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by: Erika Kuvalis
Erika Kuvalis
GPA 3.82


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Class Notes
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Kuvalis on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MCDB 21 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see /class/226905/mcdb-21-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
MCDB 21 1302008 Lecture 8 Impact of HIV on immune system HIV structure HIV coreceptors Replication cycle of HIV Summary of NonSpecific Immune System Inflammatory response Cells 0 Macrophages o Neutrophils 0 Natural Killer Cells Properties 0 Does not require immunization to function 0 Acts immediately 0 Not very ef cient at eliminating pathogens 2 Summary of Specific Immune System Anti Mediated B cells Cell Mediated Cytotoxic T cells Plasma cells Antibody both Antigen presenting cells Helper T cells Very efficient at eliminating pathogens 3 MCDB 21 HIV lnfects and Kills CD4 T Lymphocytes mvulvr CM EMT Lyrmhncyta Dendritic Cells Macmhage eniri c Cdls md lic cells have I an an Iliir sl ace Dendritic Cells in Lymph Nodes Tn Bland L h 0 0Q ll 0 0 much 0 0 md lic Cells Lyrrph nsms MCDB 21 1302008 HVC Recept r5 HIV CoReceptors on T cells vs HIV Co Rece tors FIQ 25l TeXt MacrophagesDendritic Cells p You Tube Movie 33 httpIIwwwyoutubecomlwatchvR08MP3vaqg cm 0 cm or go to You Tube web site and search for HIV replication qul lymphoma Newcastlemandala we or go to class website and click or HIV replication just below Lecture 3 rt mimic MCDB 21 Function of CoReceptors 1302008 CXCR4 and CCR5 proteins are chemokine HIV is a Retrovirus HIV Structure receptors OVA D smw HIV RNA Reverse Chem klnes HIV RNA DNA copy R V T rzs 7 o Chemwca messengers Transcrlpmse l a we meme 0 SmaH protems swm arto cytokmes Rquot f m o Produced b macrophages dunng 5331quot e was v V 5 4Kamp m ammatory reacuon quotW RNA Mmgrsai ii yquot o Attract T ymphocyles to sue of mfecuon mm MCDB 21 192008 Lecture 2 Review of Basic Biology 1 DNA 2 RNA 3 Proteins 4 Carbohydrates 5 Cells i DNA Structure Components of DNA DNA contains only4 kinds of nucleotide the building blocks of nucleic acid A nucleotide consists of a vecarbon sugar deoxyribose a phosphate group and one of the following bases adenine guanine thymine cytosine MCDB 21 192008 Double Helix Winds Up into Chromosomes The Structure of DNA Nucleotide Myc H 09quot D N phosphme group 0 no rll ocl 4 O on u Nucleoside no phosphate nu I VC m Lhasa 01lH39CH on l4 Eases 39 Sugar ribose A phosphate backbone MCDB 21 192008 Protein structure Amino Acids and Proteins o Trytophan Tyrosine o Vallne Amino Acids G39V 39quote Amino Acids Structure of Human Hair Fibers of Hair Keratin Enzymes and Chemical Reaction Subslvale Active sue o Chemical Reaction Sucrose Glucose Fructose Glucose Fructose MCDB 21 192008 Examples of Proteins Fibrous keratin hair Structural collagen fibers skin Muscle also fibrous Hormones insulin helps get sugar into cells Immune system antibodies and many others Enzymes help chemical reactions Transport carry molecules around body m Carbohydrates NO39CH Girl Fructose u c 39 H OH C l l Sucrose b 36 0H 2on 6H H H o H CW H OH H H 0 OH lY CWOH ItH l 0H 0H 39 H l at Llt t3ucose39TOH 39 Ha erJI H u Cu 11 Glycoproteins Proteins with Carbohydrates Attached carbohydrates F rotelns MCDB 21 2202008 Lecture 13 Epidemiology Types of epidemiological studies Transmission categories Geographic distribution Ethnicity Gender Age Pattern of transmission Terminology Surveillance Epidemic Pandemic Prevalence Clustering Types of Epidemiological Studies Case reports Observational Retrospective Analytical 2202008 MCDB 21 Changes in Transmission Categories Effect of AZT Azidothymidine on HIV Transmission Analytical Study A39DS Transm39ss39on categor39es Treatment Of Mother Of infants WHO 1990 2003 2005 2007 ame H V Homosexual 61 43 37 43 2 bisexual men injection drug users Control 27 Heterosexual No treatment 2 me One Week before ornn 30 days after orrtn new text MCDB 21 2202008 of AIDS Cases Among Sexually How HIV is Transmitted Geographical Distribution of AIDS Active Homosexual Men m w n msnmmwww my WWW Exposure Category A of Total US World WWWquot Wm Blood transfusion 2 3 blood products Almlmmm Perina a 1 Sexual intercour e 59 80 Heterosexual intercourse 35 70 Injectiondrug use 25 B MCDB 21 2202008 Geographical Distribution of AIDS 5 2 an M 7 sum RacialEthnic Distribution ofAIDS us Pnpmauunizma Gender Distribution of HIV Infections MCDB 21 2182008 Lecture 12 PEPFAR and President Bush s trip to Africa Herpes Human PapiIIoma Virus B Cell Lymphoma Pediatric AIDS HIV Nonprogressors Epidemiology Transmission Categories I President s Emergency Plan ForAIDS Relief PEPFAR Has provided 17 billion for global AIDS programs Provides education prevention care and treatment Based on Uganda s ABC program abstinence being faithful condoms Provides coordination between World Bank and US nonprofit faithbased and government agencies including Peace Corps 2 Results of PEPFAR Program Prevention provided education to 615 million people and helped support prevention of mother child transmission in 10 million pregnancies Treatment provided antiretroviral drugsto 145 million peop e Care provided health care to 66 million people including 27 million children provided counseling and testing to 33 million people MCDB 21 Herpes Simplex Virus 2182008 Genital Herpes makes people more Herpes produce much more Herpes virus than uninfected people People with AIDS develop Herpes sores and blisters a overtheir body generalized Herpes Herpes Simplex Virus Human Papilloma Virus Anogenital warts Virus infects vaginal cells cells ofthe cervix and cells in the anal area Virus is sexually transmitted Cervical cancer is caused by 2 strains ardasil vaccine protects aga39ns infection of4 strains 2 that r 2 that cause anogenital w I t cause cervical arts MCDB 21 2182008 Female Genital Tract Falloglan Tu e Uterus Human Papilloma Virus Genital Warts mm B Cell Lymphoma Cancerous B lymphocytes Found under skin or mucus membranes or in lymph nodes In AIDS often caused by EpsteinBarr Virus infectious mononucleosis virus Tumor Tumor m Lymph Moai MCDB 21 2182008 Most Common Opportunistic Infections Pediatric AIDS Pediatric AIDS in the United States associated with Pediatric AIDS gigg grmgs Salmonella intestinal infections mummm ui Chiidfe IZyears and under I 39 Rome 0f mfewon WEI Streptococcus respiratory infections u During pregnancy u Atnrneufbirn u Breastfeeding Staphylococcus skin and blood infections Numhw mm m m w n i s Candidamouthinfections Diagnosis of pediatric AIDS i i A m war zoo in m MCDB 21 1232008 Lecture 6 Immunology cont d 1 Cells ollhe lmmune sSlem 2 Phagoovlosls a Clones d Cvloklneslvmphokmes 5 Cellme lale lmmumlv Role olthe Bone Marrow lhrww mm mmm mmm Cell Pvuurw u WW mm mm ull White Blood Cells quotmum lt mm mm m m g Mnnanbu tlhmumnn W a mm am Cell MCDB 21 1232008 T Lymphocyte T Lym hocyte HelperT cell lcml cymtoxlc T cell coal CD4 T cell with Hli Cytotoxic T Cell Killing a Tumor Cell Tumor cell cy omxlc T cell B Lymphocyte Electron Micro B lymphocyte in scope plcture whole blood light microscope 1 232008 MCDB 21 In ammatory on B Lymphocyte Natural Killer Cells Ream Mama Granules mu mus Interim cell ung Grmules39ull mquot as Amlhndy mmquot Mammy quot m mum nrlumnr cell J quot mam My Ica 4 Manual lelu Cell Target 141 Tugcboricnlud Granules Plasma Cell Antlh w Surface Contact a Cell MCDB 21 Action of Phagocytic Cells Macrophages and Phagocytosis 1232008 Wagncytnsis m bacteria nm was wtn antibody Pnzgncytnsis m bacteria coated wtn antibody is mm more etticient Clone A clone is a group of identical cells descended from man ancestor A clone ofT cells or B cells are all specifc for the same antigenic determinant The specifcity of a T or B cells is determined by it receptor for antigen 61 Clunesnt parent cells bl 00 MCDB 21 1282008 Lecture 7 Comparison of Ototoxic T Cells Activation of Helper T Cells by Macrophages 39 and Natural Killer Cells Presenting an Antigen Fragment Activation of T helper lymphocytes Cytotoxic T Cells Natural Killer Cells MACROPKAGE Antibody mediated immunity CD8 T cell rece tor No Require clonal activation Primary vs secondary immune response 710 days to be fully act immediately TVHILPER cm trvated genialG BEING ACTIVATED llLFED Interactions of antibodies with antigens Speci c for antigen No C 71333 Immunological memory No m MCDB 21 1282008 Interaction between Macrophage and T cell receptor Macr vhage Clonal Selection of B cells We presenting call Ma rHigucumDaibl y mm Antigen Fragment Clonal Selection means that for every a hat can be selected by its speci c antigen T e selected B cells under cell division and maturation into plasma cells th t Qua a produce d release tlhody speci c ight for the antigen that did the selecting MCDB 21 1282008 Overview of Antibody Mediated Immunity Fig 39 Heiver r iymphocy e tngmem r moon new 7 oor Meonooneoeg tiy iymphocy ev F mesneoeus moody no biocdgream Primary vs Secondary Antibody Response 7n new Antibody Secondary Antibody Response Response 7n new enoioen Secondary ar iga39i eoosone exoosone Viral Inhibition Neutralization MCDB 21 1282008 Toxin Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation w Anmoxm Toxin Antibody Tnxinity sne Antigen MCDB 21 172008 quot x Lecture 1 Introduction AIDS 2008 A A b a f 1 Discussion sections do not meet this week Acquired Immunode ciency Syndrome quot55 2 TA39s Nick Fera MCDB 21 Farm Khaki Disease discovered in 1981 3 Syllabus Book Winter 2003 4 39 5 2 03 HIV identi ed in 1933 Lemmy Overview ofAIDS January 8 2008 AIDS worldwme and m me US HIV is a Lenlivirus MCDB 21 172008 Structure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Ennmes QQ Milrix Viral Envul no VIraI Pmmins Incidence of AIDS Cases in the United States Number m Eases Datem Diagnasis 5 AIDS Epidemic November 2007 Central Europe People living with HIV 33 million 1 in 2007 Global People newly infected with HIV 2007 25 million I aran Africa 17 million I Nor America Western and 77 000 I AIDS deaths in 2007 Global 21 millionl AIDS cases in US 2006 400001 MCDB 21 1172008 N 0 J Lecture 4 Concepts of Infectious Disease Koch s postulates Transmission of infectious disease Epidemics An emerging epidemic N Pquot 5 Koch s Postulates The organism is always found in diseased individuals The organism can be isolated from a diseased individual and grown in pure culture The pure culture will initiate and reproduce the disease when in ro uce bac into a suscept ble host either man or animal T rganism can be reisolated from that diseased individual Molecular correlate Demonstrate that nucleic acid sequence of organism is associated with disease 2 Transmission of Infectious Diseases Reservoir Carrier Route of transmission Route of entry MCDB 21 1172008 Types of Disease Transmission Respiratorysaliva Oralfecal Venereal spread Vertebratereservoir Vectorvertebrate Factors that affect transmission rate Number of susceptible individuals Season Population density Level of infection 0 Acute 0 Chronic o Subclinical Epidemiology Epidemic Endemic disease Pandemic MCDB 21 1172008 A Hidden Epidemic mumwm immmmm ui Mm ihuscancv m so u m m v mm m dalmvd uwxciymmmt Mam numammNMmGImnvq mmmwmmmmmwmm WWW m Wmme WM WWW A am aw in 39 mm Monitoring of Infectious Disease United Slates genlers for Qisease gonlrol CDC WW W cm gm Mummy and MunaimWeekiy Repun ldwide World Health Organization WWW WHEI mt UNAiDS annuai repurt Wor Infectious Diseases in the US MCDB 21 1172008 Human diseases associated with Control of Infectious Diseases An Emerging Epidemic M RSAStaph aureus Public Health Departments ommuniyacguired Methicillinresistant Soft tissue infections United states Department of Agriculture Staphylococcus aureus MRSAStaph aureus oSkin infections rapid spread Vaccination oPeople not hospitalized in the past year FleSheaquotquot9 infedions I I oEasil assed at athletic facilities rison Abscesseslulcerslw und39quotfec39ons Antibiotics 0239 p 39 Anti39Viral drugs oRapid increase in of cases worldwide from 39 Heart infecnons 2002007 Pneumonia oResistant to many antibiotics oVery aggressive strain in oUnique strain 11 2 MCDB 21 Lecmre 10 Slide 7 2132008 Lecture 10 Defining AIDS cont d Correction from Lecture 10 HIV Neurological Syndrome Opportunistic InfectionsCancers o Pneumocystis o Tuberculosis o Cytom egalovirus o Kaposi s Sarcoma Human Herpes 8 l Symptoms of Persistent Generalized Lymphadenopathy ARC Stage IV lll Notec n Lymphadenopathy lasting for 6 months or more Swollen lymph nodes in 2 or more areas of the body Consistently dropping CD4 T cell counts Mild infections and rashes HIV Wasting Syndrome beginning HIV neurological disease beginning CDC Stages of HIV Infection Stage IV Continuing ARC and AIDS Continuing lymphadenopathy More severe HlV Wasting Syndrome More severe HlV Neurological Disease CD4 T cell counts continue to drop toward 200 and below See Lec 10 Slides 2 3 and 4 for definition of AIDS MCDB 21 2132008 HIV Neurological Syndrome Also called HIV Encephalopathy Disabling cognitive dysfunction or Disabling motor dysfunction Progresses over weeks to months HIV infects Brain Macrophages and Astrocytes quotEma 9 3r hm McrnDhge Agrocyie mm egg mm 5 Stages of HIV Disease Stagel 31322 u stage in and w awsbiu Mug 1 H MCDB 21 2132008 Correlation of CD4 T Cell Levels Pneumocystls carInII Illycobacterum tubercuOSIS WIth Stage of HIV Disease tt of T Cells m Symptoms Stage of HlV ummss Blood Dlsease Protnznzn l Above 500 Few or none Asymptomatlc 2 Q l Latency ff l 39 39 200500 Mlldmoderate Ale Related quot 39 Cysts ubercles 4 fl mfectlons Complex Am lmnmmm Less than 200 Seere mfectlons AlDS WWW WWW hes My 7 x u 2132008 Herpes Family of Viruses AIDSAssociated o Cytomegalovirus o Herpes Simplex Virus Oral or Genital 0 Human Herpes 8 Kaposi s sarcoma Not AI DS Associated cloudiness s lgastmenlentis 0 Infectious mononucleosus cornea Bleeding 0 Chicken pox Virus E Y8 Retina Back 0 ROSEOIB m MDAM M of Esta 2 Cytomegalovirus and AIDS Eye lretim tisl Lung lpneumonia Stomach and intestine Retlna Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Lens MCDB 21 2252008 Lecture 14 Global AIDS Global epidemiology Global Funding Sources Evolution of HIV HIV2 Global summary of the AIDS epidemic December 2007UNADS Number of people living with HIV 332 million People newly infected with HIV 25 million AIDS deaths in 2007 21 million AdultChildren Living with HIV 2007 CountryContinent Number millions SubSaharan Africa SouthSoutheast Asia Eastern EuropeCentral Asia Latin America East Asia amp Paci c North America 29 8 19 18 14 13 MCDB 21 2252008 Global Prevalence of HIV Infections Deaths Due to AIDS Global WorldWde People living with HIVAIDS MCDB 21 2252008 Population and HIV Infection Rates in elected African Countries Prevalence of HIV Infections Gender of AIDS Cases 2005 Y Male Female United States 74 26 43 57 1 w Mm SubSaharan Africa MCDB 21 2252008 Patterns of HIV Transmission Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Bill Clinton Global Initiative USNVestern Eastern Europe SUbS haran Priority Diseases HIVAIDS Tuberculosis Bring together global leaders business Europe M39ddle EaSt quot93 Malaria Child health executives nongovernment organization to North Africa Latin America solve major health problems 50 America Funding 8 billion through 2007 Majorfocus HIVAIDS and Malaria Homosexual Heterosexual Heterosexual Activities 0 Research Grants 82 million for 10 HIV I Provides IV drug use Contaminated Perinatal VECCine grants 0 Funds for low cost treatment and care blood E 0 Sponsors Meetings M 0 Fund raising 12 MCDB 21 2252008 Global Fund Partnership between governments and private sector corporations individuals Raises funds to ght AIDS tuberculosis a mal Raised and spent 34 billion since 2002 Red Product Line 17 offunding Red Product Line Bono Funding Sources for the Global Fund M Swain u MCDB 21 1212008 Lecture 5 Immunology Register to Vote Today wwwshcvotecom 1 Nonspeci c resistance 2 Antigens 3 Speci c resistance Antibodies Allergies 4 Organs and vessels of the immune system 1 Immune System Resistance to infectious disease 0 Nonspeci c resistance 0 Speci c resistance Disease NonSpeci c Resistance Barriers 0 Skin 0 Mucus membranes Enzymes o Stomach digestive enzymes 0 Tears saliva lysozyme Normal flora Inflammatory Response MCDB 21 1212008 Antigens Antigen any foreign material capable of stimulating an immune response Steps in Inflammatory Response 1 Damaged tissues Inflammatory Response Increased blood supply 3311ng 2 His team hlnn lnw c2 illzriizs n leak Accumulation of white blood cells at site of 3 V hnnggmzmre Antigenic determinant epitope the small IerCtlonmlur l quot hams a part of an antigen that attaches to antibody Chemicalsproteins that promote ZEIEI inflammation histamine cytokines free radicals prostaglandins Examples of in ammatory response pimple gastritis Iaryngitis mucous 2 ct39 J produ ion 4 lt1 Li 3 quot51 thgncyliccells engulf bacteria dead eer and debris Antigen Platelets sezllhe l in e Antigenic Determinants 5 MCDB 21 1212008 A bacterium is a complex set of antigenic determinants Antibody Antigenic Dataminant A 0 mm Ag m Agent Eachenum Antigens are often protein Iz Antibody Mast Frotem Amino Acids Antibodies Antigen cumming sne um cm Antihodl Heavychain MCDB 21 1212008 CrossLinking of Antigens Classes of Antibody Nasal Allergies Class Function Nlergens I lgM First antibody produced V magma u ErmulESJull maammereiease 7 m hi amine Mag sen Miran 3521 lgG Most abundant in blood or a lgA Breast milk body secretions lgE Allergy Antigen Mihody Complex


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