GLOBAL & RESIST
GLOBAL & RESIST SOC 130GR
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Russel Monahan on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 130GR at University of California Santa Barbara taught by W. Robinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/226867/soc-130gr-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Sociology at University of California Santa Barbara.
Reviews for GLOBAL & RESIST
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/22/15
Sociology 130 GR 4272011 14700 AM Lecture 1 Globalization and Resistance What are they Introduction What on Earth is happening 0 O O O 0 What 0 What Key concept by which we understand transition of human society into 3rd Millenium Not a thing but a process process of structural change Globalization reaching into deepest corners of planet modifying social cultural political life everywhere Effects ubiquitous for people all over the world In academia all disciplines is Globalization Competing definitions and theories Malcolm Waters A social process in which the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding Increasing interconnectedness objective and subjective has happened to lead us to talk about globalization SOC 13OGR Lecture 2 4272011 14700 AM Globalization and Resistance Theme 1 The Global Economy o The Global Economy 0 All of these processes are related o Three Questions 0 What does Economic Globalization involve o How and why has globalization taken place 0 What are the effects of globalization o Global Capitalism Approach 0 Marx and Engels 0 Global spread of capitalist world economy 0 Key aspect of current epoch Globalization of production 0 Three historical phases 1 Prior to 1492 Commercial linkages among civilizations 2 1492 World Capitalist Economy 3 1970 s to date global economy new global production and financial system From the World Market to the Global Factory o World Economy vs Global Economy becomes apparent in the 20th century From 1492 til late 20th century everything was tradebased under the National Circuit of Accumulation and productive apparatus Changed to Transnational globalized circuit of production and accumulation O O o How is globalized production organized Global production chains or global commodity chains Dicken A production chain is a transnationally linked sequence of functions in which each stage adds value in the process of production of goods and services These production chains GCC s are now dispersed around the world fragmented and each phases functionally integrated with each other 0 New network structure of global economy subcontracting outsourcing alliances etc 0 O O O O 0 How 0 O Network involved within production of commodities ie car production Mergers and acquisitions are transnational Brazilian company can merge with a Chinese company etc Companies are changing their National Regulatory Changes Global economies suggest that there is a large economic web that connects companies and countries through steps of production Coordinating firms subcontract to other firms such as supplier firms distribution service design and producer firms Cars are given labels as American or Japanese but in reality the cars are made with parts from around the world Global factory extends around the country and around the world Jobs are no longer paid as much such a pilots because they are less specialized and more people know how to do certain things has globalization taken place The role of Globalizing technologies Global economy and technology Technological changes New Globalizing Technologies CIT revolution transportation robotization etc Time and Space shrinking technologies Kondratieff cycles o Russian economist 19101930s discovered that whole global economy expands and contracts over a series of waves every 50 year cycles o Associated with new technological revolution 0 Textiles machinery water power 1770s1800 0 Steam engines machine tools railway 183040s Electrical engineering cable and wire steel ships heavy chemicals 1880s90s 0 Automobiles trucks consumer durables process plant aircraft 1930s40s 0 Computers advanced technology 198090s O o Organizational innovations New Network structure to global economy 0 Flexible Production Network Society Previosly under conditions of the world economy a factory of 70000 workers would guess how much product was needed and would mass produce the product in hopes that it would sell Now with flexible production as things are marketed they are produced simultaneously Horizontal networks rather than vertical structures o New Management Techniques o Subcontracting and outsourcing o TN Alliances o Business Networks interfirm chains In Sum Economic processes and their social agents are linked together across the globe in a kaleidoscope of new and complex ways we are all networked into the global economy but not on equal terms and nor with the same effects on different countries and communities 0 Question of Power and Control in Global Economy Segmentation and decentralization across globe of production processes Simultaneous to global concentration and control over resources and means of production and global centralization of management of global production Who controls these production chains that involve us all o Transnational capital transnational corporations and transnational capitalist class o Transnational corporations drive the global economy o How has globalization taken place But real Question WHY has globalization taken place 0 No technological determinism technology is a social relation technology is not natural or neutral does not have a life of its own ie computers do not create themselves it has to happen from the people 0 The way scientific possibilities are pursued and technologies constructed are based on the power relations of society eg Gas and electric cars carbon and solar power Viagra lipo rather than malaria tuberculosis and dengue O O O 0 Nature of capitalism constant drive to maximize profits reduce labor and other costs Competition Class strugglesocial struggle o Both spur technological organizational and institutional changes Global Mobility of Capital Emergence of transnational capital capital breaks free of nationstate constraints From New Deal Capitalism 1870 s1960 s Keynesian Fordism Social Democracy Welfare State etc to flexible postFordist global capitalism Crisis of 19705 Capitalist globalization Fundamentaly a strategy of capitalTransnational Corps TNC s to create new worldwide conditions for pro tmaking for accumulationto get about nation state and popular constraints o What happens as capital breaks free of nationstate and achieves global mobility O O O O O O O 0 Capital able to seek best conditions Factor Costs Lifting barriers to free movment of transnational capital NeoLiberalism Free Trade Agreement Cheapening and flexibilization of labor New CapitalLabor relations Each national economy reconstrucured and reintegrated to global economy Social polarization downward mobility for most Rich get richer poor get poorer McJobs many work multiple jobs to sustain themselves Decline of nationstate trade unions and social movementscapturing and redistributing surpluses Environmental regulations lifted Land and resources more concentrated o IN SUM Peoples lives affected Globalization and LaborGlobal Workers Movement Lecture 3 4272011 14700 AM PROFESSOR OFFICE HOURS Wednesday 230430pm Current Event Article 1 Read by professor in class o Who has the power to affect everyone and to shape social structure o How do they use resources to control society s resources o Shift in income moving upwards o 80 of population moves downwards in economic status Current Event Article 2 Sharp rise in arms in South America ampAfrica o Global spending on arms o South American increase in spending on arms used to repress social movements mass upsurge in social movements in Latin and South America o US increased expenditure on arms by 80 in last decade o Share of US GDP devoted to military has increased 31 48 USA has highest military burden outside the Middle East o Themes 0 Global restructuring of labor new capitallabor relationwork arrangements NeoLiberalism structural adjustment Global inequalities Globalization and Labor Struggles O O O o Post Cold War Globalization 0 Massive social crisis of working class in south and north 0 3 phases of struggles 19605705 upsurge of militant labor struggles 19805905 crisis capitalstate assault on unions defensive and declining 1990 s New Century renewed upsurge transnational independence from political parties social movement unionism 0 New global proletariat Transnational migration and labor and national borders Global proletariat increasingly third world peoples and women o Post WWII New labor strategies and forms of organizing emerging all over the world Rise of crossborder organizing immigrant workers etc Social movement unionizing Golden Age of World Capitalism Over o New Types of Work Arrangements Worldwide o CapitalLabor Relation O O O 0 How do workers face their employers on what terms How does the state regulate those terms KeynesianFordist Capitalism Regulated Labor Global Capitalism Flexible Labor Contingent Labor Casualized Informalized Flexibilized New Systems of Labor Control Subcontracted or outsourced who is responsible for employment Everyone a free agent Parttime temp contract etc RentaWorker arrangements o WalMartization of work workers only allowed to do 29 hours of work anything 30 would be considered fulltime and would have to include benefits No tenured employment no benefits no employer or state reciprocity no overtime or holidays 0 Massive feminization of global labor force Fusion of patriarchal control and exploitation of women s labor 0 Transnational migrant labor Undocumented no citizenship rights If a worker is illegal they could be deported if they organize o All this presents major new challenges to global labor o What do new capitallabor relations mean in practice 0 Example Striking Sugar Cane Workers Valle Del Cauca Colombia Sept 2008 0 Sugar cane fields dedicated for biofuels thousands of peasant families being displaced by local and transnational companies to make way for biofuels Strike met with state violence 0 Analysis Sugar cane and global capitalism and biofuels Sugar cane slavery race and racialized global capitalism Sugar cane and outsourcing and subcontracting and flexibilization of labor cane cutters and subcontracted free agents Sugar cane and role of neoliberal states in promoting global capitalism and suppressing resistance Sugar cane workers engage in resistance to global capitalism Global working class racism emerges from the world capitalism in order to exploit the labor force the colonizing force vs the colonized workers System of physical or cultural markers to distinguish between racism and those who are institutionally separated What accounts for new CapitalLabor Relation 0 Global mobility of capital technology organization and deregulation Ability to move around the world Labor is weakened in the face of capital 0 Global labor surplus supernumearies why Secular trend Depeasantization Cyclical technology 0 13 of adult working population is unemployed o Employers can replace workers with technology Capital replaces labor therefore creating a surplus of human labor Globalization and Labor Struggles 0 Two Discussion points Weak Labor Movement growing importance of workers Proliferation of proletarians o Cannot survive with own business can only survive by selling your labor Global Inequalities Capitalist globalization brings about shift in global correlation of class and social forces Sharp social polarization under globalization UNDP Reports Why expanding inequalities lack of redistributive mechanisms in global capitalism Threetiered structure of global inequalities from social welfare to social control police states 0 O O O 0 Between 1976 and 2007 the majority of Americans bottom 90 did not grow economically the top 1 increased in cumulative growth from less than 50 to almost 300 growth Unprecedented global social inequalities 200 wealthiest people in world greater than total income of 41 of world s population FILM NeoLiberalism set of policies including liberalization deregulation privatization social austerity Free trade agreements impose new global capital labor relation by liberating capital from national and political constraints while displacing and weakening workers The Global Workers Movement 0 Capital has transnationalized resistance must transnationalize 0 Resistance seen as revolving around transnational social movement 0 Key linking global resistance local resistance but can global capitalism be resisted locally Challenge how to disrupt normal functioning of system Transnationalglobal resistance movements 0 O Lecture 4 4272011 14700 AM ANNOUNCEMENTS O O 0 Case 0 O NO late work accepted Unless arrangements have been made Make sure to get back aH of your graded assignments Extra Credit Assignment Wed April 20 Film screening 6pm MCC theater 5 points Monday April 25 8pm Campbell Hall Nobel Prize winner talk on Peace Violence and Development in Modern Society 5 points EC Sign in and Sign out at front door Study in Resistance Zapatistas January 1 1994 Mexican constitution got rid of law that ended collective holdings on indigenous land Indigenous struggles and antiracist studies in Chiapas Indigenous are original peoples now in forefront of resistance to global capitalism Global capitalism has expanded into indigenous autonomous spaces breaking them up displacing New transnational corporate grab for indigenous land and resources eg oil Ogoni and others in Niger Delta BurmeseMayanmar indigenous slaves and gasoilland minerals in Guatemala and Peru Gold Oil and gas and land in Columbia oil in Ecuadorian Amazonia Chiapas etc Indigenous communities threat to global capitalism why Collective land and control over resources participatory democracy cosmology and value system Pacha Mama antithesis of global capitalism private property and commodification Transnational agenda integrate indigenous into global market as dependent workers and consumers convert their lands to private property and make natural resources available to transnational corporate plunder Challenges and dilemmas of indigenous movement how to combine racialethnic with classbased mobilization and avoid El Indio Permitido Multiculturalism trap cooptation and class divisions selfdefense or national leadership and alliances is being indigenous culture or project Chiapas O O 0 Most poor state in Mexico least developed state State which is most intensively exploited by elite and transnational corporations Coffee introduced in late 1800 s coffee plantations take indigenous land To mount successful challenge social movements need to bring together 5 conditions example in Chiapas 0 Social conditions need for change unjustice oppression inequality relative depravation etc eg in Chiapas dramatic deterioration in recent decades 0 Precipitating events eg NAFFAChiapas o A vision of how things ought to be eg alternative program in Chiapas land reform indigenous rights etc o Charismatic leadership embodies sentiment of social forces in resistance eg Comandante Marcos 0 And organizational form beyond spontaneous protest sustained Zapatistas and global capitalism in Mexico 0 Jan 1 1994 Zapatista uprising and Seattle Nov 1999 two key symbols of global justice movements 0 First Informational Revolution use of the internet 0 Symbol of indigenous awakening in Latin America and world Key Issue Intersection of classbased with raceculturebased struggles 0 Vanguard of new postcold war radical politics 0 Change Society from the ground up 0 Internal democracy and consensus processes within revolutionary movements Core Zapatistas principles 0 Mandar Obedeciendo to lead following orders any leader should follow the masses 0 Para todos todo nada para nosotros Against individualism and individual gain for the community 0 Walking at a slower pace recognition that change is a long and slow process o 1994 Lacandon jungle declaration Ina a sense this revolution will not end in a new class fraction or group in power It will end in a free and democratic space for political struggle o 2002 Zapatista declaration IN the world we want many worlds fit Zapatista demands 2002 declaration Trabajo tierra techo pan salud educacio democracia paz independencia y justicia o 2005 Sexta declaracion end armed conflict join forces in civil society 0 20056 La otra campana launch mexicowide civil society movement 0 Gender dimension Leadership role of women Women s Revolutionary Law right to land to choose their partners and number of children to be educated and receive health care and to take positions of revolutionary leadership o Collier and Quarantiello Basta Land and the Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapasquot 0 Historical and structural background to Zapatista struggle 0 History of Chiapas Internal colonialism Cacquismo Local Chief Class stratification within indigenous communities 1910 Mexican revolution arrives in Chiapas n in 19305 corporatism clientalism pri hegemony reformejidos O 0 Land Growing inequalities rapid social change Two groups subsistence and commercial cropscattle 19705 intensive organization social movements and communitybased organizations o Background context of globalization o Breakdown of preglobalization model o Neoliberalism oil boom Dutch disease collapse of agriculture Mexico rides into global economy on wave of oil boom and foreign debt a What has changed for peasants as a consequence of Mexico s energy developments is the dramatic growth of nonagricultural work and the increasing integration of peasant economies into national and international markets Sociological rebellions and social movements in times of change and inequalities Breakdown of corporatism 1982 crisis undermines material base of precorporatism New winners new losers Semiproletarianization wage labor Penetration of commercial economy commodification of social relations differentiation Globalization in Mexico oil agribusiness hydroelectric SEE SLIDES FOR TIMELINE Debate Resistance to capitalist globalization has spread throughout Mexico how to bring about change in age of globalization Dilemmas of Zapatismo Critique of Vanguardismo but has movement stagnated Transform society without the stateRelationships between states parties and social movements Caracoles y juntas de buen goberino in Zapatista held territorybut state power not exercised strictly local and limits to transformation One journalist notes in 2004 0 Ten years later agribusiness giants like Cargill and Archer Daniels midland closed in on the people of the corn 2006 electoral fraud and AMLO La Otra Campa a did not ignite a grassroots national movement Mass outmigration has accelerated 4 million Chiapanecos 500000 left in recent years 165 per day in 2010 65 of them indigenous to other states and to US Transnational corporate penetration intensifies Can community oriented struggles take place of radical program Reclaiming the global commons Achievements despite siege health women recovery of dignity education Lecture 5 Global Immigrants Rights Movement 4272011 1 47 00 AM Announcements Extra Credit Opportunities 0 Monday May 2 69pm Pollock Theater 0 Film quotMiralquot Free screening of the film questionanswer with the authorscreenwriter 0 Thursday May 5 730pm MCC theater AntiMuslim sentiment 0 Battle about the building ofa Mosque near Ground Zero NYC 0 Professors will discuss this issue 0 Watch the film quotMade in LA available in Kerr Hall UCSB and write a one page single spaced paper on the film 0 Theme Global Immigrant Rights Movement 0 Article 2 quotJanet Napolitano Defends Secure Communities Deportation Program lthtt9wwwhuffingtongostcom201104g26gnagolitano defendssecurecommunities n 853860htmlgt o 1 May is International Immigrant Rights Day The Global Immigrant Rights Movement 0 Counterhegemonic resistance from below 0 The quotAge of Migration 0 Nature of our species to migrate 0 Central to capitalism securing politically and economically suitable labor supply key function of colonialism and imperialism I Dependent on capitalism in order to secure labor I Colonialism creates labor for world capitalist system 0 Central to formation of world capital system creation ofworld market in labor removal of 20 million Africans new world Internal transfer new world indigenous migration of millions of Europeans as laborers 2 l slavery 1870 1930 s etc I Supply oflabor was brought from other countries to become slaves in other developed countries I Europeans migrated to US to find better work need for raw labor I Chinese worked as raw labor and were forcibly removed from their homelands o In Globalization Epoch Transnational immigrant labor becomes new system of labor supply for global capitalism o Replaces earlier direct colonial and racial caste controls over worldwide labor o Racialization of global class relations racial hierarchies central to global labor control theoretical understanding of racism I Class relations AND race relations often racist Creation of Global Labor Market for Capital At heart of capitalism is securing politically and economically suitable supply oflabor 0 World market for labor power American Indian slavery African slaves 1700 1850 Asian Coolie Migration 18301920 Migratory labor within colonial Africa 18801960 etc Age of Migration Contd o Latter decades of 20th century begins massive migrations worldwide linked to globalization UN 200 million immigrant workers in 2005 double figure from 1980 Major labor ows eastern EuropeNorth Africa to western Europe Caribbean basinSoutheast asia to US Middle eastSouth Asia into Arab OilExporting O countri O I I I I I I I I 0 What s es etc Transnational migratory ows not unidirectional south to north Philippine state exports labor to 100 countries around the world Nicaraguans to Costa Rica 0 War in Nicaragua causes people 1 million to migrate to Costa Rica racialized and same discrimination as Latinos in the US Congolese Zimbabweans etc to South Africa Indonesians to Malaysia Bolivians Paraguayans and Peruvians to Chile and Argentina 0 Same discrimination as Latinos as Asians in US Haitians to Dominican Rep Colombians to Venezuela Thais to Japan and elsewhere etc going on here Rise of truly Global Labor Markets Globalization displaces millions ofpeople and simultaneously makes possibly new opportunities for mobilizing labor pools anywhere around the world Global economy much more dependent on immigrant labor than in the past superexploited and supercontrolled 0 Under repressive state apparatus I Challenge for global capitalism How to maintain quotReserve army of immigrant labor 0 How to Supply yet control global labor 0 O O O O O O 0 Division of workers into immigrants and citizens New aXis of inequality worldwide Sup ereXploitedcontrolled global immigrant workforcesustaining repressive state controls over TN labor creates conditions for quotImmigrant labor as distinct category of workers in relation to capital While transnational capital free to move about world Transnational labor subject ever tighter and more repressive controls Worldwide upsurge in anti immigrant campaigns and state controls Contradictory situation system needs immigrant labor quotreserve army of immigrant labor and must reproduce immigrant status and therefore conditions that make immigrant labor profitable vulnerable undocumented without citizenship and civil political and labor rights deportable Condition of deportable created and or preserved since that condition assures ability to superexploit with impunity and dispose of should this labor demand rights or organize I Immigrant labor in American Apparel all workers were laid off and rehired in Los Angeles Immigrant labor archetype of new exibilized class relations of global capitalism Resistance of immigrant workers at vanguard of resistance to depredations of global capitalism Crucial Racism as a Socioeconomic structure 0 Racism is a Structure of inequality subordination and unequal power I Eg Guatemala systematic inequality between indigenous and ladinos employment wealth education health political representation etc in US I This is why quotreverse racism is in reality a myth racism not prejudice nor discrimination Racism as a social structure of economic exploitation and labor control 0 Racism and capitalism racism as racialized labor exploitation racialized class relations 0 Globalization and 3 types of racist structures 0 1 quotSuperexploitationdisorganization ofworking class 0 O I racially subordinate and oppressed sector within exploited classes superexploited occupying lower rungs of racially stratified working class I eg earlier experience AfricanAmericans earlier European ethnic groups Latinosas currently in US Irish in Britain Nicaraguans in Costa Rica Mayans in Guatemala etc I Under globalization these racist structures aggravated esp globalization increases ability of transnational capital to fragment labor markets reproduce and create new forms of labor market segmentation at global level 2 Exclusion and appropriation of natural resources I experience of native Americans current experience of AfricanAmericans Indigenous in Amazonia genocide because of discovery of oil minerals etc Palestinians in PalestineIsrael cheap labor force for Israelis I Globalization transnational labor mobility new TNC penetration rise of supernumeraries 3 quotMiddlemen Minorities relationship ofmediation between dominant and subordinate groups I Historical experience ofews in Europe Chines and Indians in Asia Lebanese and Syrians in West Africa Indians in East Africa colored in South Africa etc I Globally rapidly being replaced or transformed by transnational capital and its penetration into commercial spheres also new transnational quotmiddlemenquot niches eg Chinese transnational family business networks 0 Worldwide antiimmigrant backlash 0 Classical scapegoat redirecting insecurities generated by capitalist globalization Australia US Costa Rica France Germany etc Loss of caste privilege among previously privileged sectors of working class often white and male eg working class base of minutemen Panic among states over loss of control over population and cultural agents from dominant groups over loss of national identity Rise of antiimmigrant politics and draconian border controls symbolic and real walls o Militarization ofimmigrant control and criminalization ofimmigrants War against immigrants 0 Hate Groups I Minutemen I Save Our State CA organization and antiimmigrant hatred o The Media I Hate Radio John and Ken in LA I Hate TV Lou Dobbs Local Legislation State Legislation National Legislation Security I Border enforcement I ICE Roving Raids I Detention Centers 0 O O O Criminalizing immigrants new immigrant prisonindustrial complex 0 Military industrial complex 0 Prison industrial complex 0 Immigrant industrial complex 0 Detentions and deportations are exacerbated with increase in ICE raids I Worksite arrests dramatically increased in recent years I Tripling of detention rates from 1994 2001 more than doubling of detention rates from 19972007 War on immigrants extremely profitable for corporate economy source of capital accumulation 0 CCA CEO William Andrews 2008 0 CSI Aviation CEO Allen Weh Obama and Immigration 0 State repression after 2006 Escalation ofdeportations nearly 400000 in 2010 Split in movement mainstream corporate funded and mass grassroots quotenforcement u n l safe communities and quotguest worker program State antiimmigrant fascist laws 0 O O O O Immigrants as scapegoat for crisis and 21st century fascism 21st century fascism use of economic crisis to channel mass frustration and insecurity into antiimmigrant sentiment to de ect attention from real causes of crisis 0 Use of walls to close in or out racialized labor groups 0 South African Zimbabwe border wall 0 MexicoUS border 0 US Occupation wall in Iraq 0 Minutemen and patrol of US border Lecture 6 4272011 14700 AM Announcements and Extra Credit o Thursday May 5 730pm MCC theater AntiMuslim sentiment 0 Battle about the building of a Mosque near Ground Zero NYC 0 Professors will discuss this issue o Watch the film Made in LA available in Kerr Hall UCSB and write a one page single spaced paper on the film due next week News Article Egypt ruling groups fighting to maintain order democratic middle class want political change working and popular classes fighting for change o Empowering Egypt s workers revolution o Website for article httpenqlishaljazeeranetindepthfeatures2011042011422181 2915532html Historical Context o 1486 Portuguese come around Africa Cape of Good Hope looking for new trade routes to Asia o 1652 Dutch arrive Cape Town Portuguese are an early power o Beginning of a 350 year struggle against colonialism slavery white European domination segregation and apartheid 1948National party takes power in election only whites can vote Afrikaners take power o Koisans derogatory term bushmen is similar enslaved and exterminated in Cape Town o 1814 British occupy Cape abolish slavery want to weaken Dutch and don t need slavery to achieve objectives 0 massive colonial expansion o British and Dutch expansion throughout South Africa o 13 Major groups Xhosa Zulu Ndebele etc arrived in 2000 BC Zulu kingdom o Europeans justify colonization by saying it was a barren land and no humans lived there similar to colonization in America early 16th century 1835 Boer Trek 184657 conquest of Xhosa 1879 Zulus defeated after decades of resistance 1860 s gold diamonds discovered 1899 1902 British Boer wars 1910 Union of South Africa as white settler republic 12 of land set aside for African majority illegal for blacks to own land or be tenants outside of these reserves Pass system homelands total segregation 0 political rights daily extreme brutality ongoing massacres systematic repression Total control of black labor and wealth this is the key Development of South African capitalism race and class and racism as system of labor control and exploitation Sophisticated South African capitalism linked to world capitalism 4 major population groups Whites 2 ethnic groups African 11 major ethnic groups IndianAsian coloredincredible diversity 0 socially and politically categorized Cape Malay residences dating to 17th century 0 MalaysianIndonesianSouth African mixture 1912 ANC Formed 1920 s Unionization of emerging black working class SACP 1952 defiance campaign US civil and black lib Movement 1956 treason trial ANC leaders Mandela 1961 innocent 1955 congress of the people united front most representative 0 Freedom Charter includes Democracy equal rights the people shall share in the country s wealth the national wealth shall be restored to the people the mineral wealth beneath the soil the banks monopoly industry shall be transferred to the ownership of the people as a whole 1959 PAC formed under leadership of Robert Sobukwe March 21 1959 Sharpesville massacre 69 killed 180 wounded 1960 AND and PAC banned thousands arrested thousands into exile 1961 armed struggle launched Mkunto Wesizwe Mandela arrested and imprisoned on Robben island 19705 Black consciousness movement develops Steve Biko Mamphele Ramphele Militant labor movement in mines factories etc 1976 Soweto uprising o 1977 Steve Biko murdered o 1980s permanent mass struggle south African revolution brewing anti capitalist prerevolutionary situation revolutionary and socialist consciousness of masses Elite Transition o How to bring about controlled and manageable change in order to avoid revolution preserve property relations o US and South Africa two racist regimes o US policy racism and US foreign policy utter disregard for AA s 1972 tar baby report 1981 Reagan s Constructive engagement 1985 veto sanctions 1986 sanctions etc o Late 1980 s World bank transitional o February 1990 Mandela released c 19901994 first elections ANC Cosatu SACP coalition government o cooptation process key emergence of black elite o control and demobilization of mass movement deredicalization of masses o 1990s capitalist globalization arrives in full force o 1994 reconstruction and development program freedom charter 1996 RDP scrapped growth employment and redistribution gear program neoliberalism with a vengeance o Key thing mines and banks not nationalized land not returned white capitalist and transnational capital not touched no redistribution of property o Gear passed behind backs of people after quiet negotiations with world bank Markets opened Taxes to rich cut State assets privatized Services commoditized and privatized Social spending reduced Casualization of labor o Trevor Ngwane Soweto electricity 0 O O O O O o Elite transition South Africa in global capitalism 0 Results of NeoLiberalism Over 15 million jobs lost unemployment between 3245 massive crime wave over 10 million disconnected from water and electricity ANC a revolutionary force According to critique has become 0 Broker between white and transnational capital and poor black majority o A vehicle for cultivation of black middle and capitalist class to join white elite From viewpoint of elite how to maintain a fundamentally undemocratic socioeconomic order through formal democratic political structures electoral processes etc Robinson s perspectives 0 Extreme diversity wealth country tremendous potential Extreme social polarization wealth and poverty Continued profound racial inequality Stanton and new stock market Massive crime wave Politics of social control gated communities Activism everywhere tension everywhere Global economy everywhere 0 O O O O O 0 South Africa s New Revolution Amazing upsurge of poor community organizing and grassroots mobilization Protest against neoliberal policies of ANC govt more broadly Capitalism globalization and global apartheid Book shines spotlight how local grassroots struggles for survival linked to larger global forcesglobal apartheid system How new horizontal community movements of poors local can be linked to global movement Struggle over global commons ANC govt has enthusiastically implemented neoliberalism new class of African elite also benefits from polarization and program All regimes have legitimizing discourse US freedom and democracy Mexico Zapata South Africa black struggle against apartheid O O Discussion o Poverty amidst plenty South Africa and Global society poverty and inequality are less conditions than in a socialclass relationship a power relationship of domination and subordination o Eg white wealthy mansions so close to shantytowns 0 Cape Town Coloured community raized to the ground Feminism and the Global Women s Movement 4272011 14700 AM Lecture 7 ANNOUNCEMENTS The Iron Cage Reading focus on specific reading Introduction completely preface skim chapters 12 read first few paragraphs and last few para s of chapters read entire chapters 36 pages 65182 Assignment 1 Second Brief due next week about reading looking for analysis and interpretation incorporate lectures or readings don t just summarize Assignment 2 News item see syllabus for assignment can also use speech that Robinson gave in reading packet Robinson s modified syllabus discussion next week 2 Quizzes left Themes Feminism and Global Women s Movement and Environmental Justice Movement Burgeoning literature on women globalization and resistance Women s status in global society o Inequality between men and women fundamental fact of global society o Systems of male domination and gender inequality predate capitalism but women s status deteriorated steeply under colonialism and world capitalism o Contradictory experience under globalization deepening inequality alongside formal equality and increasing class differentiation among women 0 Women have made large strides in formal positions of leadership o Women 23rds of worlds work 110th of worlds income and 1100th of world s property Earn 75 of men s wages Women absent in hierarchical positions Consensus globalization affects men and women differently Why gender important for researchers and what main topics Feminization of work massive entrance of women into formal labor force concentration in global economic circuits transnational capital prefers docile femal labor fusion of patriarchy and capitalism gender socialization new global capital relations easier control of women sexsegmented global labor markets Transnational capital takes advantage double segmentation sex and int Women disproportionately in informal sector Neoliberalism and deterioration of status of women and intensification of double and triple burden Crisis of family social reproduction estimated 70 of poor are women 0 Falls on backs of women disproportionately Meaning of race and class o Production and reproduction sexual division of labor 0 women are concentrated in reproduction women maintain household food children etc men move into production sphere working in industry professions etc sexual division of labor is the basis of inequality between men and women doesn t immediately mean that women are unequal from men As capitalism enters the picture men receive a salary wages and should be for the reproduction of workingclass family Men bring income into the family In microlevel when men control resources of the family there is maledomination in the family On a macro level women become dependent on men to bring in wages Both men and women in a working class family are dependent on the working class economy 0 O O O O 0 When women enter the workforce and still continue to bear burden of social reproduction the double burden for women 0 They don t enter under the same circumstances and are already segregated Women are predominantly support in professional jobs men are in charge and are in managerial positions Upsurge worldwide of women s social and political mobilization o Globalization generates new constituency working women and organizing women o Women s movement and feminist movement dual mobilization of women worldwide collective working class problems and special forms of gender oppression o Women participate and lead social movements community human rights indigenous armed struggles etc o Multiple identities class and gender o Global working class women and trade unions o Themes Gender and Class Transnational Feminist Networks o Moghadam Transnational feminist networks are the org expression of the transnational women s movement or global feminism Global feminism may be defined as the discourse and movement of women through greater access of resources through legal measures to effect gender equality and through the self empowerment of women within national boundaries but through transnational forums of organizing and mobilizing o Four world conferences on women Mexico 1975 Copenhagen 1980 Nairobi 1985 Beijing 1995 o Largely elite govt forums liberal agenda but reflects global agenda and worldwide social ferment also critique of first world middle class feminist hegemony THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT PART II OF LECTURE Fight against the destruction against the environment Globalization and the Environment Most prolific area of globalization studies Truly globaluniversal issue Series of high profile international meetings 1970s80 s culminating unced Rio 1992 and 2002 Rio10 summits etc Rise of global environmental movement as exemplary TN social movement key challenges environment and TN corporate order environment and social justice Key concerns of global environmental crisis 0 Decreasing biodiversity Global warming Depletion of ozone layer Worsening of land air water Destruction of remaining rainforests GMO foods Collapse of agriculture Environmental catastrophes Mass dying 0 Water wars of 21St century Ecological holocaust already underway An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore or Day After Tomorrow 0 O O O O O O 0 Sustainable Development 1987 Bruntland report Our Common Future Definition Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs How to achieve sustainable development 0 Conserving and enhancing natural resources 0 Grassroots involvement in development 0 Adopting appropriate technologies But Questions Remain
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'