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Chapter 11 Notes

by: Alisha Currier

Chapter 11 Notes PSYCH 230-01

Alisha Currier
GPA 3.2
Human Sexuality
Nora Erikson

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About this Document

Hello everyone! This is for human sexuality, chapter 11. I hope this helps you out in reviewing the chapter!
Human Sexuality
Nora Erikson
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisha Currier on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 230-01 at Washington State University taught by Nora Erikson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 11 Sexual Orientation Human Sexuality What determines sexual orientation Kinsey 7point scale 0 Studies behaviors that range from exclusively heterosexual behavior to exclusively homosexual behavior 0 People cannot be strictly identi ed as homosexual or heterosexual Several factors can in uence that label 0 Sexual fantasies emotions and love help to contribute in identifying an individual s sexual orientation o It has been difficult to determine how many gays lesbians and bisexuals there actually are today 0 The number of samesex behaviors have seemed to stay at a constant rate over the years despite the change in status for homosexuality Why are there different sexual orientations Scientists tried to determine differences in the male and female body among homosexuals o Masculine traits in women and feminine traits in men but no differences found 0 Five theories 0 Biological 0 Developmental o Behavioral o Sociological o lnteractional 0 Biological Theory 0 The theory that being gay was an illness not a choice 0 Franz Kallman Genetics Studies show that the more similar in genetics such as identical twins the more likely they share the same sexual orientation Gay men are more likely to have more gay brothers versus lesbian sisters and lesbians were more likely to have more lesbian sisters than gay brothers 0 Excess hormonal exposure can affect the sexual orientation of the baby o Maternal Immune Hypothesis Each older brother from the same mother increases the chances of being gaywhie each older sister from the same mother decreases the chances 0 Gay men and women have similar brain structures tend to use both sides of the brain and lesbians and men have similar brain structures This cannot conclude that this is strictly due to sexual orientation 0 Developmental Theory 0 Sigmund Freud believed that we are all bisexuals at birth and did not see this as an illness He also believed lesbians were a cause of being angry for not having a penis and blaming the mother as well as being unable to have the father the girl will then reject all men and become a lesbian Gay men were a result of having a fear of castration looking for partners his mother would search for and thus also search for men 0 Bieber believed homosexuality was due to seductive mothers Studied 106 homosexual males and 100 heterosexual males R Green observed femininelike boys and masculinelike boys and compared his observations The femininelike boys enjoyed girl fashion and dolls 34th of them became homosexual or bisexual while only 1 masculinelike boy became bisexual o Behaviorist Theory 0 Homosexuality is a learned behavior 0 Through negative experiences with the opposite sex and positive experiences with the samesex this helps an individual to become enticed with the samesex and thus become homosexual or bisexual Sociological Theory 0 Our society and environment help to shape our sexual orientation Children who are labeled homosexual might end up trying to nd that homosexuality in themselves and thus become it American society has a strict label of homosexual and heterosexual which may cause youths to decide on one sideif there were no such labels the youth may go back and forth between homosexual and heterosexual without H M the pressure to decide on a label of quotgay straightquot or even quotbisexualquot o Interactional Theory 0 A combination of biological psychological and social factors that shape an individual s sexual orientation Through genetics or hormonal exposure a baby may have a higher chance of homosexuality then the child is put in settings with genderconforming children which increases the chances as they may enjoy the oppositesex s toys clothes etc Because they are now thinking they enjoy typical girl or quotboyquot stuff which is of their opposite sex they develop other interests similar to the opposite sex which can lead to having samesex partners Homosexuality in Other Times and Places 0 The view of homosexuality was the most negative in the US than in any other country through most of history 0 Classical Era o Homosexuality was common 0 Seen as a crime rather than de ning someone s sexual orientation 0 Homosexuality was hardly mentioned and was barely taken into consideration by Christians 0 The Middle Ages 0 For the rst 0 1000 years of Christianity homosexuality was not forbidden o By 1300 homosexuality would result in punishment by death in almost all of Europe This time in uences the Western s world on homosexuality o The Modern Era 0 America is more disapproving of homosexuality than Europe 0 Passing women disguised themselves as men married other women and even held of ces with high power most were not found out until death 0 They believed homosexuality was an illness that could be contagious Other Cultures 0 Latin American Countries Many are open to samesex relationships In many countries they don t typically in terms of homosexuality and heterosexuality but rather labeled through masculinity and feminism o If the man is penetrating either gender he is considered masculine Feminine men are those who allow themselves to be penetrated 0 Arabic Cultures quotMale homosexuality is tabooquot Also has similar views as Latin American base men on dominance and subordination and penetrating a man does not make them gay Most countries homosexuality can be punished by death 0 Asian and Paci c Countries Believed homosexuality was a disease from western civilization In India lesbians are less acceptable than gay men women who are believed to be lesbian are quickly married off ln Buddhist countries homosexuality was not condemned so it is more accepted in those countries African Countries Homosexuality is illegal in most of Africa quotCorrective rapequot occurred in Southern Africa women who were lesbian died by quotcorrective rapequot and were exposed through the internet in 2010 o Sambia This culture believed in sequential homosexuality Sambian s believed the mother s milk should be replaced by semen At age 7 until 18 boys are engaged in samesex sexual activity and then become heterosexual O Gays lesbians and bisexuals throughout the life cycle 0 Many have dif culty coming out due to social attitudes toward sexuality in most countries 0 Typically around the age of 8 or 9 they are beginning to be aware of their sexual orientation 0 Today more teens are coming out earlier due to more acceptance by society 0 Coming Out 0 Parents who are supportive after their child has quotcome outquot helps their child to have higher selfesteem and con dence 0 Those who do not support their child causes them to be at a higher risk of depression loneliness suicide and homelessness Homosexuals and bisexuals are at a higher risk of stress and tension than heterosexuals which increases the risk of chronic diseases and mental health problems 0 This may be due to the fact that they are in a society with negative attitudes towards homosexuals Gay men and lesbians have difficulty with dating in a heterosexual world clubs organizations and other groups are formed to helps homosexuals to socialize with other homosexuals Gay couples have issue gaining joint custody of a child Children who are raised by gay or lesbian parents have the same emotional cognitive and social aspects as other children who has been raised by heterosexual parents Those who come out before their senior years are more comfortable with their sexual orientation as they transition in their senior years 0 Those who don t end up feeling depressed and lonely They will end up completely hiding their true sexual orientation quotsocial services medical political entertainment and even religious organization have been formedquot 0 Since the AIDS epidemic medical services has been formed to help the GLB community 0 Harvey Milk School School that accepts 1418 year olds where their sexual orientation will be accepted Homophobia and heterosexism Those who have negative views of homosexuality are less likely to be in contact with one are older andor less educated Heterosexual men have more negative views on gay men Heterosexism is a lack of awareness by assuming individuals are heterosexual There has been a continuous increase in hate crimes related to sexual orientation Some may be homophobic because they are suppressing their true sexual orientation The media is creating more awareness and support for the GLB community Differences among homosexual groups Lesbianism 0 Lesbian relationships have been found to be more satisfying and empathetic than heterosexual relationships 0 Society seems more accepting less threatened of lesbianism than gay men 0 Black lesbians are more at risk for physical and emotional health issues and have higher rates of poverty than white lesbians and black gay men Bisexuality 0 Most of those who are bisexual initially identify themselves as heterosexual 0 Many different opinions on bisexuals It s a way for bisexuals to be on the fence with homosexuals and heterosexuals They are confused and are denying their homosexuality 0 Suggested that biphobia exist in the heterosexual and homosexual communities 0 They are at a lower risk of depression and medical health issues compared to lesbians and gay men Minority homosexuals have difficulty nding people who support both their ethnicity and their sexual orientation Forced sex is less common in women s prisons than men s prisons Homosexuality in religion and the law 0 Churches with conservative views work to restrict the rights of the GLB community as they see it as a sin typically in the south and by older members Buddhism accepts relationships that are loving and supportive do not see behaviors as good or bad as Christianity does


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