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by: Judson Fisher
Judson Fisher
GPA 3.9

J. Latto

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J. Latto
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Judson Fisher on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EEMB 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by J. Latto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/226898/eemb-3-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Lecture outlines for the Plant Section of EEMB 3 John Latto These are NOT complete lecture notes They include all the terminology and most of the lists and headings from the Powerpoint slides They can be used as atemplate to add your own annotations in lecture print double spaced or with large margins This should allow you to write less listen more and end up with notes that are useful to you All gure references are to Purves et al 8Lh edition e g F287 refers to Figure 287 and Tl3 refers to Table 13 All the substantive text from the Powerpoint slides is available here plus a few diagrams 7 the only thing missing from the powerpoints is the pretty pictures Terminology you should be familiar with from this class or prior classes is highlighted in bold italics on its rst use Lecture 1 Introduction to this section of the course and the plant kingdom Introduction i Office hours Tu Th 12 or by appointment ii Will answer questions by email lattolifesciucsbedu 7 but don t be lazy iii ALL midterm questions will be covered in lecture MOST will be covered in text iv To do well Utilize ALL the resources available text office hours lecture etc B What we don t know is far more interesting than what we do know Knowing what we don t know requires us to know what we do know Example question we don t know the answer to i Why are plants green C The Plant Kingdom The big picture i Linnaeus 7 Two Kingdoms ii Whittaker Five kingdoms Monera Protista Plants Fungi Animals iii Three domains Bacteria Archaea Eukaryotes iv Creating monophyletic groups the protist problem iv Results from the Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group Deep Green F287 D Some Plant Characteristics especially compared to animals i Antotrophic 7 most plants can use light energy to make complex organic molecules ii Sedentary 7 this means many plant responses to stimuli are physiological growth rather than behavioral movement Plants show considerable phenotypic plasticity Seed dormancy is another adaptation iii All plant life cycles show an Alternation of Generations F284 This involves an alternation between TWO different multicellular life stages 7 one haploid and one diploid The multicellular diploid spore producing plant is called the Sporophyte spores produced by meiosis and the multicellular haploid gamete producing plant is called the Gametophyte gametes are produced by mitosis fusion of gametes leads to diploid form again What are the possible evolutionary advantages of an alternation of generations Lecture 2 The Plant invasion of land Defining the plant Kingdom i Embryophytes or land plants versus green plants F28 l 7 the larger Green Plant group includes several algal lineages ii Embryophytes have protected embryos as a defining synapomorphy This was a significant evolutionary event allowing the plant invasion of land and then the animal invasion of land iii Embryophytes rst evolved in the early Paleozoic By the end of the Paleozoic the land was covered in extensive forests but not of the type of trees we see today 7 see later lectures John Latte 9211 0 B Lecture 3 M A B c Moving onto land i Colonization of land required adaptations not necessary in water A means of support a means to access spatially separated resources and a way to prevent excessive water loss ii At this time Ordovician to Silurian glaciation and climate change led to uctuating water levels iii Adaptations to shallow water life with uctuating water levels may have been preadaptatiuns for 39 e on an Waxy cuticles to help prevent water 75 mm loss pnmng um fm Protection of gametes Protection of developing embryos iv The rst land plants enjoyed a number of advanta es Sunlight un ltered by water or algae Soil rich in minerals An absence of terrestrial herbivores A 0757quot0 osses The rst land plants 7 the nuntracheuphytes 1 previously the nun7vascular p ants l pmpm i Three Phyla or divisions the botanical equivalent of phylum of nonvascular i J Ebelting h V plants aka the nontracheophytes 7 H Liverworts H qiatnphyta Hnrnwum l Anthncernphyta amp Masses g giamp lLj wwwmm ii Life cycle F285 7 need water for the swim agellate sperm cells need to swim from the Antheridia to the archegunium The main plant body is the haploid gametophy te iii Heteruspmy versus hnmnspmy F28 l 2 What is sex Important conceptl Why is sex so popular Extremely important concept iv The hydruid water conducting but without secondary cell wall thickening v Liverworts and ornworts are essentially at mosses have gone vertical just vi Convergent evolution for traiw involved in attracting insects for dispersal The origin of Vascular tissue i The earliest Vascular plants Cooksonia a genus inthe extinct Rhyniophyta phyla ii T racheids are elongated tapering cells with ligni ed cell walls functioning in both support and water transport There may be a tradeoff between these two functions iii Vascular tissue becomes more specialized in the Angiusperms with two types of cells vessel elements for transport and Fibre cells for support iv Vasmlarplanm aka T rachenphytm are now able to spread out from the edges of ponds Adaptations permitting the colonization of land i Cuticle iv Structural su v True Vascular system the origin of vascular tissue was an evolutionary breakthrough Juhn Latin 90110 Lecture 4 Ferns and other seedless plants Spomphyte ltsz A Ferns horsetuils and Whisk ferns Pteridophyta inow all in one Phyla Club mosses are in a different Phyla All are seedless vascular plans or nonseed Tracheophytes Note club mosses are not mosses neither is Spanish moss it J 39 Spomngmm am i Life cycle of ferns F2820 Important terminology Sporangia Antheridia and Archegonia again Rhizoid room on the gametophyte ii Differences between mosses and ferns Which is dominant part of life cycle Are they homosporous or heterosporous c What Vascular tissues do they have iii Similarities between mosses and ferns Gametophytes independent Where are egg an sperm produced c Are sperm motile d Where are spores produced Are seeds produced iv Ferns as dispersers and colonizers v Extinct Pteridophytes the coal forests vi Paleobotany reconstruction of past landscapes using spore and pollen records vii The fern spike gr C797 3 Lecture 5 Gymnosperms A Gymnosperms Conifers cycads ginkgos and Gnetophytes i Not a monophyletic group ii Dominate landscape during the Mesozoic iii Produce seeds but do NOT produce owers and do not produce fruit Gymnosperm seeds are thus not protected by ovary or fruit tissue hence the name naked seeded but this does not mean they are unprotected B Adaptations contributing to the success of the seed plants apply to both gymnosperms and angiosperms i Evolution of the seed ii Evolution of pollen iii Reduction of the gametophyte generation John Lana 92110 Lecture 6 A B Reproductive anatomy The ower 7 four basic oral organs39 Angiosperms I Flowering plants Anthophyta i M onocotyledons and Dicotyledons Monocots are thought to be a monophyletic group with several distinctive traits see below Dicots are a paraphyletic group from which the monocots evolved The eudicots a subset of the dicots are thought to be a monophyletic group Monocots Dicots Cotyledon One Two Veins Parellel Net like Vascular bundles Complex Roots Fibrous Floral parts Multiples of 3 In a ring Tap root Multiples of 4 or 5 et epals Stamens and arpe i Petals and sepals serve to attract pollinators ii The anther 7 modi ed leaves called stamens bear the pollen producing rnicrosporangia or anthers Pollen varies in morphology between species but there is consistency within a species iii The carpel 7 modi ed leaves called carpels bear the megasporangium The general term pistil is used for a single carpel or several fused carpels The swollen base of the pistil containing one or more ovules is the ovary We LEM iv Some oral distinctions 7 perfect vs imperfect owers monoea39ous vs dioecious species v Changing sex 7 some plants are able to change sex as they grow They all change sex in the same direction though vi Evolutionary trends reduction in the number of oral parts fusion of parts symmetry goes from radial to bilateral ovary drops below petals where it is better protected new sacs Mngas les W Mammy FLOWER MEIOSIS kw Q lvvlegmnenl Wampum v A I I N Gmch i a Q GumwthoHawnmsu K i Amman Emhryu Sa FERnleAnoN Fuhagc Leaves YWW V Cmylndnn 7 Mmmmmsm Angiosperm Life Cycle F2914 amp 385 i Pollination and fertilization are different processes Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma Fertilization occurs when a sperm and an egg unite to form a diploid zygote ii Pollen development diploid rnicrosporocytes undergo meiosis to form four haploid miaospores Microspore nucleus undergoes mitotic division to give a generative cell and a tube cell Wall of rnicrospore thickens to produce a pollen grain 7 an immature male gametophyte A nal mitotic division of the generative cell to produce two sperm cells occurs in the pollen tube This is the mature male gametop yte iii Ovule development diploid megasporocyte in the sporangiurn of an ovule undergoes meiosis to form four haploid megaspores only one of which usually survives Surviving megaspore undergoes 3 mitotic divisions forming 1 large cell with 8 haploid nuclei Membranes partition this into a multicellular embryo sac This is the female gametophyte It contains an egg cell two synergids three antipodal cells and two polar nuclei iv Double fertilization occurs when one sperm cell combines with the egg cell and one sperm cell combines with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid cell that will give rise to the endosperm John Latto 91809 Lecture 7 A B Angiosperms II Embryology seed and fruit development 1 ii iii iv V vi Endosperm development begins before embryo development Endosperm is rich in nutrients which are provided to the developing embryo In many dicots food reserves from the endosperm are exported to the cotyledons Embryo development First mitotic division is transverse establishing rootshoot axis Cotyledons appear as bumps very early on Hormonal control of fruit and seed development Anxin 7 produced by seeds stimulates fruit development Gibberellin 7larger and more spaced fruit Ethylene 7 produced by plant stimulates fruit ripening Abscissic Acid 7 seed dormancy Dormancy Dormancy is an adaptation to the greater uctuation in environmental conditions found in terrestrial ecosystems Conditions for breaking dormancy vary in desert plants a single heavy rain storm may be sufficient to break dormancy In some species re or cold or passage through an animal s gut may be required DodoCalvaria tree story Fruit and seed morphology Seed contains three types of tissue Embryo diploid Endosperm triploid seedcoat diploid from female parent Botanically a true fruit is a ripened ovary Legally a fruit is whatever the Supreme Court says it is Many common fruits are at least in part developed from tissues other than the ovary Simple fruits 7fruit derived from a single ovary eg cherry Aggregate fruits 7fruit derived from a single ower with several carpels eg Blackberry Mnltiple 39nits 7 fruit derived from an in orescence eg pineapple Fruit amp seed dispersal Seed not pollen is now the dispersal stage Seeds may be dispersed by the wind adaptations include very light seeds uffy seeds winged seeds or by animals adaptations include eshy fruits barbed hairy or sticky fruits Asexual reproduction Fragmentation stolons above ground stems producing roots at intervals and rhizomes below ground stems producing roots at intervals apomixis the asexual production of seeds C Pollination of owers Evolution of Insects and owers earliest pollinators were probably beetles attracted to sticky sap that had evolved to catch pollen grains Inferior ovary evolved to protect ovule Organism Flower color Flower scent Beetle White or dull Fruity spicy Bee Blue or yellow Misc Moth White or dull Sweet Butter y Colorful Scented Birds Colorful None Bats Dull Fruity Wind Dull None John Lana 91809 Lecture 8 A Roots shoots and leaves Roots 7 Anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients i ii iii iv Compare brous monocot roots with typical taproots of dicots Where is the water Root hairs these are the rhizoids we saw in liverworts etc increase surface area Mycorrhizae fungus roots 7 mutualistic associations between plants and fungi Plant gains minerals fungus gains organic nutrients 95 of vascular plants have mycorrhizae Root nodules 7 another mutualistic association that some plants eg legumes such as peas beans and clovers have with nitrogen xing bacteria in the genus Rhizobium Roots secrete chemical chemicals to attract bacteria Bacteria secrete chemical to stimulate root hair to elongate Bacteria enter root and take on new form 7 bacteroids Bacteria produce chemical inducing root cell division to form nodule Plant and bacteria both make a part of the leghemoglobin molecule that is used to keep free oxygen levels low Shoots 7 stem is divided into a number of sections by the presence of nodes where leaves are attached In the angle between leaf and stem is an axillary bnd Growth at the apical shoot may inhibit these lateral buds a process known as apical dominance i ii iii iv Stolons above ground and Rhizomes below ground 7 horizontal stems that can produce new plants asexually T nbers are rhizomes modified for carbohydrate storage Thorns are modified stems In cacti stems often function as water storage organs Leaves 7 very very varied 1 ii iii Vary in size shape leaf margins leaf tip shape leaf base shape leaf attachment point etc etc Many factors are involved but one important one is a trade off between light absorption and water loss Leaves are also adapted to perform many additional functions in addition to light interception catching insects deterring herbivores climbing attracting pollinators etc Leaf characteristics have been used to understand paleoclimates eg stomatal density is used to estimate CO concentration and Adaptations to harsh environments 1 ii iii iv Adaptations to dry environments Reduced or modified leaves Thick cuticle Crassnlacean acid metabolism A n 1 J to wet 39 1 1 an otherwise anaerobic substrate Adaptations to saline environments saline tolerant plants are known as halophytes Accumulate or excrete sodium Salt tolerant crops could be of huge bene t to agriculture Adaptations to low nutrient environments Parasites and carnivores 7 alternate solutions to the problem of obtaining nutrients 7 particularly nitrogen Plants use insects to supplement the limited nitrogen 7 they still obtain their organic carbon from C0 and energy from light as 7 enable the root system to obtain oxygen in John Lana 91809


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