INTRO AS AM HISTORY
INTRO AS AM HISTORY AS AM 1
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Asian American 1 Notes 1052011 102400 PM 2Asian Indian immigration to the United States I Major Historical even in India o A India a subcontinent in South Asia o B British Colonization 0 East India company 1600 0 British government took over 1858 o C Indian independence in 1947 o D The partition of Pakistan in 1947 o E The split of Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh 1971 II Indian Emigration 19071917 c A Reasons for leaving and early emigration o Colonial land taxation cash and famine 0 Land ownership overseas granted by British government 0 Early emigration coolie contract laborer almost slave trade to southeast Asia Fiji British West Indies Caribbean Mauritius amp Africa 0 Independent emigrants to regions within British empire Asians who went to mainland US were independent laborers to Hawaii were contract laborers o B Indian emigration to North America and US 0 Religions in India 0 Mostly Sikhs instead of Hindus came to the US Sikh religion egalitarian principles did not like the caste system common last names Singh for men and Kaur for women No restrictions on travel Many served in British colonial army and police 0 Emigration stopover place Guardwara in Hong Kong o C From Canada to United States 0 Relation with Canada 0 Canadian Restrictions none because it was part of British Empire however these two were to deter Sikhs Continuousjourney 1908 Money required upon entry 25 to 200 D To US 19071917 c Immigrants to the United States 0 Mostly men 0 Settled in Washington Oregon and California 0 Indian exclusion 1917 III Filipino Migration Philippines before and during Spanish colonization o A The Philippines o B Spanish Colonization 15211898 0 Magellan 1521 0 Spanish colonization in 1565 o The propaganda Movement and uprising in 1896 Jose Rizal leader of the reform movement and Emilio Aguinaldo leader of the Katipunan o C The Philippines during the Spanish American war 0 George Dewey and the defeat of Spanish squadron o Aguinaldo and the independent government 1898 II US Possession of the Philippines o A The treaty of Paris 1898 0 Philippines became US territory o B Philippines American War 1898 1901 o C US influence in the Philippines 0 Civilian government established in 1902 0 Education programs o D Philippines Independence 1946 III Migration the the US o A Pensionados scholarship students not citizens no statehood o B Selfsupported students 14000 o C Contract labor to Hawaii 0 Early recruitment 19011917 Albert Judd unsuccessful o Intensified recruitment after 1909 o D Total immigrants before 1934 0 122000 to Hawaii 0 50000 to US mainland 0 Filipinos in US navy recruited to serve at US naval stations in the Philippines o E More women in Hawaii then mainland o F Ended in 1934 TydingsMcDuffie Act Monday October 10 2011 The AntiAsian movement I The exclusion of Asians o didn t really end until WW2 o A Early developments 0 Anson Burlingame became the confidant of the chinese government sympathized with the chinese and Burlingame treaty 1868 o Page Law 1875 no Asian prostitutes or contract laborers would be allowed to come to the united states 0 Burlingame treaty renegotiated 1880 o B Chinese exclusion acts 0 Chinese exclusion act 1882 page law including merchants students officials Labor excluded for ten years Alien ineligible for citizenship o 1884 amendmentcertificate required for reentry o 1888 Scott Act reentry certificate void 0 1892 Geary Act Exclusion extended for ten more years Chinese must carry registration cards 0 1902 amendment exclusion extended for another ten years exclusion applicable in US territories o 1904 amendment exclusion permanent o C Japanese Exclusion o AntiJapanese sentiment 0 School crisis 0 Gentlemen s agreement 1907 make the Japanese government to promise not to issue passports to Japanese laborers who want to come to CA so the Japanese children can be integrated into regular schools The practice of picture brides wives of Japanese immigrants already in the US can still come 0 Ladies agreement 1920 Japanese government agreed not to issue passports to picture brides o D The exclusion of Asian Indians 0 US relations with Britain and India 0 The barred zone clause in the 1917 Immigration act barred emigrants from much of easterasia and the pacific islands o E the Asiatic exclusion provision in the 1924 Immigration Act o F Filipino Immigration restrictions 0 Relation with the Philippines Tydingsmcduffie act of 1934 provided for selfgovernment of the Philippines and for Filipino independence after a period of ten years Helped to exclude Filipinos Annual quota of 50 Changed the status of Filipinos from nationals to aliens II Denying Asian immigrants Right for naturalization o A Legal basis for naturalization and citizenship o 1790 naturalization law free and white persons only 0 1870 naturalization law blacks became eligible o B Alien ineligible for citizenship Ah Yup case 1878 Chinese were neither white nor black Affirmed in 882 Chinese exclusion act 1922 Ozawa case Japanese were not Caucasian Denaturalization of Asian Indians Early causes indian were Caucasian 1923 us VTHIND Indians were Caucasians but not white o C Issues concerning Naturalization of the Filipinos Arguments in failed court cases filed by Filipinos Developments after WWI Regarding Naturalization rights for military personnel 0 Toyota v The Unites States III Preventing citizen women from marrying Asian immigrants o A 1855 act alien woman could gain citizenship upon marriage to a citizen 0 O O O O O O o B 1907 act and 1915 court case American woman should take nationality of her husband o C 1922 Cable act American women gained independent nationality unless married to alien ineligible for citizenship o D Derivative citizenship rules if your father was a citizen of US child could become a citizen but if a mother was citizen and father was alien rule does not work Wednesday October 12 2011 IV Asian were not allowed to Testify in Court People v Hall 1854 V Imposing economic hardships on Asians o A Discrimination taxes 0 Foreign miners tax 1850 and 1852 0 Chinese police tax 1862 0 Laundry licenses 18761880 s this law did not directly single out the chinese but if you used one horse for your laundry service you paid 2 every 3 months two horses 4 and no horse 15 chinese did not have horses o B California alien land laws against alien ineligible for citizenship o 1913 1920 and 1923 0 cannot buy land or lease land for more than 3 years if you are an alien ineligible for citizenship o canbuypass if Asian parents had a child born in the US have that child the landowner and then cultivate that land or if band to make corporation however laws later shunned these bypasses VI Laws against Asian culture practices o A Sidewalk ordinance prohibited to walk on sidewalk of the city with bamboo stick carrying baskets at the end o B Cubic air ordinance cannot live in close spaces but law didn t last for long time because not only chinese violated this law o C queue Ordinance if arrested chinese ponytail queue would be cut o D Chinese laundries not allowed to dry clothes on rooftop VII Violence and Segregation o A Mob violence against Asians few hundred chinese killed in mines a lot more lynchings of chinese than blacks o B Segregation 0 Residential segregation as a result of mob violence 0 Institutional segregation o no oriental school so chinese children has no access to education unless by private education Tape v Hurley 1885 court rules in favor of child in California is entitled to education separate but equal 1886 a decade before 1896 SC decision of plessy vs ferguson 0 Occupational segregation and the development of ethnic economies Could only attain jobs among themselves most of them self employed self sufficient o Antimiscegenation No interracial marriage between Asians and white VIII voices of support o A In areas where Asian laborers had frequent interactions with local residents o B in areas where Asian laborers were crucial to local economy Community Organizations I Organization Basis o A primordial ties o Kinship family and clan associations 0 District Chinese n Huiguanmeeting place one huiguan is a district association When newcomers arrived representative of huiguan will go to port of entry and the newcomer will follow the huiguan which will provide temporary lodging give jobs information provide a place to worship organize funeral services o B Religion 0 O O O n CCBA Six Chinese companies federation of all district associations When first established there were only 6 Organized Chinese language schools issue exit permits hired group of lawyers fighting against exclusion law Japanese Kenjinkai Japanese also organized district association but different because Japanese did not come from a small number of districts but came from spread out areas Japanese government issued the exit permits because the government issued the passport for those who were already there Only a third of the members were organized and included Filipino provincial organizations This was even less powerful Korean protestant churches Sikhs Gurdwara Filipino Catholic churches Chinese and Japanese Buddhist and Christian churches o C Common Interests 0 Economic interests Guilds organizations joined by everyone in the possession including the owners and workers and trade associations Unions owners were not in it workers fought the boss Japanese chamber of commerce 1915 not just about one particular occupations but about all the business who joined this chamber Japanese agricultural associations and produce markets Rotating credit associations form of fundraising to do small business Very difficult for Asian immigrants to get a loan from the bank Wednesday October 19 2011 o 2 Political interests and fraternal groups 0 branches of political parties from homelands C amp J Indians ghadar party Chinese Tongs controlled chinese immigrant underground opium dens prostitution gambling very much like the mafia in american community Divided territories when CCBA lost its powers briefly controlled chinese community 0 Filipinos American style fraternity organizations 0 0 II Community Spokepersons A Chinese 0 CCBA controlled by merchants considered highest level of community organizations Only some thongs were not under the CCBA 0 Chinese American citizens alliance B Japanese 0 Japanese Association of America 0 Japanese American Citizens League C Korean National association D Hindustani Welfare Reform society E Filipino Federation of America Chinese Railroad Workers strike 1867 Reasons for strike starting in 1865 chinese were recruited to build transcontinental railroad Demanded higher wages 8hour working days freedom to quit At first chinese paid 30 white also paid 30 but white workers got living expenses paid for Failed because railroad company refused to meet the chinese demand and tried to break strikebreakers or attempted to hire other people Also stopped giving them food supply II Japanese and Mexican beet workers Strike Oxnard 1903 Takaki A Labor and Labor contractors B Western agricultural contracting company C JapaneseMexican labor association 0 Demanded no more double commission succeeded 0 Wanted to join AFL failed 0 Two ethnic groups get together negotiate with growers and wanted a charter historical moment AA o AFL said if Mexicans left Japanese behind they would offer them charter but Mexican refused offer III Strike by Japanese workers on Oahu 1908 1909 IV Join A Issues concerning living stand B Higher wages association 1908 C Strike demanded equal pay for equal work and better housing D Internal divisions and outside pressure lt reason for failure E Strike failed but conditions improved 0 Plantation owners refused to negotiate with them but did some stuff effort of Japanese and Filipino workers in Hawaii 1919 A the influence of American labor movement B Joined force of two ethnic groups C Demanded higher wages maternity leave for women improved bonus system 8hour working day D Strike failed 0 To strike decided they needed a fund and best time to do it was during harvest However began earlier because it was too late to stop it Plantation owners just evicted all the workers and there was a spread of disease since no one had a place to live Severe casualties Strike lasted 4 months but failed E the 77 cents parade workers who refused to go back to contract labor Wanted to show that they are not communists and want to be americans but how could they live on 77 cents F Postrike situation Monday October 24 2011 V 1933 34 Filipino Lettuce pickers strike in Salinas Valley A The Filipino Labor union FLU o Demanded higher wages staged strikes and union recognition B Developed new tactics under difficult circumstances 0 Staged short term strikes o Participated strikes organized by the Vegetable packers Association o C Union recognition by AFL in 1936 Fi and Mexican workers VI The Seamen s International Union and the National Maritime Union 1933 o A The Seamen s International Union o B The National maritime Union 1933 o C Chinese sailors joined the strike in 1936 onlyjoin if chinese were also represented and benefit 0 Demanded equal treatment for all sailors o Demanded the right of alien Chinese sailors to shore leave 0 Won support from mainstream labor unions Resistance to Oppression I Litigation o A Chinese challenged discriminatory statelocal laws 0 Lin Sing V Washburn 1862 Challenged police tax chinese had to pay so state could have more police to watch the chinese chinese won Cannot be no tax that targets a single group of people 0 Ho an Kow v Nunan 1879 Challenged queue ordiance chinese won Infringed on his rights targeted chinese cruel and unusual punishment excessive since court ruled that he just only goes to jail violated 14th amendment 0 YickWo v Hopkins 1886 Challenged laundry ordinances Established in court the equal protection principle Case went to supreme court yickwo argued that it is discriminatory to treat him differently from others Court said violated 14th amendment and agreed with YickWo Targeted only chinese persons o B Japanese challenged alien land laws 0 Terrace v Thompson Washington land lease case 0 Porterfield v Webb CA land lease 0 Webb v O Brien CA sharecropping o Frick v Webb right to own stocks in certain companies 0 Estate of tetsubumi Yano 1922 victory but short level 0 Circumventing alien land laws o C Struggle for Naturalization Right 0 Re Ah Yup 1878 chinese were neither black nor white 0 Ozawa v United States 1922 Japanese are not Caucasian 0 United States v Thind 1923 although south Asians might have been Caucasian you are not white 0 Issues regarding naturalization for Filipinos and the act of 1919 for those who served in US military 0 Toyota V United States 1925 Filipinos were not aliens implications what happened to the Filipinos after 1934 D Chinese challenged the Chinese exclusion laws 0 Chae Chan Ping v United States 1889 Challenged the Scott Act need certificate for re entry chinese lost 0 Fong Yue Ting v United States 1893 Challenged the Geary Act congress can regulate immigration amp deportation chinese lost 0 Wong Kim Ark v United States 1898 Wont reentry rights for US born Chinese Significances 14th amendment issue US citizen birth right cannot be taken away Wednesday October 26 2011 o E The struggle to win women s admission 0 Bringing women as wives of laborers failed 0 Gained entry for wives of merchants o TsoiSim v United States 1903 arrested in 1902 won entry for Chinese wives of US citizens She Came as a toddler by her father and when geary act passed she was just young teenager and then got arrested and wanted to deport her because no registration card However if an alien merchant can bring a wife can a married chinese man have an alien wife 0 The 1924 immigration act and court ruling TsoiSim V united states reversed Dealt mainly with east European countries Provides specific quotas but Asians no quotas if alien ineligible cannot become citizens or come Citizens can live with wife but now not anymore 0 From court battles to legislative reform Chinese American citizen s alliance Lobbying congress n Tactics and arguments n Using voting power II Circumventing exclusion laws o A creating extra entry slots 0 Through merchants claiming merchant status 0 Through citizens claiming citizenship by birth o B Paper sons and daughters 0 If you come in and claim your father is citizen they question you Weird birthdates not the same last name of fathergrandfather o C immigration networks o D government response interrogation and detention the creation of angle Island immigration detention center established to detain and interrogate the Asians who came in during the exclusion majority chinese Second Generation and Opportunities during World War II I The second generation o A growing up during exclusion o Segregation and isolation 0 Public education integrated even if segregated schools textbooks were same for all children everyone had entitlement for free education Children of immigrants got to integrated life in American society sitting in same II Women B O gt O classrooms books and graded assumedly by the same standard between two worlds 0 Asian tradition v western ideology o Intergenerational conflict Asian children not to talk back or argue with parents but now children come back home and say that s what my teacher said and painful experience shared by first and second generation Asian Americans because parents ideology does not match what children read in the books 0 Expectations and disillusion reality segregation existed Transnational identity 0 Paper sonsdaughters Kibei Japanese word for special group subgroup of nessei second generation Did not come to US until they were teenagers already went to school in china and adjustment was not easy in bachelors societies imbalanced sex ratio B higher social status for married women 0 Many married to men with relative prestige o Residing in more prominent homes 0 Mothers of American citizens improved gender relations 0 Opportunities for women to earn income 0 Working closely with children 0 Interdependency between husbands and wives 0 Women centered family networks Monday October 31 2011 III social changes in the 1930 s A academic interests in Asia Groups with special interests C The Good Earth and public reaction written by someone who went to china when she was 6 and then returned to US for college and then went back after marrying a china man agriculturalist who was a university professor in agriculture When finished with this book went back to US to find a publisher but couldn t find one because who would want to buy a book about china Won a Pulitzer prize before nobel prize in literature Had a very important position in literature history Sparked interest in society of what life was like in china or how chinese were like IV New opportunities during the war o A Military service 0 Fighting as Americans 0 Eligible for citizenship ltlt if you served in military requirements to become alien eligible for citizenship could be waived o Shortage of manpower became the most important issue at the time Had to develop a war industry develop airplanes amp ships 0 So a lot of Asian americans got to serve in the military This was very important to Asian americans because a lot of people got to fight the war as chineseampamericans this wasn t just a chinese war but an American one o B defense industries 0 Well paid 0 Integrated working environment 0 Working for the government Sense of pride Provided translators for chinese workers who didn t know English provided shuttles from shipyard to Chinatown even allowed disabled so found a job for them catered to Asian workers V New legislation during the War o A the repeal of Asian exclusion o Wartime good feelings about Asians and alliance with China Considered intelligent hard working and brave o The pressure to repeal exclusion o The Repeal of chinese exclusion 1943 Became admissible Annual quota 105 a No celebration because quota was so small Every ethnic chinese would be deducted from the quota n Also many people came as wives as citizens and also deducted from quota a Chinese very upset Eligible for citizenship The repeal of Filipino and Asian Indian exclusion Luce Celler Bill 1946 The end of Asian exclusion the McCarranWalter Act 1952 a All exclusion laws were abolished Gave everyone the right to naturalize n Concept to alien ineligible to citizenship gone Japan occupied china but when US entered the war felt like a competition When japan took over control japan played radio propaganda to chinese audience and some of these programs talked about whether the chinese would be better off with the Japanese or the americans Japanese said chinese would be better off a colony of the japan instead of the US since the US excluded the chinese To increase ties with the chinese US told Britain to give back Hong Kong island and other part back to China Britain got mad and said hey what the fuck we didn t do as much fucked up shit as you did Lease ends in 1997 8 different bills to introduce repeal of chinese exclusion o B Desegregation 0 Housing Before WWII boundary was clear in SF but gradually expanded 0 Education through GI Bill A lot of second generation Japanese Filipino indianamericans were allowed to go to college Left ethnic communities amp expanded and settled ex SF bay area 0 Access to job market real estate market o C changed image and affiliation Japanese Americans in World War II I The internment of Japanese Americans o A Pearl Harbor and US involvement in WWII o B executive order 9066 Feb 19 1942 o C Curfews searches and voluntary evacuation o Shocked angry and scared 0 First reaction for Japanese americans was to lay low and stay quiet and to show loyalty o D forced evacuation 120000 Japanese Americans Most lived in northwest Wednesday November 2 2011 II Life in the internment camps o Living conditions 0 Really bad living conditions 0 Houses built of lumber and tarp paper lots of cracks 0 Each building divided into number of apartments 20x20 space 48 people per space 0 Could not see neighbor amp did not have privacy bad for families destroyed family structure 0 Rule of parents here no rules but usually Japanese lifestyle strict gtgtgt o Impact on family life 0 Issei men demoralized A lot more arrested Father usually disciplines children but decided to stay low as not to bring attention During war no jobs so men lost means to provide for family so lost authority 0 Women freed from household chores Before war women would wake up first be busy doing chores cook took in boarders provided food During war not much to do for women no need to cook clean no field for women to work Issei women also did not hold jobs in camps gt spent time talking to neighbors calligraphy stateshows singing groups gossip Developed recreated that was missing in Japanese American community before WWII Enjoyed some kind of freedom Extremely difficult time for issei women cuz no privacy communal facilities Felt very unfamiliar and uncomfortable to use those facilities Matsumoto s essay said how much you suffered depended on age gender and if firstsecond generation o Nisei gained power and control JCL 0 Employment opportunities inside the camps Most employed were the Nesei generation Able to save up since didn t have to help support family bought stogs ice cream food already provided 0 College through NJASRC National Japanese American student relocation console First established to make sure the college students who didn t get to finish college because of war to go back to college so that they didn t have to stay in internment camps American citizens sponsored this church leaders educators college professors Had to network within community to find sponsors to provide housing babysitting o Other relocation arrangements Allow Japanese to go somewhere to work temporarily where it was needed sponsor arrangement 0 Disillusionment What did it mean to go to college Raised as being Japanese was a crime Many went to college just to escape camp life Wouldn t choose anything that was sensitive or ambitious This was a time where they believed they couldn t go too far Mothers heartbroken because could not hold family together as children ran rampant around the camps smoking and just hanging out Kids would just leave in morning and go back home late at night o Emerged as community leaders because could speak English raised in US no real authorative figure Esei generation demoralized Kibei born here but went to school in japan Those who had more when going to camps suffered more because had more to lose lt professor s theory III Protests and Nisei Soldiers o A Individual protests 0 Min Yasui Violated curfew to test its constitutionality n Nigga did this shit on purpose like a real G Citizenship deprived by a federal district court Supreme court ruled that his citizenship could not be deprived but upheld curfew 0 Gordon Hirabayashi Violated curfew Jailed appealed Supreme court rules that the government had the power to do what s necessary to win the war 0 Fred Korematsu Did not report for evacuation Had plastic surgery Supreme court evacuation order was proper at the time it was made Different then previous two cases did not want to go to internment camp worked and had gf in SF 0 Mitsuye Endo Obeyed curfew and evacuation Sued for writ of habeas corpus to gain release from camp Supreme court ordered her release o B Protests in internment camps o The Manzanar Riot Kitchen workers union a Government should give a certain number of rice and other necessities for food but found that they didn t so organized this union Internal divide fredtayama incident Arrest of harry ueno and other kibei Demonstration 2 internees killed a riot followed Army put the camp under martial law leaders of the protest arrested and removed 65 JACL members alos removed Monday November 7 2011 o Registration crisis 0 The screening procedure loyalty questionnaire 0 Over 6000 disloyals removed to segregated camp at Tule Lake 0 Requesting repatriation to Japan c C The Nisei Soldiers 0 100 Battalion 442 regimental combat team 0 graduates from military intelligence service language school served in Asia Postwar Transformation of Asian American communities I New opportunities for Female immigrants after the war o Limited quota immigrants after exclusion o Opportunities for nonquota immigrants 0 War Brides Act of 1945 and 1947 amendment Chinese war brides Postwar family unification and gender relations a Pressure from Britain because soldiers wed overseas Chinese war brides were more older than non chinese war brides not newly wed women but already wed just could not come into the country Problem is those men who were in US didn t say they had a wife back home and possibly kids so when their wives came US reluctant to accept those wives but war brides act didn t say they had to be newly weds 0 Us presence in Asia and warbrides from Korea Japan and Philippines Gained entry as wives of citizens Apart from established immigrant communities 0 Filipinos in US Navy and military families In 1945 only group qualified of war brides act was chinese possibly Filipino but in 1947 act mended to take out if admissible o C Chinese immigration in the 1950 s 0 Postwar procedures and practices of the INS o Diaozhi reutilizing the US judiciary system Screening process will be done at port of departure not port of entry to screen out paper sonsdaughters II The United States and Asia in Cold War o Japan postwar order and US connection 0 Japanese americans now left alone o The Philippines Independence in 1946 US presence continued 0 Maintained friendly relationship 0 Came first as exchange program and then just stayed as nurses o India Independence in 1948 and the partition 0 Relatively few got to migrate to US just scholars but no large number of migration o Korea The Korean war and postwar order 0 Another battleground between two superpowers at the 38th parallel 0 North supported by China south supported by US o Chinese civil war and communist revolution in 1949 o PRC on the mainland isolation until 1979 0 ROC in Taiwan backed by the US and the West until 1979 o Divisions within the Chinese American community Wednesday November 9 2011 III The investigation of Chinese Americans o Investigation of communist activities in Chinese American community 0 FBI investigation 0 Collaboration of FBI and INS INS had bad public rep since it always didn t let soldiers live with their wives 0 Chinese informants Got them by using the red scare chinks are coming from chinahongknog and they re from communist party o Chinese Confession Program 1956 1965 o Weed out communists sympathizers o Destroy immigration networks 0 Program where they would catch one and it would lead to 6070 confessions 0 Chinese americans so scared that they fled Chinatowns and businesses failed 0 Program launched byjustice department to weed out communist sympathizers and destroy the immigration network o The search for unity 0 Newspaper encouraged people not to tell because more and more people will be exposed IV Women and community transformation o The quest for gender equality 0 Women s roles in transnational families 0 Gender conflict after family unification 0 Public debate on gender relations o Women and the rise of ethnic economy 0 The rise of new restaurant business Nixon visits china nice banquet sparks American interest remodels chinese restaurants 0 The decline of laundry business War brides thought men owned clothing shops but really just laundry dissapointed o Diverse ethnic economy o New networks of Japanese and Korean war brides V Constructing Asian Ethnic Communities o The dispersion of Asian Population 0 Disappearance of ghettos Leaving the Chinatowns spreading out ghettos one minority group living in an area only 0 Access to maintain job market housing educations and politics o The decline of traditional community organizations 0 Internal divisions and conflicts Chinese and Japanese Huigan deteriorated 0 Family centered networks and professional services 0 The mentality of settlers Monday November 14 2011 Post 1965 Immigration from ASIA I The 1965 Immigration Act Abolished the national origins quota system established in 1924 2990 for Asian 149667 for Europe 1400 for Africa Established a nondiscriminatory new quota 20000 for each nation introduced a new preference system 0 People believed this law would not have a large effect on Asian immigration Why Provisions for family unification o Nonquota privilege for family members of American citizens parents spouse unmarried minor children 0 Priority within the quota four out of seven preferences and 74 of the total quota for relatives of citizens siblings married children children 21 and older and family members of permanent residents spouse and children Other preferences 0 Professionals scientists and artists of exceptional ability 0 Workers skilled and unskilled in occupations for which labor was in short supply in the US 0 Refugees By product the end of Chinese Confessions Program o D Gender neutral 0 Sponsorship possible for both men and women 0 Significant because during time of small quota system war brides came and lost contact with their families back in home country but when immigration law passed quickly reestablished network with family 0 Femalecentered immigration networks II Post1965 Immigrants o A Chinese 0 From Taiwan to Hong Kong after 1965 students professionals and families From People s Republic of China mainland China after 1978 From Southeast Asia and other areas of Chinese diaspora Population reached 33 million in 2009 Undocumented immigrants o B Japanese 0 Largest Asian group in the US before WWII 0 An average of 5000 immigrated each year since 1952 0 Not affected by the new immigration law Had a huge economy close to the US at the time so there was a lot of opportunity in Japan so no real reason to emigrate to the US who would leave to go to a foreign country No real huge wave of immigration most japs you see here have been here for 3 or 4 generations 0 Population total 122 million in 2000 including mixed raceethnic people o C Koreans 0 Population in 1950 10000 0 Between 1950 and 1964 6500 brides 6300 adopted children and 6000 students 0 Immigration peaked in the 1980 s and declined in the late 1990 s After LA riots many went back to Korea took a while to peak because economy was pretty strong but not as quite as Japan s 0 Population in 2009 156 million o D Filipinos O O O O 0 Military service and family unification 0 Women came in large numbers Through marriage As middle class professionals nurses doctors and engineers As care providers 0 Population in 2000 305 million in 2009 Wednesday November 16 2011 o E South Asians including Indians Bangladeshi Nepales Pakistanis and Sri Lankans Small population before 1965 Fast growing after 1980 Many came as graduate students Highly concentrated in medical engineering and other professionals Population in 2009 277 million from Indians 214000 from Pakistan 75000 from Bangladesh 0 O O 0 India is one country that did not send war brides and when immigration act of 1965 was enacted could they take advantage of that So population from south Asians had a very small number Koreans too but they had war brides in the 50 s so their numbers bolstered they did not have a base to bring more people In the 60 s and 70 s came mostly as students India was not isolated though some went to Britain to study and in 70 s came to US to study in large numbers Not until 1980 s did this Asian group begin to expand which it did like korea very quickly Once those in small number came began to build a life they could then sponsor people to come The Vietnamese War and Refugees and immigrants from Southeast Asia Vietnam was a colony of France so not many people in US because if they wanted to study abroad they would go to France Knowledge of US increased but language barrier ampfrance know the language and people so you would go there Only very elitist group of people got to go US I Vietnam and Vietnam War A French colonization in Vietnam 1869 1954 B Conflict with Japan during WWII Ho Chi Minh and the Vietnam independence League Vietminh 1941 o Declared independence in 1945 0 Relationship with China Soviet Union and the United States 0 War between French and Vietminh 194654 D Geneva agreement in 1954 0 North and South divided 0 French commitment ended E US position and the containment doctrine 0 US involvement in Vietnam Took over antiCommunist struggle in Vietnam Supported the South Vietnamese government with military advisors and aids Viet Cong figure out which this is ampviet minh and the Second Indochina war 1960 Americanization US soldiers actually fighting VietnamizationNixon peak of antiwar movement n n n n n Did not have trade or business interest in Vietnam but did it for containment doctrine in the sense that they wanted to stop the spread of communism more political than anything At first US population didn t think the war was a big deal not going to last for a long time Number of US casualties so population began to ask why were we there Tet offensive shocked US population showed the power of Viet Cong are we really winning this war Why are we in the war When US began to withdrawal north Vietnamese began to take ground Henry Kissenger secret diplomacy with the North Vietnamese F War ended in 1975 II The Southeast Asian Refugees o A First wave came following the fall of Saigon in 1975 0 130000 admitted under ford s parole power this power said we can admit 130000 refugees 0 initial stops from Subic Bay in the Philippines Wake Island Guam 0 In the US four reception centers 0 Sponsorships through voluntary agencies VOLAGs Came to offer assistance to the government Government would give 500 bucks a piece to sponsor one refugee Money would go to agency and it would find individual sponsors to help the refugees 0 Even there was a quota super large number of refugees needed a place to go and US felt responsible after 20 years involvement America was not prepared for this o B Second Wave 0 Boat people from Vietnam Got name because when trying to leave to go other countries or places had to wait in boats 0 Land people from Cambodia and Laos Felt bad because dropped bombs in these countries Ho chi Minh supply trail either for which camb Or laos 0 First asylum safe place Thailand Malaysia Indonesia Philippines Hong Kong III US resettlement Policies o A Executive and legislative responses 0 Parole program 1975 130000 admitted expanded Parole program 1976 11000 admitted Indochina Parole Program 1977 15000 admitted Parole program of 1978 for 7000 additional entries Long Range Parole Program 1978 for 25000 1979 Refugee act 7000 a month later doubled 1980 refugee act 50000 annually 0 The Amerasianchildren of Asian women and American soldiers Homecoming Act 1987 30000 admitted These children can come to the US and so can their siblings and parents 0 O o Humanitarian Operations Program for former soldiers and political prisoners o Resettlement opportunities for returned Vietnamese Program Track II AA kept expanding in first point because more refugees coming year after year Monday November 21 2011 o B adjustment to new life 0 Refugees asylum seekers already arranged to come and immigrants Government assistance to refugees Sty pin for 36 months food stamps or other things to help with financial difficulties 0 Termination of UN refugee programs Cambodians in 1994 Vietnamese and Laotian in 1997 0 Special resettlement programs for Hmong refugees and immigrants Immigrants came on their own initiative Government helped refugees California most desirable state to accept refugees AA government granted land to Hmong people because they could not assimilate into corporate work they neededland III US relations with southeast Asian nations and southeast Asian American o A Normalization of diplomatic relations 0 Full diplomatic relations restored with Laos in 1992 0 Cambodia 1993 0 Vietnam 1995 o B Southeast Asian American population 0 122 million Vietnamese in 2000 and 16 million in 2009 0 200000 cambodians in 2000 and 244000 in 2009 0 278000 Laotians including 169000 Hmong in 2000 and 384000 in 2009 IV Changes and new Challenges 0 o A Traditional families in Southeast Asia 0 Influence of chinese culture 0 Patrilineal kin and family structure 0 Women had less economic power expected to subordinate to male authority o B Wartime changes 0 Men away fighting the war Male casualty during the war Women s work outside the home and in market places Urbanization Became head of household because had to go out and make money Allowed some independence on the woman s side Excelled in the market place C GET FROM SOMEONE C After 1975 0 Women participation in the labor force 0 From private membership to welfare ownership o D The refugee experience 0 The escape and breakdown of families 0 Camp experience 0 Family in relocation VI Shifted power and improved gender relations in Asian American Communities o A improved status for women 0 The ability for women to adapt 0 Integrated work into family life 0 Special marketable skills Nurses and care providers Sewing and craft workers 0 Ability to create new businesses ventures o B lowered status for men 0 Downward social mobility for men 0 No longer sole bread winners 0 Lost their kinshipbased networks 0 O O More easy for women now to find partners while husband got more difficult time o Coping with their economically independent wives o C Social support for women to challenge the authority of men o D the importance of family for new immigrants Monday November 28 2011 MISSED SLIDES BUT GOT IT FROM A NICE GIRL Wednesday November 30 2011 E increased willingness to participate in politics o Electoral politics 0 Gained momentum in the 605 and 705 o The redress movement and the 1988 civil liberties bill o Mass protest politics 0 In the antiwar movement 0 The red guards o Political activism against renewed violence 0 Vincent chin incident 1982 and the American Citizens for Justice Beaten up by a step father and son who worked for auto industry in Detroit one laid off because of competition of imports They killed him with a baseball bat Judge let them go but fined them 3000 Reminded a lot of Asian americans about the past The guys mother was crying Organized the American citizens for justice a national event and wanted the federal government to interfere and agreed to a civil case against the two murderers But for civil case you have to demonstrate it was a hate crime Two people convicted but they appealed and the case was thrown off so they did not serve jail time Raised political consciousness of Asian community 0 Jim Loo incident 1989 and Jim Loo American justice coalition This coalition was to put pressure on court to not let same thing happen jim loo also was killed cuz some guy thought he was Vietnamese and his brother was killed in Vietnam war III Hidden realities o A continued inequality 0 Higher family income higher labor force participation 0 More businesses higher selfemployment rates 0 Higher percentage in low status low income occupations o B unequal development among different ethnic groups and individuals o C ethnic social hierarchy o The invisibles 0 Secondary market economy Outside of government regulation 0 Poverty and social mobility Status of undocumented immigrants a No class at all Relationships between undocumented immigrants and middle class Asian americans o D concerns with the model minority theory 0 Deals with political issues within larger American society Transnational Asian Americans and Theories in Asian American Studies o V Transnational Dimensions of Asian Americans 0 A Transmigrants Ethnicity and national origin Interracial marriages and families Making ethnic choices a Transmigrants Family in china goes to Thailand first and then us so are they Chinesetai americans o B Transnational Families Parachute kids and astronaut parents n Parachute kids originally came from Taiwan Families in transnational businesses a Go back and forth between countries because have citizenship in US but could have business in say hongkong Alternate residency and dual citizenship Transnational marriages and adoptions o C Asian migration in the age of globalization The role of media and internet Investment immigrants v labor immigrants International students in the 21St century Asian americans in the 21St century 1052011 102400 PM Friday October 7th Japanese o 1630 s to 1854 Mathew perry forced japan to open its border gunboat diplomacy Treaty of kanagawa o Meiji Restoration 1868 c 18851894 29000 contract laborers c 18941908 privatized 125000 contract 17000 independent laborers o Robert Irwin had connections in Japan and then worked in hawaii Because of shortage of labor had a big influence on Japanese immigration to Hawaii o Push factors famine poverty Korean o 90 of immigrants from 19031920 were between 16 to 44 and were diverse in their professions o Horace Allen a missionary who went korea to spread Christianity and practiced medicine Treated the Korean royal family and developed close ties and helped Koreans immigrate to Hawaii o Japan and Korean immigration to the US and Hawaii in 1905 o David Deshler recruiter for hawaiin sugar planters association good friends with Horace allen worked together o This happened relatively late 1903 o Koreans did not like being occupied by Japanese empire push factors also included famine and poverty Philippines o Philippine independence o Treaty of paris 1898 Philippines became US territory Result of Spanish American war 18981901 c Scholarship students o Strong catholic presence in Philippines o Jose Rizal Amelio Aguinaldo political figures in Philippines and were hoping to have independent country but it just became US territory o Philippine independence 1946 o Albertjudd unsuccessful for bringing Filipinos to Hawaii for the hawaiin sugar planters association India India gained its independence in 1947 One reason for Indian emigration was colonial land taxation and famine Immigrants were of Sikh religion Indian exclusion began in 1917 Push factor land taxation problem famine amp poverty almost for all races Most came from northwest Punjab Allowed to travel to other british colonies with relative ease such as Canada however exclusion in Canada in 1914 Midterm will be essay Friday October 21 2011 Rotating credit associations 77 cents parade believed they were communists just to smear them Turn public against them Friday November 4 2011 Secion 1 of 14th amendment is important citizen s clause Kldsafjkadsl ASK ABOUT MONDAY LECTURE LAST PART about screening at port of departure because you fucking didn t pay attention Friday November 18 2011 1949 China poor government of china kicked out by communist presence ASK WHAT ARE THE INVISIBLES and secondary market economy from Wednesday lecture amp Asian model minority theory Friday December 2 2011 Parachute children children in Taiwan who want to avoid military conscription Go to US before they re of age to get an education although want to stay in taiwan
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