GSS 50A WEEK 4 lecture notes
GSS 50A WEEK 4 lecture notes Gen & Sex 50A
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Popular in Women and Gender studies
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Gen & Sex 50A at University of California - Irvine taught by STAFF in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Gender and Feminism in Women and Gender studies at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
102015 GSS5OA WEEK FOUR Gender and Nation State and Citizenship the PublicPrivate Divide 1 Review a who owns our body which groups of people have greater control over what happens to their bodies b Why are governments interested in human reproduction and sexuality c Diff between pop control and fertility control i pop control malthusianism eugenics trying to control and manage human populations for the betterment of the species not sexual control of body Margaret Sanger FORM OF BIOPOWER comes out of certain ideas and discourses of who should be having children and who shouldn t be eugenics ii fertility control women s autonomy their choice to space out births to have children not have children historic relationship that women have had to their own bodies and their own decision making 2 Questions for Today a why have feminists movement been interested in citizenship b what is the publicprivate divide c how has this division been used to support gender and racial inequality d why are feminists interested in more than equality 3 citizenship defined a relationship between an individual and a state b status of freedom with accompanying responsibilities 4 Foundation of US Citizenship a liberal social contract theory i idea that individuals have a contract with the state a set of expectations of your society and state and a set of responsibilities to the society and to the state b property ownership i protecting those who do have property ii class conflicts c individualism i individuals are the most important part of society all individuals are all on equal footing ideally d separation of public and private spheres i naturalized concept 5 liberalism a political and social philosophy emphasizing a the rights and freedoms of individuals b the separation of state and civil society c the social contract in return for protection from others individuals consent to a contract to obey the rule of law This ensure them specific rights and imposes upon them specific duties 6 What is an Individual a key unit of modern democracies b autonomous and rights bearing person c selfmakingselfdetermining d sees himself as a whole one who feels he does not need others to make his identity e who gets to be an individuals Who does not 7 Separate Spheres version from liberal political theory a the state government system of laws police military legislative judicial and exec branches regulatory agencies b civil societies voluntary organizations religious organizations charities private clubs pol parties 8 public v private version from feminist theory a public sphere the state the world of commerce civil society organizations outside the home freedom b private sphere the family the household domestic sphere subordination c feminist claims i sphere are separate but NOT equal ii these sphere are intertwined and shape each other public realm depends on private 9 liberalism v patriarchalism a liberalism individualist egalitarian b patriarchalism subordination follows from natural characteristics or birthright i battle was between rights of adult sons against dominations by their fathers 10 Patriarchy a rule by father i male elder in family has absolute power over all members of group b term used by some types of feminists to examine and critique male domination 11 Who got thrown under the bus excluded from citizenship a women b children c enslaved peoples d all were subjected to paternal power in the private realm of the household Liberalism is really patriarchal liberalism e private realm is not free has hierarchical structure to it 12 Private Realm as Unfree a based on idea of women s natural inferiority to men b no laws against marital rape wives did not have a legal right to refuse to have sex with husbands c wives were and supposed to be economically dependent on husbands d motherswives held responsible for the morality of the family Sexual doublestandard men can and do what they want but it s women s job to reign them in e housework and childcare are unpaid labor 13 The personal is political a feminist slogan i personal problems created by structural forces and must be solved by political means 1 childcare policies maternity leave equal parenting 2 wages for housework 3 equal pay for comparable work ii state has interest in private life 1 reproductive rights and sexuality 14 Manifest Domesticity Amy Kaplan a cult of domesticity cult of true womanhood 1830 1850s i angel of the household ii home as a haven in a heartless world b dual meaning of the term domestic i home ii notforeign c foreign alien distant other 15 White Women and Settler Colonialism a domestication process leads to civilizing mission b white woman s burden i taming the wild through manners ii civilizing the savage iii racial purity and cultural imperialism c reinforcement of separate sphere and secondclass citizenship for women 16 Racial Domination 1830s to 1850s a native people displaced lndian Removal Act of 1830 Trail of Tears death march reservation oregon trail land seizure b US war with Mexico 17 Manifest Domesticity a mashup of manifest destiny and cult of domesticity b genderrace and empire conquest resource exploitation white masculinity c anxieties about internal and external others then and now d foreign policy depends on idea of nation as home domestic e home as protection from foreign others threats f idea of foreign needed to establish boundaries of homenation g domesticity monitors and regulates borders insideoutside of homenation h wild to be tamed racial and sexual discourse 18 secondclass citizenship a fifteenth amendment 1870 right of citizens men of the US to vote shall not be denied by race color or previous condition of servitude b women citizens of the US won right to vote in 1920 under 19th Amendment c poll taxes literacy tests other impediments to political participation 19 Formal equalityroutine inequality a militarization of citizenship women excluded from military service positions as helpless dependents to be protected b domestic violence police brutality workplacehousingeducational discrimination c policing of women s bodies through biopower and restrictions of reproductive rights 20 concluding thoughts a citizenship status depends on dynamics of inclusion and exclusion as new populations become citizens material and symbolic who gets excluded b does the gendered divide between public and private spheres still exist c what does the history teach us about more recent developments concerning homeland security in post 911 America d how are gender and racial formations being mobilized in debates about US citizenship e beyond its symbolic meaning what is required for equality what does it take to end inequality 102215 GSS 50A WEEK FOUR LECTURE TWO Gender and Modern States 1 concepts to review a feminist interests in citizenship b public v private sphere i freedomsubordination c patriarchy and patriarchal structures d manifest domesticity gender race and settler colonialism domesticforeign 2 public masculine private feminine a public sphere the State the world of commerce civil society organizations outside the home freedom b private sphere the family the household the domestic sphere subordination c feminist claims these sphere are separate but NOT equal and these spheres are intertwined public depends on private 3 modern state g h i J k western construct has become compulsory political form for the rest of the world based on concept of citizens as individuals detached from communities individual is a contract making citizen relies on notion of individual as property owner first and foremost an owner of himself meant to be universal but in fact the Western liberal notion of citizen implies a masculine subject males were property owners Carole Pateman argues that modern nationstate is a fraternal patriarchy dominant idiom is brothers free men enter into the social contract that creates an association of autonomous individualized contractmaking people only possible for property owners who are largely white men 4 modern state as masculine construct a b C d e f g institutionalized the publicprivate dividetransferred power to the state by some men in return for men s increased control over families but state also intervenes in the private realm to police women s sexuality and reproduction from the beginning Western liberal construct of the nationstate excludes women and minorities nationstate is already gendered concept gets imposed on gendered systems of social stratification nationstate building project too is patriarchal and exclusionary while claiming to be inclusionary 5 who is the subject of modern liberal states 8 individual male i citizensoldierworker ii reasonable man iii property owner iv head of household v breadwinner vi notfemale not dependent passive inferior 6 the gender politics of space a b 0 men move from public to private and back again women are contained and constrained in the home and in their sexed bodies Pettman 175 women are to be under the protection and control of men they are dependent 7 women s relation to the state a b placed in role of dependency to be protected underrepresented in positions of authority c sometimes used opportunistically to advance nation s cause examples anticolonial and national independence movements US war on terror then marginalized 8 different feminist positions about the role of state a liberal or equality feminism seeks to end statesanctioned discrimination against women seeks to increase women s access to the state ex Hillary Clinton b socialist feminism sees state as serving interests of the privileged class in terms of race gender sexuality and money ambivalence toward using the state for feminist goals c radical feminism prioritizes women s oppression over other kinds of oppression race class nationality sees the state as male and responsible for adding to women s oppression irony is that some radical feminists turn to the state to defend women s rights 9 US welfare state a provided some support for women as mothers mixed results b shift from private to public patriarchy c public assistance tied to the surveillance of women s sexual relations d in Scandanavian countries women supported as workers and parents men supported as parents too e can states be feministwomenfriendly 10 socialist states china soviet union cuba vietnam a officially committed to equality between men and women b more women in public office and political parties c but persistence of the publicprivate division doubleshift for women women do work at home out of love but also in public 11 some general observations about women and the state a state discourse renders women invisible assuming citizens are genderneutral b all states rely on women s unpaid domestic and reproductive labor Women s domestic work is naturalized as a labor of love c many laws contribute to women s inequality through family laws and policies marriage divorce legitimacy of children 12 intersectional analysis a states treat different kinds of women differently i example eugenics and sterilization abuse ii example lesbians not protected from employment discrimination in some states iii ex undocumented women subjected to criminal prosecution 13 masculinist state also racist a colonialism is nationbuilding project for colonizing nation b ideas about masculinity and race intertwined through civilizational discourses c women excluded from full citizenship in Western nations Europe US become citizensubjects through their role in colonial project i can t vote but their citizenship role is in the domestic sphere publicprivate sphere separate but equal each person had a place in society 14 Egyptian state and women 18901922 a state plays a contradictory role i created educational and work opportunities for women allowing them some freedom from their families exclusive control ii women became torn between their roles as citizens 15 egyptian state s solution a reinforced a new version of the public private split b relegate the supervision and regulation of women s roles in the family to religious law personal status laws 16 brief history of Egypt a part of the ottoman empire 15171867 b british occupation in 1882 c declared a british protectorate 17 modern egyptian state a parliamentary representative system established in 1923 b bicameral system balance of powers between executive and legislative brances c women acquired the right to vote and equality 18 egyptian feminism 18901922 a argued for education rights to employment and rights to participate in congregational worship b related to egyptian nationalism and movements against colonial occupation by the British c opponents called them westernized 19 islamic modernism a movement to synthesize western thought and practices with islamic religious beliefs 1860s on b developed in response to European colonization of egypt c blended islam with secular principles of civil rights including women s rights 20 personal status laws a laws governing matters related to the family informed by religious doctrine b key target for reform by egyptian feminists in arab spring movement 20112013 c divorce polygamy alimony adoption child custody and support dowry payment 21 relationship between nationstate families and individuals a all contemporary nationbuilding projects mobilize woman as symbol but also mobilize women s participation as nation builders b often state tries to influence shifts in family and gender roles c must look at specific historical context to understand where and when state works for women where it works against women d must also look at which women e in many nationbuilding projects the state implements reforms for women that only benefit the most elite women
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