Port Policy White Paper 2005 o For more information see httpwww nnlb ciVica lebank39 39 39 quot 39 a n IBlole2268 1 4 PPI 2005 Jon Haveman Public Policy Institute of CA Haagen Smit Symposium Presentation Challenges Facing AsiaPaci c Trade April 19 2005 1 U Robinson 2005 Nicola Robinson European Commission Swedish Conference Stockholm Sweden Air Pollution from Ships EU Developments May 22 2005 1 6 RULE CARB 2005 California Air Resources Board CARB Dra Proposed Regulation EMISSION LIMITS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR A UXILIARY DIESEL ENGINES AND DIESELELECTRI C ENGINES OPERA TED ON OCEANGOING VESSELS WITHIN CALIFORNIA WA TERS AND 24 NA U TI CAL MILES OF THE CALIFORNIA BASELINE October 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpWWW arb m R 11 ndf 1 Saxea amp Larsena 2004 H Saxea T Larsena Air pollution from ships in three Danish ports Atmospheric Enviroment 38 40574067 2004 1 DO SBCAPCD 2004 Allard Murphy and Fournier Santa Barbara County APCD The Need to Reduce Marine Shipping Emissions A Santa Barbara Case Study April 2004 1 D SCHARY Claire Schary USEPA Region 10 White Paper Emissions Trading in the Marine Sector Prepared for the Marine Vessels and Ports Sector Workgroup 7 West Coast Collaborative February 2006 00 O SEAat proj 2005SEAat Update SEAatSnlfnr Emissions O rsetting pilot project 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwseaatorgindeXhtm DO SEAat Tech 2005 SEAat Emission Control An Overview of Technologies January 13 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww seam quot T 39 39 nntrnlx M7 dnp 00 N Singapore Singapore Legislation relating to the Ocean Problems and Opportunities 83 o Controlling air emissions from marine vessels 0 o More information can be found at the following website httpwwwapec N quot sin apore quot ndf 83 Sinhaa et a1 2003 Parikhit Sinhaa Peter V Hobbsa Robert J Yokelsonb Ted J Christianb Thomas W Kirchstetterc Roelof Bruintjesd Emissions of trace gases and particles from two ships in the southern Atlantic Ocean Science Direct 192003 0 More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot ience obMIm amp ima ekevB6VH3488GOY11 Jamp cdi6055amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate052F312F2003amp sk999 629984ampviewcampwchpdGLthb 0 S quot 5elt 204b900254b18ab99c8737b379quot8quotampie 39 39 39 ndf oo 4 SMA Swedish Maritime Administration Environmental Differentiated Fairway and Port Dues 0 More information can be found at httpwww 39 f 6 uploadPdfC F T fC 39 39 Duespdf DO U SMA 2005 Swedish Maritime Administration for International Marine Symposium Information concerning the applied Incentives to curb ship emissions from vessels calling upon Swedish ports March 1 2005 DO 6 SOLENT Solent Maritime Website Vessel Types Accessed 2 1106 0 More information can be found at httpwwwsolentwaterscouk DO 1 SSA 2002 The Swedish Shipowners39 Association and PriceWaterhouseCoopers A COMMUNITYSTRA TEGY ONAIR POLL UTION FROM SEA GOING SHIPS Proposal of Emissions Trading Scheme of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides Gothenburg February 26th 2002 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww nwr 39 39 39 39 ortpdf trading scheme SSA sh DO 00 Starcrest El 2005 Starcrest Consulting Group LLC for the Port of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Baseline Air Emissions Inventory 2001 July 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww um 39 nro DOC POLA Final BAEIpdf 00 D Starcrest Fuel 2005 Starcrest Consulting Group LLC for the Port of Los Angeles Evaluation of Low Sulfur Marine Fuel Availability Paci c Rim July 2005 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww um 39 nro DOC Fuel Studv Jul 7 2005pdf D O Streets et a1 2000 David G Streets Sarath K Guttikunda Gregory R Carmichael The Growing Contribution of Sulfur Emissions from Ships in Asian Water 19981995 Atmospheric Environment 34 44254439 2000 o More information can be found at the following website httpwww 39 quot 39 obMIm amp ima ekevB6VH340XNWHP3 Kamp cdi6055amp user112642amp ori searchamp coverDate082F022F2000amp qd1 amp sk999659973ampviewcampwchpdGLbVlb S S quot 395re5 57r500fr147b5e9c35d4371cc8fcampiesdarticle ndf Problems and Opportunities 84
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