INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY
INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY SOC 1
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Russel Monahan on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/226871/soc-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Sociology at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Vocabulary 39 I Sociological Imagination An Introduction Sociology the study of human society 4 Sociological imagination the ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individual s life to seeminly impersonal and remote historical forces 5 Social Institutions a complex group of interdependent positions that perform a cosial role and reproduce themselves over time also defined in aa narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups of people within it 13 Verstehen German understanding The concept of Verstehen forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociology to study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience 21 Anomie a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable too little social regulation normlessness 23 Positivist sociology a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships akin to a social physics 23 Double consciousness A concept conceived by WEB DuBois to describe the two behavioral scripts One for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers which are constantly maintained by African Americans 26 Functionalism the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important or necessary function to keep society running 27 Conflict theory the idea that conflict between competing interests in the basic animating force of social change and society in general 28 Symbolic interactionism A micro level theory in which shared meanings orientations and assumptions for the basic motivation behind people s action 29 Postmodernism a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history the replacement of narrative within pastiche and multiple perhaps even conflicting identities resulting from disjointed affiliations 30 Social construction an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetrated as people and social institutions act in according with the widely agreed upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity 30 Midrange theory a theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function 30 Microsociology seeks to understand local interactional contexts its methods of choice are ethnographic generally including participant observations and in depth interviews 37 u Methods 0 Paradox if we successfully answer one question It only spawns others There is no moment when a social scientist s work is done Research methods approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions 42 Quantitative methods methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form 42 Qualitative methods methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form 43 Deductive approach a research approach that starts with a theory forms a hypothesis makes empirical observations and then analyzes the data to confirm reject or modify the original theory 43 Inductive approach a research approach that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory 43 Correlation or association simultaneous variation in two variables 44 Dependent variable the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain 48 Independent variable a measured factor that the researcher believes has a casual impact on the dependent variable 48 Hypothesis a proposed relationship between two variables 48 Operationalization the process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study 48 Validity the extent in which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure 50 Reliability likelihood of containing consistent results using the same measure 50 Generalizability the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied 50 Reflexivity analyzing and critically considering our own role in and affect on our research 50 Feminist methodology a set of systems or methods that treat woman s experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources that promote social sciences for women think public sociology but for a specific half of the population ant that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter 54 Participant observation a qualitative research method that seeks to observe social actions in practice 57 Survey an ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from respondents 59 Historical methods research that collects data from written reports newspaper articles journals transcripts television programs diaries artwork and other artifacts that date to a prior time period under study 60 Comparative research a methodology by which two or more entities such as countries which are similar in many dimensions but differ on one in question are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them 61 Experimental methods methods that seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track what results that change yields often involve comparisons to a control group that did now experience such an intervention 63 Content analysis a systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication such as a written work speech of film 64 Public sociology the practice of sociological research teaching and service that seeks to engage a nonacademic audience for a normative productive end 66 39 Culture and Media Paradox do mas media really create culture of merely imitate it Culture is like two mirrors facing each other it simultaneously reflects and created the world we live in Culture a set of beliefs traditions and practices the sum total of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs behaviors except instinctual ones and practices that which is not the natural environment around us 73 Ethnocentrism the belief that one s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one s own 74 Nonmaterial culture values beliefs behaviors and social norms 77 Material culture everything that is part of our constructed physical environment including technology 77 Ideology a system of concepts and relationships and understanding of cause and effect 79 Cultural relativism taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment of assigning value 81 Cultural scripts modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural 82 Subculture the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns ofa particular group in society a group united by set of concepts values symbols and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society 83 Values moral beliefs 87 Norms how values tell us to behave 87 Socialization the process by which individuals internalize the values beliefs and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society 88 Reflection theory the idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere a screen onto which the film ofthe underlying reality of social structures of our society is projected 88 Media any formats or vehicles that carry present or communicate information 90 Hegemony a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary consent of the masses 92 Consumerism the steady acquisition of material possessions often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved 103 Culture jamming the act of turning media against themselves 105 Socialization and the Construction of Reality Paradox the most important aspects of social life are those concepts we learn without anyone teaching us 111 Socialization the process by which individuals internalize the values beliefs and norms of a given society and learn to function as members ofthat society 112 Self the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person I one s sense of agency action or power 115 Me the self as perceived as an object by the I as the self as one imagines others perceive one 115 Other someone or something outside of oneself 115 Generalized other an internalized sense ofthe total expectations of others in a variety of settings regardless of whether we ve encountered those people or places before 117 Resocialization the process by which one s sense of social values beliefs and norms are reengineered often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution 122 Total institution an institution in which someone is totally immersed and that controls all basics of day to day life no barriers exist between the spheres of daily life and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority 122 Status a recognizable social position that an individual occupies 123 Role the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status 123 Role strain the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status 123 Role conflict the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses 124 Status set all the statuses one holds simultaneously 125 Ascribed status a status into which one is born involuntary status 125 Achieved status a status into which one enters voluntary status 125 Master status one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others 125 Gender roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one s status as male or female 125 Symbolic interactionism a micro level theory in which shared meanings orientations and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people s actions 129 Dramaturgical theory the view advanced by Erving Goffman of social life as essentially a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages with roles scripts costumes and sets 131 Face the esteem in which an individual is held by others 132 Ethnomethodology literally quotthe methods ofthe people this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world convey this understanding to others and produce a mutually shared social order 135 Chapter Groups and Networks Paradox the strength of weak ties it is the people with whom we are the least connected who offer us the most opportunities 143 Dyad a group of two 146 Triad a group of three or more 146 Mediator member of a triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the other two actors in the group 148 Tertiusgaudens the new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members ofthe group 148 Divide etimpera the role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the group 148 Small group a group characterized by face to face interaction a unifocal perspective lack of formal arrangements and a certain level of equality 151 Party a group that is similar to a small but multifocal 152 Large group a group characterized by the presence ofa formal structure that meditates interaction and consequently status differentiation 152 Primary groups social groups such as family or friends composed of intimate face to face relationships that strongly influence the attitude and ideals ofthose involved 153 Secondary groups groups marketed by impersonal instrumental relationships those existing as a means to an end 153 n group another term for the powerful group most often the majority Out group another term for the stigmatized or less powerful group the minority 154 Reference group a group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups 155 Social network a set of relations essentially a set of dyads held together by ties between individuals 155 Tie a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network 155 Narrative the sum of stories contained in a set of ties 155 Embeddedness the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network 156 Strength of weak ties the notion that often relatively weak ties turn out to be quite valuable because they yield new information 156 Structural hole a gap between network clusters or even two individuals if those individuals or clusters have complementary resources 158 Social capital the information knowledge of people and connections that help individuals enter gain power in or otherwise leverage social networks 159 Organizational culture the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group often used interchangeably with corporate culture 170 Organizational structure the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization 170 somorphism a constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions 171 Social Control and Deviance Paradox It is the deviants among us who hold society together 177 Social deviance any transgression of socially established norms 179 Crime the violation of laws enacted by society 179 Social cohesion social bonds how well people relate to each other and get along on a day to day basis 181 Mechanical or segmental solidarity social cohesion based on sameness 181 Organic solidarity social cohesion based on different on different and interdependence ofthe parts 181 Social control those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals 185 Formal social sanctions mechanisms of social control by which rules of laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior 185 Informal social sanctions the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership the unspoken rules of social life 185 Social integration how well you integrated into your social group or community 187 Social regulation the number of rules guiding your daily life and more specifically what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day to day basis 188 Egotistic suicide suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated in a social group 188 Altruistic suicide suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration 189 Anomie a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable 190 Anomic suicide suicide that occurs as a result of too little social regulation 190 Fatalistic suicide suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation 191 Strain theory Merton s theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals 192 Conformist individuals who accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve them that are considered socially acceptable 192 Ritualist individuals who rejects socially defined goals to live within his or her own means 193 Innovator social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them 193 Retreatist one who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals by completely repeating from or not participating in society 193 Symbolic interactionism a micro level theory in which shared meanings orientations And assumptions from the basic motivation behind people s actions 194 Labeling theory the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self identity 195 Primary deviance the first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of deviant and thus influence how people think about and act toward you 200 Secondary deviance subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people s expectations of you 200 Stigma a negative social label that not only changes your behavior toward a person but also alters that person s own self concept and social identity 201 Broken windows and theory of deviance theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly specifically whether local informal social norms allow deviant acts 203 Street crime crime committed in public and often associated with violence gangs and poverty 204 White collar crime offense committed by a professional or professionals against a corporation agency or other institution 205 Corporate crime a particular type of white collar crime committed by the officers CEOs and other executives ofa corporation 205 Deterrence theory philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits 208 Recidivism when an individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior 209 Total institutions an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day to day life no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority 213 Panopticon a circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve as a prison in which the detainees can always been seen and the observer Housed in the inner ring is hidden from those being observed 217 Stratification Paradox inequality is the result of abundance 227 Stratification structured social inequality or more specifically systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships 228 Social equality a condition whereby no differences in wealth power prestige of status based on non natural conventions exist 229 Dialectic a two directional relationship one that goes both ways 233 Ontological equality the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God 235 Equality of opportunity the idea that equality of condition is acceptable so long as the rules ofthe game so to speak remain fair 235 Bourgeois society a society of commerce modern capitalist society for example in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive 235 Equality of condition the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point 236 Equality of outcome a position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless ofthe fairness ofthe game 237 Free rider problem the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight 238 Estate system politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility 239 Caste system religion based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility 239 Class system economically based system of stratification characterized be relative categorization and somewhat loose social mobility 240 Proletariat the working class 241 Bourgeoisie the capitalist class 241 Contradictory class locations the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure which fall between the two quotpurequot classes 242 Status hierarchy system a system of stratification based on social prestige 242 Elite mass dichotomy system system of stratification that has a governing elite a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society 244 Meritocracy a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes ability and achievement 245 Socioeconomic status SES an individual position in a stratified social order 246 Income money received by a person for work or from returns on investments 247 Wealth a family s or individuals net worth that is total assets minus total debts 247 Upper class a term for the economic elite 248 Middle class a term commonly used to describe those individuals which nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line though this is a highly debated and expansive category particularly in the United States where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class 250 Social mobility the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society 257 Structural mobility mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy 259 Status attainment model approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status including income and educational attainment and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations 259 Gender Paradox the biological categories of sex strongly influence the social dynamics of gender however the social categories of gender can sometimes determine the biology of sex Female circumcision the removal of a woman s sexual sensitive clitoris 266 Feminism an intellectual consciousness raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect 267 Sex the biological difference that distinguish male from female 268 Sexuality refers to desire sexual preference sexual identity and behavior 268 Gender denotes a social position the set of social arrangements that are built areound sex categories Essentialism line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones 271 Biological determinism a line ofthought that explains social behavior in terms of biological givens 271 Hegemonic masculinity dominant and privileged if invisible category of men 275 Gender roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one s status as a male or female 276 Patriarchy a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity 276 Structural functionalism theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures the family the division of labor or gender which exists in order to fulfill some set of functions reproduction of the species production of goods etc 277 Sex role theory Talcott Parson s theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wivesmothers Respectively because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies fulfilling the function of reproducing workers 277 Homosexual the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to andor relations with other persons of the same sex287 Sexism occurs when a person s sex or gender is the basis for judgment discrimination and hatred against him or her 293 Sexual harassment an illegal form of discrimination involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual quotbarterquot all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome particularly on the job 297 Glass ceiling an invisible limit on women s climb up the occupational ladder 298 Glass elevator the promotional ride men take to the top of a work organization especially in feminized jobs 300 quot quot Race Paradox race as we know it has no deterministic biological basis all the same race is so powerful that it can have life or death consequences 307 Race a group of people who share a set of characteristics typically but not always physical ones and are said to share a common bloodline 308 Racism the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits 309 Scientific racism nineteenth century theories of race that characterizes a period of feverish investigation into the origins explanations and classifications of race 311 Ethnocentrism the belief that one s own culture of group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one s own 312 Ontological equality the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God 313 Social Darwinism the application of Darwinian ideas to society namely the evolution quotsurvival ofthe fittest 313 Eugenics literally meaning quotwell bornquot the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation 314 Nativism the movement to protect and preserve indigenous land of culture from the so called dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants 315 One drop rule the belief that quotone drop of black blood makes a person black a concept that evolved from US laws for forbidding miscegenation 316 Miscegenation the technical term for multiracial marriage literally meaning quota mix of kindsquot it is politically and historically charged sociologists generally prefer exogamy of outmarraige 316 Racialization the formation ofa new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people 319 Ethnicity one s ethnic equality or affiliation It is voluntary self defined nonhierarchal fluid and multiple and based on cultural differences not physical ones per se Symbolic ethnicity a nationality not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality For later generations of white ethnics something not constraining but easily expressed with no risks of stigma and II the pleasures offeeling like an individual 321 Straight line assimilation Robert Parks s 1920 universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate first they arrive then settle in and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country 331 Primordialism Clifford Geertz s term to explain the persistence of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt of primordial ties to one s homeland culture 332 Pluralism the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society 333 Segregation the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity 333 Subaltern describes a subordinate oppressed group of people 343 Collective resistance an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less powerful group in a society 343 Prejudice thought and feelings about an ethnic or racial group 343 Discrimination harmful or negative not mere thoughts against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category without regard to their individual merit 343 Sl39 poverty Paradox how do we help the poor without creating perverse incentives that induce more poverty in the long run 355 Culture of poverty the argument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ fro those of middle class mainstream society in order to adapt and survive in different economic circumstances 359 Underclass the notion building on the culture of poverty argument that the poor not only are different from mainstream society in their inability to take advantage of what mainstream society has to offer but also are increasingly deviant and even dangerous to the rest of us 363 Perverse incentives reward structures that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproduction behavior for example welfare to the extent that is discourages work efforts is argues to have perverse incentives 363 Absolute poverty the point at which a household s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members 373 m Health and Society Paradox what causes people to die changes over time but the group at greatest risk of dying from these afflictions those low in socioeconomic status stay the same 387 Sick role concept describing the social rights and obligations of a sick individual 395 Morbidity illness in a general sense 399 Morality death 399 Family Paradox we think of the family as a haven in a harsh world but in fact inequality begins at home 427 Endogamy marriage to someone within one s social group 430 Exogamy marriage into someone outside one s social group 430 Monogamy the practice of having only one sexual partner or spouse 430 Polygamy the practice of having more than one sexual partner or spouse at a time 431 Polyandry the practice of having multiple husbands simultaneously 431 Polygyny the practice of having multiple wives simultaneously 431 Nuclear family familiar form consisting ofa father mother and their children 432 Extended family kin networks that extended outside or beyond the nuclear family 433 Cohabitation living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning 433 Kinship networks strings of relationships between people related by blood and co residence that is marriage 436 Cult of domesticity the notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing 438 Second shift women s responsibility for housework and child care everything from cooking dinner doing laundry bathing children reading bedtime stories and sewing Halloween costumes 444 in 39Education Paradox although school is supposed to be the institution in society that provides equal opportunity it ends up sorting and stratifying students by the backgrounds from which they came 469 Education the process through which academic social and cultural ideas and tols both general and specific are developed 471 Hidden curriculum the nonacademic socialization and training that took place in the schooling system 472 Social capital any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others 478 Tracking a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future goals 479 Credentialism an overemphasis on credential eg college degrees for signaling social status or qualification for a job 486 Affirmative action a set of policies that grant preferential policies to a number of particular subgroups within the population typically women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities 490 Social class or socioeconomic status SES an individual s position in a stratified social order 493 Cultural capital symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations 495 Stereotype threat when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes 500 Resource dilution model hypothesis stating that parentall resources are finite and that each additional child dilutes them 504 Capitalism and the Economy Paradox the more one earns the more one can afford leisure however the more one earned the more it costs to not work in terms of forgone wages 511 Capitalism economic system in which property and goods are primarily owned privately investments are determined by private decisions and prices production and the distribution of goods are determined primarily by competition in a free market 513 Feudalism economic system characterized by the presence of lords vassals serfs fiefs 513 Agricultural revolution the introduction of new farming technologies that increase food output in farm production 514 Corporation a legal entity unto itself that has a legal personhood distinct from that of its members namely its owners and shareholders 515 Alienation a condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers according to Marx the basic state of being in a capitalist society 519 Socialism an economic system in which most of all the needs ofthe population are met through nonmarket methods of distribution 522 Communism a political ideology of a classless society in which the means of productions are shared through state ownership and in which rewards are not tied to productivity but need 522 Family wage a wage paid to male workers sufficient to support a dependent wife and children 524 Service sector the economic activity that involve providing intangible services 531 Champagne glass distribution the unequal global distribution of income so named for its shape 533 Monopoly the form or business that occurs when there s only one seller of a good or services in the market leading to zero competition 535 Oligopoly the condition when only a handful offirms exist in a particular market 535 Offshoring a business decision to move all or part ofa company s operation overseas to minimize costs 537 Union the organization when workers formally unite with the common aim of collective bargaining 538 Union bursting a company s assault on its workers union with the hope of dissolving it 538 m Authority and the State Paradox authority is based on the implicit threat of violence but the moment that force is used all authority is lost 545 Politics power relations among people of other social actors 546 Authority the justifiable right to exercise power 547 Charismatic authority authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader 547 Traditional authority authority based on appeals to past tradition 548 Legal rational authority a system of authority based on legal impersonal rules the rules rule 548 Routinization the clea rule governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making 549 Rationalization an ever expanding process of ordering or organizing 549 Bureaucracy a legal rational organization or mode of administration that governs with references to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy 549 Specialization the process of making work consist of specific delimited tasks 550 Taylorism the methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task 550 Meritocracy a society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes ability and achievement 551 Milgram experiment an experiment devised in 1971 by StanelyMigram a psychologist at Yale University to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific figure 552 Power the ability to carry one s own will despite resistance 553 Domination the probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people State as defined by Weber quota human community that successfully claims the monopolyof the legitimate use ofphysicalforce within a given territoryquot 554 Coercion the use of force to get others to do what you want 555 Paradox of authority although the state s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority 555 International state system a system in which each state is recognized as territory sovereign by the fellow states 559 Welfare state a system in which the state is responsible for the well being of its citizens 560 Citizenship rights the rights guaranteed to each law abiding citizen in a nation state 562 Civil rights the rights guaranteeing a citizen s personal freedom from interference including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely 562 Political rights the rights guaranteeing a citizen s ability to participate in politics including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office 562 Social rights the rights guaranteeing a citizen s protection by the state 562 Soft power power attained through use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action hard power 567 Democracy a system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people citizens are freely and participate as legal equals in social life 568 Dictatorship a form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual 568 Game theory the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence 569
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