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by: Ashley Kunze
Ashley Kunze
GPA 3.61

P. Van Koppen

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P. Van Koppen
Class Notes
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Kunze on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by P. Van Koppen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/226942/chem-1a-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Chemistry and Biochemistry at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 6 Chemical Equilibrium Chem 1A van Koppen Quantities in Equilibrium Constant or quotMass Actionquot Expressions l Gases normally enter as partial pressures in atmospheres 2 Dissolved species in solution enter as concentrations in units of molarity molesL or M 3 The 39 of pure solids and pure liquids do not appear in the equilibrium expression Neither does the concentration of the solvent taking part in a chemical reaction in dilute solution ie S l M 4 Equilibrium constants do not have units This is accomplished by dividing the pressures of all gases by a standard reference pressure of 1 atm and dividing the concentrations of all solutes by a standard reference concentration of l moleL This gives relative pressures and concentrations which have no units but have the same numerical values Reference pressures and concentrations are discussed in your text pg 586 Manipulation of Equilibrium Constants 1 When you reverse the reaction invert K 2 When you multiply the reaction by a constant 11 raise K by the power 11 3 When you add reactions multiply the Ks When you subtract reactions divide Ks Equilibrium Constant K and Reaction Quotient Q c d c d aAbB cCdD K MEIR QJg 2E A B AlalBl l The equilibrium constant K is calculated using concentrations or partial pressures of the reactants and products at equilibrium The magnitude of K re ects the position of the equilibrium A large value of K indicates that mostly products will be present at equilibrium A small value of K indicates mostly reactants are present at equilibrium 2 The reaction quotient Q is calculated using instantaneous concentrations of the reactants and products the initial concentrations or whatever they may be As the reaction approaches equilibrium Q approaches K Q predicts the direction that the reaction will go to reach equilibrium If Q K the system is at equilibrium If Q gt K too much product is present relative to reactant gt the reaction proceeds to the left from products to reactants until Q K If Q lt K too much reactant is present relative to product gt the reaction proceeds to the right from reactants to products until Q K Le Chatelier39s Principle When a system in equilibrium is subjected to a stress that affects the equilibrium the system will react so as to counteract reduce the stress Stresses which affect gas phase equilibria 2 A g g B g heat KP 2 PA 1 Changing the partial pressure of a reactant or product For example increasing the partial pressure of B increasing PB yields Q gt K and the reaction proceeds from products to reactants until Q K Adding a noble gas such as argon does not change the partial pressures of A or B Since there is no change in the partial pressures of A and B Q K and therefore adding a noble gas does not affect the equilibrium 2 Changing the total pressure by compressing or expanding the gas ie by changing the volume will only affect those equilibria where there is a change in the total moles of gas in the reaction Decreasing the volume will favor the side of the reaction with fewer gas molecules In the above example decreasing the volume will shift the equilibrium to the right from reactants to products 3 Changing the temperature affects the equilibrium by changing the value of the equilibrium constant If energy in the form of heat is added to a system at equilibrium the reaction will shift in the direction that consumes energy For the above reaction which is exothermic energy is released in the form of heat increasing the temperature will shift the equilibrium to the left decreasing the value of K


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