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by: Jewel Pfannerstill


Jewel Pfannerstill
GPA 3.96


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jewel Pfannerstill on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 202 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/226923/ling-202-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Linguistics at University of California Santa Barbara.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
ESM 202 Water Quality Additional concepts Alkalinity F Alkalinity Alkalinity is a measure of the Acid Neutralizing Capacity ANC of an aqueous body lake ocean stream groundwater Where does it come from I What does it mean 1 Carbonate System Minerals with carbonate Limestonecalcite CaCO3 lt gt 382 303239 gt Dolomite MgCO3 lt gt Mg2 C032 Feco3 lt gt Fe2 c032 Dissolved concentration of Ca2 Mg2 and Fe2 is controlled by pH and CO3239 1 Carbonate System Carbonic acid is formed after CO2 dissolves in water C029 lt gt C02aq pKH 15 COZaq H20 lt gt HZCO3 Carbonic acid can loose up to 2 H HZCO3 lt gt HCO339 H pK1 63 HCO339 lt gt co3z H pK2 103 F Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Closed System I Start with a closed system groundwater situation where carbonate rocks limestone dolomite are present but there is no contact with atmosphere Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Closed System Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Closed System pH 1 s In a closed system 0 gt total concentration of carbonate is constant 1 ctot HZCO3 HCO339 my DIC 39 9 DIC Dissolved Inorganic Carbon PC A typical value is Ctot 10 3 molL quot7 l pctot 3 sowed carbon DIOX39de Open SYStem I Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Open System Concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere pH g 380 ppmv gt PCO2 103935 atm o S relatively constant Since PCOZ is N constant and KH is constant gt H2C03 is constant independent of pH pC as as 75 H2C03 PC02 KMCO2 10 10 10 M pH2C035 I Carbonate System Alkalinity Take home message Alkalinity gt capacity of water to accept H gt Type of inorganic carbon depends on pH gt sum of chemical species that accept H in Low pH gt carbonic acid 39 Mid pH gt bicarbonate Alk 39 39twatirHCO 2co 2 OH w alni y 339 3 39 39 H39gh P gt carb ma e BOH439 NH3 H9 Depends on whether system Is open or closed many cases we refer to only the carbonate components In Has major in uence on alkalinity buffering ofalkalinity since these are the major constituents capacity and hardness Ak Hco339 2CO3239 OH39 H I Effect of Photosynthesis A simplistic view of photosynthesis n CO2 n H20 CHZOn n 02 Photosynthesis is also accompanied by the assimilation of other ions such as HPO4 39 and N0339 or NH4 Effect of Photosynthesis For example the uptake of NH4 results in the release of H affecting alkalinity and pH 106 C02 16 NH4 HPO4239 108 H20 CHZO106NH316PO4 107 02 14 H algae If N0339 is used to produce algae then H are needed increasing pH and affecting alkalinity 106 C02 16 N0339 HPO4239 122 H20 18 H CHZO106NH316PO4 138 02 run LS runaer AWECHNG ALKALINI IY Pimu p1wmquuui u mmmn any 07 Format mam cum no Madam mm A mo indium my lump mm urog39 loamto T quotm 4 mm mv mum Nunv 39 NO 1 04 2w 0mm some mo 1 m co 2N mo Inmm Sni iieDnlmmn 41 539 10 S i39 1 H Dcauv m rsm rm limo Fcrom s m 502 mum We XIIIair mum is so 4 mum u WW 2m uv quot0 1mm 4160 mamm m taco co 0 2 Caquot lliCO lmlralz Buffer Capacity An aqueous solution is buffered when the concentration of dissolved ions is relatively large Addition of small amounts of strong acids or bases does not change the pH of solution significantly Highest buffering near pK1 and pK2 Ocean is very well buffered i Oceanic carbon Oceanic carbon is present in four major forms gt DIC 37500 Pg C m 225 X 10393 molL gt DOC Dissolved Organic Carbon 1000 Pg C m 006 mM POC Particulate Organic Carbon 30 Pg C m 0002 mM Marine biota microorganisms plants and animals 15 Oceanic carbon Organic acids in DOC are considered as HDOC DOC39 H pKDOCN 55 q Marine biota are only 3 Pg 00002 mM q Large impact on cycling of carbon and nutrients q Can have signi cant effect on alkalinity 19 Redox Potential up Redox Conditions What are Redox Conditions Determine whether local environment is Oxidative 7 Reducing Gradient of conditions Atmosphere is highly oxidative Deep sediments are highly reducing How do we measure redox conditions Concentration of available electrons for transfers pe loge39 IF Redox Conditions Why do we care Determines the form in which an element will be present l v r l Availability amp toxicity of element depends on form 13 r u 7 Energy stored in reduced forms Quick Review of Oxidation States Only a few elements C N O 5 Fe Mn participate significantly in natural redox processes As a rule molecules of the element itself 9 N2 02 H2 Fe Pb are in a zero oxidation state Some elements have in general only one other oxidation state H is always 1 O is usually 2 Halogens Cl Br I F are usually 1 23 Quick Review of Oxidation States Other elements have a range of oxidation states lExample Carbon C goes from 4 to 4 CH4 CH2CH2 CHZO co2 4 4 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 4 4 100 reduoed ltgt 100 oxidized Example Nitrogen N goes from 3 to 5 NH3 N2 N20 N02 N0339 3 3 0 1 2 4 4 5 6 100 reduced ltgt 100 oxidi d 1 Minerals Inorganic Ions Common Anions P Cl Br39 1 OH39 N02 NO339 5042 HS39 5239 HCO339 C032 P043 HPO4239 Common Cations 1 NH4 Ca Mg Fe Fe Na K H Less common ions Pb2l Cd2l Zn2l Hgl ngl Cr3 Redox Potential Examples of common oxidationreduction reactions chemical 4Fe 302 e203 Fe2 chembio F 6 coyygi8Ht8eu1lgtCHygi 211120 C6H206H20lt xpcoygi24Ht24 Energy is associated with these electron transfers 27 Redox Every oxidation reaction is coupled with a reduction reaction 4Fe2 4Fe3 4e39 oxidation 024H4e 2H20 reduction 024H4Fe22H204Fe3 Redox 1 Oxidation of Organic Matter by 504239 CH20H206029H e 1 2 5 1 1 3504 1He H25gih 20 1 211 111 1 1 8504 4CH204H 8H254C024H20 1 Thermodynamic Sequence of Reduction Assuming coupling to the oxidation of organic matter iCH20gH20iC02gHe39 Redox Potential i K Concentration gradient of 02 top layers oxic I Sequence of Redox Conditions Aerobic and the bottom anoxic CO2 Aemblc 02 based Diffusion of 02 from the surface of the water to Facultative Anaerobic 02 or N037 ngt NW the deeper layers is slow Many organisms make use of the available 02 as Anaerobic Mn or Fe D an or Fey it diffuses downward Reduction occurs in the anoxic environment Anaerobic 50427 IEgt H25 H57 low redox potential Anaerobic c02 IIgtCH4 31 Red Redox mug silo PE 3 c iquot lL 7 7 m39i my c Oxidi ing Red 00 high pe mmnmmn nrnhiz Anumhlccnnaxilons mow muml mum munn respiration unon ulunxonlqtnui I I l 02Nzoi oi N2i50imscocm pfpc Dillnm mm N0 Nlif 1nm n pll 7 FCpt Dllgnm rum i c i quot5yiitm In Law nil Kinetics Rate of Reaction Rate of Reaction Favorable thermodynamically chemical reaction may proceed very fast picoseconds very slowly geologic timescales Rate of a reaction depends on energy barrier to bring together reactants must be overcome to proceed to equilibrium Catalysts and biota via enzymes can reduce energy barrier provide specific sites for reaction to occur Rate of Reaction I Overall rate of reaction May be controlled by mixing Availability for reacting In some cases rate of reaction depends only on concentration of reactants ABCD dA7dB7 7dC7dD 7 dt 7 dt 7 It kAB It Rate of Reaction Example gt oxidation of CH4 in the atmosphere CH4 OH39 M CH5 H20 dCH4 dt kCH40H Rate of Reaction In other conditions one of the reactants is abundant so the reaction is independent of it dCH4 77 CH It k 4 This is the case for methanothropic conversion of CH4 to CH3OH by bacteria Other reactions can be quite a bit more complex dFe2 TI 7kFe2 OH 121302 Aquatic Chemistry Thermodynamics determine how various chemical components in environment will behave under a given set of conditions eg pH pe T Kinetics understand rates at which these processes reactions can occur understand how can they be accelerated by biotic activity


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