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Notes on Drawings and Materials used in the shop

by: Brooke Kaufman

Notes on Drawings and Materials used in the shop Thea 1200

Marketplace > Thea 1200 > Notes on Drawings and Materials used in the shop
Brooke Kaufman
GPA 3.83

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These were from about a week ago
Stagecraft 1
Class Notes
plywood, skrim, velour, stagecraft, wood shop
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Kaufman on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Thea 1200 at a university taught by Kate/Pat in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Drawings  Never build without a drawing  Design drafting, technical drawings  Designer drafting o Pretty picture o Audience perspective o Done by designer  Technical drawing o How it looks from back o How to build it o More drawings required  Parts on all drawings o Object with dimensions o Notes section o Title block (name of show, director, designer, date, scale)  Scale:  Most things drawn to scale, rarely full scale  Xerox copy can throw off scale  ¼, ½, 1 inch (common scales)  Things to do with drawings o When scale is given, create cut list (letters identify which dimensions go to which part without using letters I and O because they look too much like 1 and 0) o You only need lengths if you need two different sized, like 2 by 4 and 1 by 4 o Needs to be standard form  Flats o Wall sections o Parts:  Top and bottom boards=rails (full width, ride the rails)  Stiles are the side boards that give us height  Toggle are middle boards to maintain width and prevent hour glassing (capped by stiles)  Number of toggles depends on height (usually at every 24 or 32 inches) o Style of flats  Broadway/Theatrical frame flat  Framing is flat instead of on edge  Corner blocks and keystones (typically made from ¼” plywood, grain pattern is key for how it is applied)  Thin so good for storage, lightweight, resists hour-glassing better  Do not resist bending the other way well, connecting flats is difficult  Hollywood framing flat  Framing on edge/3D  Don’t need corner blocks or keystone  Resists bending in half but not hour-glassing as well  Thicker and deeper so less storage  Joining together multiple flats is easy  Metal frame flat  Good for really tall flats  No corner blocks or keystones  Little bend  How to attach wood or fabric to a steel flat is the question  Curved flat  For curved walls  Like Hollywood flats but use arcs for toggles and rails  Have to consider what to skin with (has to be a hard skin)  Skinning o Luon (hard)  Cheap  Hard cover flat  Block light  Noise buffer/movement buffer o Plywood (hard)  RARE  Need to bend, can use thin MDF o Unbleached cottonstuslin (soft)  Shrink 1 time painting or sizing (helps stiffen) o Black velour (soft)  Masking flats near curtains o Both let light bleed through o Muslin over luon (combination)  Neutral surface to paint on with out grain pattern o Black plastic behind black velour  Platforms o Levels (gives variety) o 4 ft. by 8 ft. o Come in stock sizes o Can have curved edges o Framing styles  Flush framing (frame flushed to edge of lid)  Easy to connect but have to be able to get under or be able to flip it  Holdback (lid 4 “ back from frame)  Can connect with ¾” plywood (shelf) to attach from top o Lids: ¾” plywood  Painted Masonite can go on top so plywood isn’t stopped from being reusable  Framing (good info) o 2 by 4 or 2 by 6 for stock framing o Tube steel 2 by 1 (alternative for wood), longevity  Methods to raise platform o Legging  4 by 8 platform= 6 legs o Stud wall  2 by 4  Bottom plate, # of studs, top plate  Sometimes faster  Harder the higher the height o Rake  Upstage/downstage concept  Angled deck  Rules in equity house  Rise over run (3/4” over 1’ without trainer in equity house)  Improves sightline  Forces perspective  Curtains o Velour  18-24 ounce per yard  Heavier fabric, deeper pile/nap  Nap down for stage drapery  Inherently flame retardant for 10-15 years  Chain/pipe pocket in button  Vertical seams  Jute webbing to reinforce top edge with grommets  Bottom dust ruffle  Build flat (1 ft. curtain=1 ft. webbing)  Build full (1 ft. webbing=2 ft. pleated curtain)  Heavier, more expensive  Looks richer o Main drape/traveler  Bipartite (split in half)  Guillotine (up and down)  Front of stage  Typically not black  Control depth of stage o Sight bridge traveler  Back of stage  Depth of stage o Grand valance/border  Same color as grand traveler  Other borders farther back  Height of stage  Hides lights, pipes, etc.  Main=full  Others=flat o Legs  Width of stage  Broke a leg-walked past leg on stage o Australian drape  Lines connected to bottom and pull from bottom up  Rings on back o Drops  Painted piece of soft scenery  Static drop  Flying drop  Roll drop o Scrim  Material opaque when lit from front, transparent when lit from front  Can do dissolves  Extremely expensive  Extremely fragile Materials  Wood o Dimensional/stick lumber  Nominal (2 by 4) dimension (true dimension gets rounded up by ½ inch)  True (1 ½ by 3 ½) dimension  Grade of material (better grade, less defects)  Pressure treated/AC2 (greenwood)  Made to resist rot  Three thicknesses  1 by ¾ (width 4-12, framing and decoration)  2 by 1 ½ (width 4-12, structure)  4 by 3 ½ (sometimes pressure treated is cheaper)  Lengths  8ths to 16ths by 2 feet increments  Longer the board, more possible defects  12 feet nominal, but in length they actually give you more like 3/8ths of an inch more  Can get different species  SPF (spruce pine fur is most common)  Sheet goods o 4 by 8 o “Velveeta” o Plywood  Ply’s/layers to it  Grain pattern changes every other layer  Resists bending  Thickness is nominal  Grade of material done by letter  A=best  D=worst  Rarely find grade AA ever  Fire rated is a special type  Thickness  Most common is ¾ inches (structural, drawback is it is heavy)  ¼ inches (flat building, keystones, skin for flat)  ½ inches (flying stuff, middle ground) o Bendable plywood  Grain runs same way  Extremely expensive o Luan  Cheap  Outer 2 layers are mahogany  Facing for flats  Stainable o MDF (medium density fiberboard) and Masonite  MDF is sawdust that was pressured  Standard size: 4” 1’ by 8” 1’ o Masonite  More common  Fairly bendable  Tempered hardboard  Live sounding material  Heavier than plywood  Pegboard (Masonite with holes)  Swells when painted  Problematic with water o OSB (oriented strand board)  Chip board  Good structure  Cannot change the look of it  Smooth and rough side  Cheaper than plywood  Different nominal  Tongue and groove (one side divot and one side bump so they can connect) o Paper  Salatex  Blackboard  Brown board  Textured  Can scuff and create dust  Homosote  Paper as well, little denser  Both: type of sound deadening installation o Wood (again)  Hardwood plywood  Expensive  Oak, mahogany, etc. o Metals  Steel  Cheaper  Easier to weld  Aluminum  Crap ton lighter  More expensive  Dangerous off gas  Gauge: measurement of wall thickness  Higher the number, thinner the material  16, 20, etc.  Square/rectangle tube  No difference between true and nominal  1”, 1 ½”, 2” (square)  2 by 1 (most common regular shape) o Bigger number comes first in rectangular for steel versus in plywood (example: 2 by 1 versus 2 by 4)  Rounds  Pipe o Sized inside diameter and schedule (10, 40, 80)  Mechanical tube o Sized with gauge and outside diameter  Structural shapes o Angle (leg beam and thickness) o I-beam o C-channel  Steel (again) o Sheet goods  4 by 8  Expanded/perforated (like grate, good for special effects) o Bar stock  Smaller sheet  12” is widest it gets  Used for things like caster to hold wheels  Width by thickness  Plastics o Difficult to work with  Choose right adhesives/processes  Right combination of material and glue o Styrofoam  Expanded/extruded polystyrene  Worked hot  Stinky  Won’t kill you  Green/pink/blue foam  Hot work on it will hurt you (dangerous gases)  Upholstery  Soft and squishy  Vaccuform/thermal plastic  Can be heated and shaped  Vaccuform machine  Glass o Try never to use o Can shatter and show must be stopped o Luxane  Expensive  Scratches stay  Will not break o Plexiglas  Cheap  Can buff out scratches  Will break  PVP o Polyviynlclorovame o Plumbing and pipe o Can use on tools that work on wood o Certain markets make it hard to find (ex. Chicago) o Convenient for plumbing o Incredibly difficult to paint (now spray paint for plastics)  UHMW o Cheaper alternative to Teflon o Non-stick o Incredibly low friction, slippery o Cannot glue or paint


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