FIRST YR JAPANESE I
FIRST YR JAPANESE I JAPAN 1
Popular in Course
Popular in Japanese
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zoe Rogahn on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JAPAN 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/226845/japan-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Japanese at University of California Santa Barbara.
Reviews for FIRST YR JAPANESE I
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/22/15
Population Geography Class 22 Last Time 1 Fertility Terms 2 European Fertility Transition 3 Examine patterns of the Fertility Transition in the Developing world Population Geography Class 22 Today 1 Review Developing World 7 Demographic Transition Patterns and how they are similardifferent from European Transition 2 Examine Determinants of the Fertility Transition among LDCs amp explain how it is similardifferent from the European transition 3 Examine Population Policy Population Geography Question of the day j How many people have ever lived Question of the day 2 F What would be the world s population in 2300 at 19952000 levels of growth Overview of European Fertility Transition A Preindustrial pretransition before 1750 CBRs 40s50s TFRs 46 or less B Pr0t0 industrial 1750 gt early 1800 Slight rise in TFR C Victorian Downswing 186070s gt 1940 D Completed fertility transition 1950 gt TFR under 2 in most places Pimm39e 2 The General Me ml Fertility Rate fer anieh and Fem Ether German Eiftiee 4GB I Munalt E erlin Frankfur 9 BEE51ml E55211 EDD Heie e1dHLeIFeruluy 20D 1GB Semee Sm e eehee refereed demeeher quot Sa da e 1 1 S S 13 11 399 l i Demographic Transition THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL STAGE ONE STAGE TWO Pre Modern STAGE THREE 5 STAGE FOUR Urbanizing Mature Industrial iPost Industrial Industrializing 4 U1 I Lu D I can CDR RATE PER1IJUIJ M M 01 D 01 TOTAL POPULATIGN I l U I CEIR CDR Tntal Population Source K Montgomery Department of Geography and Geology University of Wisconsin httpwwwuwmcuwcedugeographyDemotransdemtranhtm Fertility Transition Elsewhere Fertility Transition Elsewhere like mortality place matters N America ProTransition fertility rates higher than for W Europe TFR 67 no landshortage delayed marriage AustraliaNZ ProTransition fertility much like USA Fertility decline like W Europe Japan ProTransition fertility controlled as in England by land shortages late marriage amp lower marital fertility 4 types of fertility situations Late Marriage natural marital fertility Stage I W Europe Late Marriage controlled marital fertility Stage IV W Europe Early Marriage natural marital fertility Stage I USA most of third world Early Marriage controlled marital fertility Some Countries with rapid fertility decline eg Thailand Mexico Fertility Transition Elsewhere Temporal patterns of change Falling mortality Steady fall N Africa SS Africa S Asia SE Asia Declining rate of fall Latin America China Fall in fertility 19507090 Steady fall NAfrica SAmerica SAsia Delayed fall 195070 little fall in C America Delayed a bit in SE Asia China relatively little change until mid 1960s very rapid fall to 197 5 stable since FEW l lisitri ljun im m clef 1161 csmnttm39 s E31 mm f i i y NEEquotEll mammal 1150 allzmd Dwelnping E m m H Median 1WD DEVEMFEEI E ll tl i Medial EDEN e WWII mm I httpwww unorgesapopulationpublicationsworldfertiIityExecutiveSummary pdf 197W EDD Fertility Transition Elsewhere Demographic Transition in rest of world incomplete 19508 Most LDCs with CBRs gt 401000 i N Africa amp Sub Saharan Africa CBR 50 TFR 56 ii Latin America between 4050 TFR 56 iii Asia between 4050 TFR 56 CDRs i N Africa amp Sub Saharan Africa 20305 ii Latin America CDRS 10205 iii Asia CDRS 2030 Fertility Transition Elsewhere 19705 88 Africa CBR still 50 CDR down to 20 so RNI 5020 3 Higher than 1950 Latin America CDR down to 10 by 1970 CBRs 40 for Central America 35 for South America Therefore 4010 3 RNI for C America up Asia China 1970 CDR lt10 CBR 30 gt 2 RNI same Fertility Transition Elsewhere 1990sToday Both D B rate fall but at different rates in different places 1 Both rates down but CBRs gt 30 CDRs 10 i N Africa C America Caribbean S Asia ii Not too much scope for farther fall of CDRs iii like stage 3 of European transition 2 Both rates down but CBRs 1020 CDRs lt 10 i S America China ii less scope for i CDRs iii a bit farther along in transition stage 3 3 SE Asia between these 2 4 Special case of SS Africa CDRs halved in 40 years but birth rates down hardly at all Global Fertility Patterns 2004 Global TFR 26 45 Vear doubling time TFRgt5 10 of World 88 Africa Pakistan Yemen Global Fertility Patterns 2004 TFR 2150 60 of World High end TFR 3050 N Africa S Asia M East C Am LOW end TFR 2130 South Africa S Am India 30 Global Fertility Patterns 2004 TFR lt replacement 21 30 of World China 18 Europe 15 E Europe Russia Italy Spain Greece Japan 13 or below US 21 Why so high Effect 01 Immigrati n Rates on US Pnpulati n 4I 350 3l 250 2I 15D Pnpulainn lirnillimrlslI 1nn 51quot 19393quot E 2 El 3135 25I El 55 E l r39 ear 15 milli n per year 5I ll prewar Hnimmigrati n EIJIJJJIJIJ FIEr F ar 3 lll peryear Global Fertility Patterns 2004 Total fertility rate High human development Medium human development Low human development High income Middle income Low income UNDP Human Development Report 2004 197075 200005 25 18 49 24 68 56 22 17 45 21 59 37 Fertility Transition Elsewhere Whv is it different in the developing world Fertility Transition Elsewhere More rapid growth Because Mortality different Fertility different Migration Some recent growth rates very rapid Population momentum Fertility Transition Elsewhere What aspects of the contemporarv world favor a potentiallv more rapid fertilitv decline Fertility Transition Elsewhere Potential for more rapid change Contraception is available Age of marriage is low Increasing social legitimization of small families NGOs Decline much more rapid than in Europe so far Fertility Transition Elsewhere What determines fertilitv todav in the developing world Fertility Transition Elsewhere Economic modernization Urbanization Industrialization Reduced Mortality Religion Culture Global Fertility Rates World Fertility Patterns 1997 TIII39tal Fe rtility Hate Lass than 2 3II3EI quot i I at 43 Il 51 53 E or more I Data not available www unorgesapopuIationpubsarchiveferfermaphtm I 1mm arm l 1 lime I EliHE El SEE8 I iii23 Lesa than it Ha as Ma nut scam Gammight mmpam Ilrn nhasa Ltd EMSm7 W 1mm mortality rate i the W0 3LB Map of World Religions Warm H igima m39 39 imr E t narii Fairff r El Ema f Fm m Ellim JudiMi Ba fi g Human Fmtaabanl Emitf Hartman E Lll39i l Mu llm 5m un llm l Buddhas Himhm 5i nli harrtdw h 1 Pg ula m uemm 3957 L F giftnm V this Eu g gan i 1mquot m w m 3r inquot 17quot SE quot quot quot12 quot quotA J J E 9an 1353 its 7 r r EiZEQ V nig gt is i tgl Tllwl39lliili rnimeiii n httpwwwmapscomlreferencelthematiclwthematicltwworldreligionhtml Contraception Today 2003 Famm a f Wmquot f WWWE 9 Gummy quotENE mutateg V preuaimm inmateimam 39 E f I an la 553 Eu I EU 1 man an i z Percentaga uf married muman nf repmdrzwactiua age surrem y using cantracegati n by methnd 101 Wg td Mara dgvlupd 5335 develupe l ragimns Fema e Emiliaam I Pill I quotJ zhymmMithdravral raginns I Mam stariliza m I W jEGtEL b lBE I Eundum quotEither ElliJr a u39 Jm m quotn m39rw H22 31 w Em my Permntags f marrie warnan nf re rn uctiu age gur ren y using mntra eptiun by regian REESE g Pm quotExh bn 3mm Per Capita GNP 113 39 quot H H w U39I I U39I II U39I I 3939 I I I I I 3939 I I I I I I 39 I I I I I IE I I la Samalla Nigeria 33 g Bangladesh EU Saudi Arabia mu naam BJUEIJBHH unnamdad azunas Egypt Ea India 31 Mexico lndanasia ETD Brazil China 3m USA Italyr Japan 34TH ETTl I 39II samunao pa1aaa3 u aamaam Population Policy Governmental and nongovernmental groups attempt to change demographic events within their country mostly fertility and migration Pronatalist and Antinatalist Fertility Policies Pronatalist fertility policy 1930s most Euro fascists states pronatalist taxes on unmarried cheap loans for newlyweds 1950s60s little pronatalist Romania Until 1966 liberal abortion laws gt state supplied and was main form of fertility control 80 of all concep ons Antinatalist fertility policy Modern origins in late 50s mostly 1960s 1960 censuses showed unexpectedly high rates of growth Natural disasters in developing countries Economists demonstrated per capita income higher if population growth lower in LDCs Development of oral contraceptives and IUD Creation of international agencies with population concerns Today over 90 of population in LDC lives in countries with official antinatalist policies Problem was conceived of in Malthusian terms Current Fertility Practices 400m of 800850m couples use some contraception 50 most couples with or without contraception in LDCs up from lt10 in 1950 Regional variation in contraceptive use Asia committed to l population growth rate 75 couples use contraception Africa except Egypt less commitment for family planning 20 of couples use contraception Middle East little in the way of antinatalist policy Latin America mostly supportive few back anti natalist program 40 use contraception 1997 Global Contraceptive Use all methods aw Cuntraceptiun 3955 married wnmen I hi I 55 to 92 243 I 53 to 55 24 33 to 53 124 I 18h 33 24 22 r I 2tn1EEES Nuinformatiun 95 a v United Nations publication STESNSERN175 Sales N0 E99XIII4 1 Percentage of married women of reproductive age using contraception in N 9211513308 Copyright C Unite World Contraceptive Use 1998 Nations 1999 Skepticism for Family Planning Programs The assumption of unmet need is challenged Poorest are least able to afford therefore won t demand In some places it is rational to have multiple births Caldwell s Fertility Theory Important to distinguish between the micro within family vs macro consequences of high fertility society Tragedy of the Commons Resource degradation Population vs Consumption 1 US baby will consume gt50x more of the world s resources that an Indian baby over its lifetime Public Policy Currently 56 billion spent on unmet need for contraception and high desired family size Demographer John Bongaarts argues for an increased effort for tackling population momentum 810 billion by 2100 UN s medium estimate USA spends 4465m 2002 01GNP lowest per capita contribution among all industrialized countries 39n l ln m it GNP i a El c mnhg f Hallway Hm DIEMEI le39HmIms Ef n i i Lunemua I 51 Finllm nd 513 humIii quot quot LlniEIsad hi Uni 5mm Swimlz rlm anude 2 5a Kilian Jana d 525 1 LIE diam 5 httpwwwp0pu1ati0nacti0norgresourcesfactsheetsfactsheet20htm HE IH39 Ellif Fanning d Hr lm m d mm W mm Li U hmd Iu httpWwwp0pu1ati0nacti0norgresourcesfactsheetsfactsheet2Ohtm Overview of policy Population growth still a major concern We are just past the midpoint of today s explosion in population growth Cause number 1 Unmet latent Demand Contraception Poor knowledge supply and quality Consequences of unmet demand 25 million extra birthsyear 25 million abortionsyear 20 thousand maternal deathsyear Population Growth Cause 2 Hiqh desired family size related to human development programs Education Status of women IMR GNPcapita has little effect Population Growth Cause 3 Population Momentum Poorly addressed by policy Policy can reduce effects of momentum by increasing length between generations ie delay births until older ages Delay in birth of only 25 years gt 1b lower population by 2100 There are laws about age of marriage in China and Indonesia Sri Lanka Philippines better education for girls gt later marriage Cumulative Carbon Emissions 1950 1999 P r ta Eum39uiatiw q i ll 3 Kantian Emissi ns f95 5E Ia 1 clam World Resources Institute 2001 AID Agencies Offer wide array of services Early programs mostly c clinics in urban areas Provide incentives and disincentives Eg government taxes on large families Mobilize local community interests Convince local leadership that high fertility can lead to villagelevel problems Change social institutions Elevate status of women
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'