CONCEPTS OF BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS OF BIOLOGY MCDB 20
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Kuvalis on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MCDB 20 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by J. Cooper in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/226903/mcdb-20-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
MCDB 20 Spring 2011 Midterm Exam Study Questions Not a comprehensive coverage of all topics but hopefully this sampling of questions will stimulate your studies gt List the steps of the scientific method and use an example to illustrate how it works in real life Step 1 Make observations Step 2 Formulate a hypothesis Step 3 Devise a testable prediction Step 4 Conduct a critical experiment Step 5 Draw conclusions and make revisions gt What are the relationships data ie facts hypothesis and theory gt Why is science considered to be quotcorrectablequot Because if a hypothesis is tested to be wrong at some point then the science has be corrected to accommodate any new discoveries gt Describe both some of the limitations and the power of science The limitations of science are that some questions will never be answered by science for example if there is a God or not The power of science though is that it helps understand the natural world gt What are the various types of chemical bonds Rank them in order from strongest to weakest How does atomic structure determine how atoms interact to form the various types of chemical bonds ConvalentgtonicgtHydrogen A molecule s shape gives it unique characteristics Molecular Personalities Shape determines function oPhysical properties such as Taste Smell V Describe the importance of both water and carbon in biological systems and to understand the chemical properties of each VV Explain the difference between an acid and a base and why pH is important for biological systems Name the 4 major classes of molecules used in a cell and to both describe their distinct chemical properties and how each is used Four Types of Macromolecules Carbohydrates Energy acetyl backbones Lipids Energy acetyl backbones Proteins Energy essential amino acids cofactors Nucleic acids gt Explain what is meant by quotstructure determines functionquot in relations to proteins gt What is quotCell Theoryquot Cell Theory 1 All living organisms are made up of one or more cells gt VVV VVV gt V V V VVV gt 2 All cells arise from other preexisting cells Corollary to cell theory Viruses are smaller than cells not cellular Viruses are not living organisms Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 1 A eukaryotic cell 0 has a central control structure called a nucleus which contains the cell39s DNA 0 eukaryotes 2 A prokaryotic cell 0 does not have a nucleus its DNA simply resides in the middle ofthe cell 0 prokaryotes Compare and contrast plant and animal cells Describe the key characteristics of the various plant and animal cell organelles Draw and label the parts of the plasma membrane including the phospholipids cholesterol proteins and external sugar attachments Describe the key properties of the plasma membrane selfsealing fluidlike and semipermeable focusing on the consequences and importance of each for cellular function Define both diffusion and osmosis and predict the movement of molecules across a membrane if given the concentrations of relevant substances Compare and contrast channels and carriers Compare and contrast passive and active transport What is a vesicle How are vesicles used in endocytosis and exocytosis Define quotenergyquot and name the different ways energy can be classified Potential and kinetic energy What is an enzyme How does it alter the energy requirements for changing a substrate into a product Explain how the movement of electrons drive the entire process of cellular respiration The first step of cellular respiration glycolysis is the universal energy releasing pathway The second step of cellular respiration the Krebs cycle Third step in cellular respiration electron transport chainATP Synthase Describe the 3 major and 1 intermediate steps of cellular respiration including the starting and end products where they occur in the cell if they use oxygen andor release carbon dioxide and how many ATP are produced Explain the role of fermentation in sustaining multiple rounds of glycolysis How is photosynthesis quotcomplementaryquot to cellular respiration Describe the 2 major steps of photosynthesis including the starting and end products where they occur in the cell what electrons are doing if they use carbon dioxide andor release oxygen and if they use light or other sources for energy Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction 1 Asexual reproduction via mitosis and binary ssion eg prokaryotes 2 Sexual reproduction via meiosis Describe both prokaryotic amp eukaryotic chromosomes amp know the relevant voca diploid autosome sex 39 39 39 U 39 sister 39 How many chromosomes does a human have in their regular cells and in their gametes Name the stages of mitosis in order and describe the major events in each bulary eg haploid I