EARTH SYSTEM SCI
EARTH SYSTEM SCI ESM 203
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Variable Source Runoff Landscapes Ralnhll Intensity lt In lh39atlon capach anougn ow and sanmmon Ovenand Flow mm Dunne wmer znm Cama Amazun ramfurest 7mm anupy EvE Amazun ramfurest Thmugh ow umemow or subsumce smnn ow q quotWm5 Subsurface flow is dominantly a porous media flow with important exceptions referred to below Therefore it is analyzed with Darcy s Law which says that the flux density flow per unit cross sectional area ofthe medium is I 4 1 quotx The crosssectional area a is that of a block of soil or rock Rememberfrom ESM 203 H z i Pg 7 And that at the watertable wherep 0 the ds is dzds the slope ofthe water table along the ow path Note that dzds sin a In the case offlow down a slope of anglea this becomes Q Ksinx a K depends on the moisture content up to a maximum Ostat Some typical numbers Ksat 01 10 mlhrfor forest topsoils 0001 001 mlhrfor subsoils 001ltsin a lt010 for lowlands 01lt sin a lt 07 for mountains Flow speed of a waterparticle is different from this uxdensity bulk flow speed because the crosssectional area that the water can travel through is only the porosity not the whole cross section Thus the speed of a particle of Ksina 11 2 11a Thus to calculate the time it would take water to flow from the top of a slope of the length L to the stream L Ln t W watzr nws peed K sin a At this equilibrium the water would be flowing down slope approximately parallel to the hillslope surface or to some impeding layer at a discharge per unit contourwidth of qxIIdxIx at the base of the hill Raummu m the cnncwl datumm 1m Welland llnw the lmwlh mslnrm L um an surmlyrunn zl seem stale during a sum durdlnn 2 s gum by am n we Imelsacl me hIllslnne mm a Inuulnu mad mum 1 mm Iwn lmwlhs n115 m mm men mu m m m 22m15nmuwnthumsmmelznusmretmnhehmuum L 7 quot m slmwrsmle mmm mshas mmmnus slum mneemrlhe culmm dehae m nrrher hms rEmnns mm maher Inumnu was 0n a lung musan my mum my mum shn ens hllldnrnls Incrmsnn the rmrnmnn with m mrmIn equilibrium In 251mm at say 12 landsmnelhd cm hehrnuumm 2 sun mm In hnu uummm onry mum at clnseln m and newnmmtly Incrmse Ihellnnd pmmm the landsmne an supply runn zl Ihls quotInvests reulnns maximum min M acrupures Macrupures mm m m mm m mm m Mm mm m my m1 WWW m Dawns medmm MW Macrop more 7mmmammograms ng was Emu mnmy 39hmthesauratm ow nmm n quot WWWquot Mummy an mgmmagestmms in may pmspsmsx 9W much Wsupuressmwm mme spams mmags than mm by my tsw when m knwth provumun mtheuowvouowng Em newsman sug 5m mmpuenuwuws Dmtheamuu sunknuwv We rytorevam h magma Wuwaem w Amount ofwatertand contaminants passlng through macropores In sons Is thoughtto mere e with39 1 runsz nth 2 Dms y m macrnnms znu Ihuelme the zrmunlnlrnm hnnzs znlrml hnnzs mu tucks 3 Inveusay wnh Kumlhe hulk rlnrnus rmdlum a HIllslanE mum 1macmnnmunw sheen ncmsesvzsenhm quotnew wnh hem Humanquot Relummg m the swmmevww gm 110 X Lam uvsatuvaleu suH tmckensduwns upe Through ow imer ow q m3ms h m 1 1 1 manaynushpe warm x E w Nunp anavmu upa qxqA Ar 3m Saturated hwckness h hA WK mat sawean s m m hummm gamma W enauvhtn mm ethbvmmmnm n hummus 5mmmmmnmmww mugm Watename changes My avam uvmmbedm k mum oyemcm RanEE TC P evsun Hm Tmckness uVsama eu mnmckens dmmsupe mm m euuaxsme capamlv mm suu uhansmnvmev m m m For a soil ofthickness HY the maximum saturated thickness is Lmdsmp m mum km W swam vaundagmund awd quotman 55 domma m reg me emera nugope mm ere L u he um m mmsm case 54 sap rams he Sm azds me arwrw Demearea ha cm gamma 50 am mega Damian Snowmelt Hydrology Tom Dunne Winter 2008 Western Maritime Geographic variation between snowpacks Continental Mountains DEEP squotDWPaCk 15 25 m Shallow snowpack lt8 m annual annual snDWfa can be gt snowfall several meters at melt 10m at melt Efforite aquot temperatures Low air temperatures 5 to 1 5 C Modest temperatures within pack close to 0 C Ground unfrozen beneath pack Ground usually unfrozen beneath Examples Sierra Nevada pack Cascades Coast Range BC Chilean Andes Pack temperatures can be ltlt 0 C Examples Rocky Mountains Zagros Tien Shan Geographic variation between snowpacks Midwest and New England Thin snowpacks 1 2 m annual snowfall can be lt elt Variable airtemperatures 20 0 C Modest temperatures within pack close to 0 C Frequent midwinter melts Ground sometimes frozen and impermeable beneath pack Examples Vermont Upper Midwest Subarctic Shallow snowpack lt3 m annual snowfall12 m at melt Low air temperatures 10to 35 C Pack temperatures can be ltlt 0 C Ground usually frozen and impermeable beneath pack Examples N and NE Canada Siberia Snow metamorphism Melting and refreezing distributes heat downward from surface gradually increasing the pack temperature and reducing its cold content C C Jmz W d Tdef cp cp speci c heat of ice Jkg K Melting and refreezing changes snowfrom fine grained andor fluf fy to relatively large rounded grains with large pores see ESM 203 notes Waterholding properties and hydraulic conductivity become like a coarse sand cam measure Evapmmquot 39939 Men 5 ca cu ated by measurmg or esumaung 5 CEICUIE S Vla energy balance the otherterms m the energy ba ance RN2Uamatmn HLGM HSensmxe heat exchange LLamm heat exchanguenemv used mevapuvalmn m ve eased w cundensauun Gr emuwmmum mpack dwecuunAr emv usedm me a Evapmamn W snuw 4 1 we gamma WEI SHEIW Inmuhmvrmr E Mdth 39 n UTsum1uvm MRN7H7L N S17aFlso74 Measurement of so ar S and re ected so ar a9 radwauon Effect of gradwent and aspect on 50W radwauon per mm area u my 5 Snow a bedo a vames Wm age of urface mmwmm 09 Effect of vegetauon densm on so ar radwauon 5 Men 5 ca cu ated by measurmg or esumatmg me otherterms m the energy ba ance MRN7H7L S141Flso739x4 nmwmm mamquot Hummmmanwhm mun rnrw quotmmw nmuah 39 mum w mm hm WNW m mm mama Rad auon ba ance under Comferous forest canopxes Sotar and net Lwave radtomelers Effect ot forest canopy denstty on tne retatton between sotar and net radtatton hm mt unmmnm w mt M Mett ts catcutated by measunng or esumatmg tne otherterms m tne energy batance MRN7H7L S141Flso739x4 nemnnnmtm mamquot Hmuamnlanwhm mun rnrw nutmn nanmh 39 mm mm twpmm mm m n m mama Tummem neat mnangeswttn snquack HKHu2k2 71 L Kin 2 4x 112 17 unmapm Measuvemem uNemca Pvumes m amempevamve andhumm v Ca cu auon of how energy ba ance f0 W0 mHs opeS WM dwfferent omentauon Precwswon of daHy men rate predwcuons Use and interpretation of analytical models of Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior watershed snowmelt A B c B1 32 c Conceptual model Analytical theory or Computational model or Full energy balance Simplified energy Temperatureindex or processes as processes their controls effects or processes and alance incorporating metho based on snow Requires more data affec e y and lnter rela ions controls Used rordesign m I so e empirical relations course an air landscape expresse ordecisionmaking 539 39quot39quot quot V from eld studies temperature data available Model charactenstlcs mathematically IHeaVilyparaimeterized to estimates useful for Based on Too complexto the point where mpa i observations and parameterize for representation of alternative physical reasoning predictionsexplanations observable physical scenarios but relationships is unclear predictions not and causeeffect subject accurate ran interpretation Because snowmelt is a relatively simple process this diricuityis iiot great Use and interpretation of analytical models of Temperatureindex method of snowmelt prediction WaterShEd snowmelt for one vegetation type based on daily snow course measurements Example of a Simplified energy balance incorporating empirical relationships For coniferous forest with canopy cover of 06 08 m I I I u e ll39i Ol6T an day 0 0007814 21 0 8Fly42T2 1 51rdl 0142T2 E u kmday wind speed 2 m above snowpack T2 Td air and dew point temperatures 2 m above j snowpack 0C F forest canopy cover decimal can deny tlll lmipcmliirei l i USArrny Corps ofEngrs i956 Temperatureemdex method at snowmen predtctton for one vegetatton type m uttt thth tCt Rain on snow Appvmtmate methees eeh t penetmweu Em Yamr nr shewevehtstwhtchpteeucethemesteamaethetteee e s ehetateenvshewmett Mettseutcetsceheehsattehehtheshewsmacethet thetathttseh RNrHrL Whenthe uxu atemhea t Lttsheeathememthe atmesphete tn the SHEIW tatee tateht heat ts teteasee bvcundEnsa mnuYWa EWapuvun epac atmt mms1WmdSt and hmvEEE a mn cwev htehwthe speedHauvtuvbmemhealexchanuessenstmeand tatem Rain on snow Mettseume ts engensanen enthe snuw surface nutme ratn ttsetr Latent heat vaapu zatmn erwaterts 2 5 mustKg t e engensatten UM Kg erwater vapur un SHEW surface teteases thts much Energy Latent heat ermsten regutreg te met 1 Kg er tee ts u aaxmst Cengensatten er 1 Kg ufvapur reteases eneugh tatert heat te met 7 5 Kg er tee Ratneonesnowmett oods Yempevmuve math SusAaW DHWB teweeetees ehwethet m hetthe shew sehshte heet mmnhmed bv tethta maWPaw ts ahh a 2m JkgquotC Campare wth 2 5x1 u my attetettt heat at U39C Camnbmmn atthe teth m hetttne ts stew sham n m M m hett tut evewt mm m mm pet c shave we athaueh the mth eattttthutestathe v BleV mmem atthe Packt ehetheteteteta Ana the tetettt heetettveh hett acmvswam the hhate tehesmpe et Blmndeen hett ts saeeetee thtaueh the eat mseasa t Rad eepehethe ah esaee she met sathet my a paman atthe teheseape tseattttthmtne met at aw ahetthe 10292002 ESM 203 Planetary Hydrology Jeff Dozier amp Tom Dunne Fall 2007 Earth System Science I Earth consists of system components I SOlld planet Atmosphere l Ocean Cryosphere Hydrosphere Contlnental nearsul39face pedosphere and blosphere l Technosphel e Earth System Hydrology I Planetary hydrologic processes I Landatmosphere interactions modulated h lants and soils I Subterranean water The hydrologic role of snow and ice I Water Supplies Hydrologic Cycle The continual transfer of water in various hases amon reservoirs stores in the atmosphere ocean and continents Earth System physlcal cllmate and nlogeochemlcal systems coupled by the hygralaglc cycle Asar and Dam The hydrologic cycle is driven by Solarerler y Exchanges or thls energy vylthln the Earth system results ln eyaporatloncondensatlony rreezmgt anrlg changeso denslty lnternal Earth energy resldual heat and ragloactlylty Lucally nearsurrace ang mere extenslyely at great depth geethermal heat causes genslty changes and cenyectlen ln greungwater Graylty vylng pressure graglents causeg by graylty Rlversglaclers rlewmg gennhlll creungnater mwlng because at petentlal energy graglents ln the Water ESM 203 Planetary hydrology 10292002 Water an Earth approx 14 x 109 km Never at Rest Water mnvvs cnnlinuzlly between the reserveirs by a number I Oeearrs a7 2 nlprncvssvs 2 u I Evaporation irerr tire ncEZHr Precipimion nln tire ncezn I iee Irznsler nl z pnninn nver errmmems 39 GVDUWWEIEV 39 dEEF 75DV4DDDW D 4 I Precipination nn enntinents lrzinsm1wlelsnnwpzck I Gruundwater eshaliew lt75EIm u e 5 quot 9393 2F 39quotEMZ E39IE39WEL I Evaporation mm err Inems um rs erreamrerrra I Lake u m werersurtaee nrsnilsurlzcejewpolmmpi Iionillhe 5 D DDS wzpnrminn is mndulmed hy plznlprncessvs 39 Equot I In ltration I Atmusphere H um I Percobv39onlhrnughsnils zndrncks I was H um I Streamllowlslnrm nwznd hase nw nwlhrnughlzkvs I Flnwlhrnughlhencezn I Elmsphere an I Evzpnrminnlmmlhencezn eieete Read BlackrPE Onlhecmimlnaluvenl seiess reseurees Water Resulmvs Bulletin 1995 v Energy and its spatial vznzhllnyj is the keyln the cnnlinuzl Irznsler niwmer mass Fluxes between stores Tradi ianal view af the hydralagic cycle Nule lhallhe mean area is abuullwicelhe land area lhese numbers are mvulumes pev unit area etsurtaee Evaperatienrrem eeean M7 myr PrEElpltatlEIn enter eeean m7 myr Preclpltatlun erte lane 74 myr Evapuralmnfrum land 49 myr Runul ffrum land 25 myr Overme Dream E gt P Over lane P gt E Suggests matthe sterage erwater err land causes seme Klnd er resistance te evapuratlun se that seme er the precipitated Water escapes evapuratlun and survives te run ul fme ruminants as streamriew R 39 Complete planetary hydrologic cycle is w quoti 4 ESM 203 Planetary hydrology 2 10292002 Madern View af the hydralag 0 cycle Why the global view is essential l lrl rnueh dr envlrunmental selenee and management the eeneeptual medel er the cycle lsn telesed lnsteadp hydrpldgy ls analyzed as a partlal lddp ln whleh waterrrpm the atmdsphere ls rdutedthrdughthe edntlnenttd the mean The prdplem wl h thls partlal vlew ls that ltls drwen by what preelpltatldn happens tel fall whleh must pe measured drlmaglned rdr the ruture Thls lmaglnlng the ruture esnmatldn ls pased dn hlstdneal reedrds ralnrall and stream gauges Uh rt e al Leavesusupenlu usllysmpvlses sucn as T d 39 fth h d 39 ra Hana new a e y m 9390 eye 5 Why the global VIew Is essentlal lrl mueh pr envlrunmental selenee and management the edneeptual mddel at the cycle lsn t eldsed lnsteady ydmlugy ls analyzed as a partlal lddp ln Whlch Water mm the amusphere ls muted Waugh the e deean e rd em wl h thls artlal vlew ls that ltls drwen p whatpreelpltatldn happens td fall rWhlch must he measured rdrthe eunent seasdn dr lmaglnedrdr he ruture Thls lmaglnlng the ruture esnmatldn ls pased dn hlstdneal reedrds ralnrall and stream gauges sndw edurses Uneertaln Leave us dpen td edstly surprlses sueh as Calarada River annual quotvirginquot flaws nal averages of annual river flows de us from longterm averages Phennmennn is knnwn as pers39stenee39u Ihe nnnrrandn tendeneytnrwetand dtyyearst neeur39 runs an typleauy taken inln aeenunt in the plan 39ng nllarge water supply prnjects and water Ireal s ESM 203 Planetary hydrology 3 1 0292002 Colorado River Compact distributes water Colorado River Compact distributes water rights between states 1922 rights between states 1922 75 MAF to upper basin st 75 MAF to upper basin st 15 MAF to Mexico may Colorado R annual virgin flows at Lee s Ferry AZ COloradO R How reconStrUCted from regional Hypotnetical lgnores gtlMAF oflake evaporation in reservoirs treering chronologies 20yr running means wwnwuiuemms 1mmAvanE x 2 i E 2 g quotIt mm mm N am a g 2 runs w z lt a mu isis W um um 45 a 1 NR minimnpeia mwmiMummeiieum WA39lERYEAR NRC culmadu River Basin Water Management 2mm Long droughts or intense stormy periods are not accidents l Result from largescale patterns of atmospheric pressure seasurface tem erature wnicn are set up by global ralnfall overbotn land and exchanges and Weather systems Streamflow trends in the Western United States patterns of radlatlon Wlnd and ocean tnat drlve tne neat I These I atterns e i ENSO Paci c Decadal Oscillation North Atlantic Oscillation persist for months to m ny decades ENSO 618 mo PDO 1020 yr l Therefore we pay atten ion to statistical analysis and early recognition orprecursors pnysically oased computermodels oratmospneric dynamics and ocean condltlons and tnelr effect on atrnospnerlc clrculatlon and ralnfall patterns extendan knowledge ofnydrologlc eyents tnat are outside tne nistoncal record old newspapers paleollood records us cent Sulv cirmizr 1261 ESM 203 Planetary hydrology Satellrte maps of average monthly sea surraee empera ures mm lwamel noaa ewrlaeelrrrrrerla rrrrrapacrrre html 10292002 Southern Oscillation mechanism Numolcunlmun El Iller Commons mm rress eeeluey an eeuru sa7esseJELNrrre html Satellrte maps or average monthly sea surface temperatures mm lWwwpmel noaa ewrlaeelrrrrrerla rrrrrapacrrre html Persistent climatichydrologic conditions Southern Oscillation Index for each month a on mean monthly Searleyel pressure urrrerenee PM between Tamtr and Darwin Australra SOI Pdiff Pdiffav StDev Pdi Neeame values olthe Sol onerr lndlcatE M eprseees Warmrrrem rre me are eas1errr tmplcal Pacmcr eecrease rrr lrre s1rerre1rr mtheTvadeWm Sr arm a reeunrerr rrr valnlall oyev E are N Auslralrar etc r etc reaerrres Poane values olthe Sol 9 summer Pacmc wee Winds arre warmer sea temperatures wer SE Asra arre NAustvalla La Nrr39ra Southern Oscillation Index mm mmquot muse 5m 5 quotumevils nquot r39U39n um and m oa sar m mm wawbum eey aucllmatecunentsolz shtml ESM 203 Planetary hydrology 10292002 Correlations between rlverfloWS in Australia lndla and N E Africa with Rainfall in E Pacific and S America Correlations between river flows in Australia lndla and N E Africa with Southern Oscillation index Paci c Decadal Oscillation Index PDO Based on rnontnly Winter sea surface temperatures Strangest PDO rmpaets are rh the Pacmc Northwest vhere warm39llnase PDO perreus are asmclalerl wth belnwaverage rarhral ahu almveaverage nurrhe the coal phase etthe PDO there are tvplcallv mnleHnanraverage temperatures ahu almveaverage rarhral Farther awav hem the Paere Nenhheslthermpaetsareressurstrhet nnl phase A seasurtaee Temperature Warm phase Pacmc Decadal Oscillation based on monthly Winter sea surraee temperatures mommy values furlhc pm llldvx memes 2lll5 4r wuo mu won mu tqu 2000 North Atlantic Oscillation r r Pnslwelmlndex all t lflmlu atm e m strprreer sumrpprealhreh pressure cemerand deeper celandlclnw lhaeased pressure dltlerenm results rh mere aha stranger Writer sprms aessrrre the Atlantic Oeeah eh a mu hpnherlv track Warmrv l wrlersrhEurppe aha cnlrl aha err wnlers rh Canada aha Greenland Eastern usahrlur Mtwmers mttp lmwwlrlencnlumbla eduNAO w a umau games heat 51mm lcal huh ahua North Atlantic Oscillation Negativelm Index weaklcelan lclnw Reeueeepresslre radiant resultsm everah weaker wnler stprrhs emssrre eh a in re Westea pathvrav arrh mprsarrrrrtpthe Me rterraheah aha cnldalrtn hpnherh Eurppe Eastern us mere mm arr outbreaks aha shpwr weather ephenrphs r hr nlelNr ESM 203 Planetary hydrology 10292002 North Atlantic Oscillation HAD Index Extra uncertain s about future perturbations outside of the range of the historical record I E g co levels Will be higher than atariytirhe in the periud afreepru I Glubal Warrhirig pr 2 274 C Expected perhaps i Elr i5 C ih theAretie I Duesthis eause rhpre priess streamfluvy lake sturage urgruundwater7 See Harte arid Wigley rhpueis ih Dl gma i the reader ieeture nDtES arid laterslides Harte is a glubal VlEW Wigley a hyppthetieai regipriai View I Glubally rhure Eyapuratiun sp rhpre preclpltatlun put Pmbably epheertrateu ihtrppieai means I Where up We gm rpr guiuahee7 Envl onlng potential future climate change based on h tor ale ence EHVlSlDHng eiirhate ehahge Deepep arid JulyrAug Avera e temperatures thruugh sippai cireuiatiph Mudels Predicted ehahges in western snuvvpack based pri temperature predi iuns and histury pr HEIW EDUrSE ubsewatiuns eimeme Manama mam usemieme imp we Nam3i m quotfnu 0xiekam ezi m Predicted ehahges iri cpiurhpia R pasih SHEIW epyer Elime chanve magma binned see us Global mauve ksean t mm mm Assesmm swhesskam Dmbndve Univ Press znnn ESM 203 Planetary hydrology Deere Inclmse tumem Juwrnuu inumse lmrnuZlJ 10292002 Predictions of Moisture Regimes Envlslunlng eiiinate More 39 39 a various calculations of Precipitation and HiyaW9 average daily Evaporation and therefore Runoffthan about gag at u mamas temperatu mimequot enmi Mmiavy imi North America prec39 39 ation predictions CM predictions of change in annual runoff for 2041 2060 over 19001 70 iii MlW e1 ai zanai Nature Predictions of drying especially in subhumid regions I As the average global temperature increases it is generally expected that the air will bec rier and that evaporation from terrestrial water bodies will increase I But over past 50 years evaporation measured in standard pans has decreased by 00 mmyr l Manet ML an e u renuneiineeeueai um a m pen aapmiianw we 2am mx plum ine m an yam Mil Prublemunvesulved Should Reductions in pan evaporation across Australia and other continents iesunin iiein inErEaSiVlE cloud 002 and aEluSIl eeneeniiaiien neeiie M L andFamuhal GD 2mm ChangesinAustvaliangan evapuialiuniiumiamlu zn zi Int J c maloogyi 2m 1mm n5 Global dimmn a YEMEN mine evidence iei a Widespread and sienineani ieeueiien in eienai ladlalluni o Stanhill and s ceneni Agnc and For MQIQOVOi v 2 255275 censisenivnin observed iaiee and vneemieae eeeieases in suniieni R value we ESM 203 Planetary hydrology an ineasuieinenis be taken at race A eesine ieeueiien ine pan wapulaliun due to reducllun an iaeiaiien aiiew rmlEvE elaliun to survive in dry ieeiens and increase 11212002 Summary of previous two lectures ESM 203 Formation of Soil Resources I Global tectonic processes generate global patterns of rockt es and landsca et es definedb theirform Biogeochemical Role of the Lithosphere and iiifawning p yp y I Lithosphere reacts with atmosphere hydrosphere and biosphere I Incorporation of water into subducted sediments Jeff Dozier amp Tom Dunne tectonic and volcanic breakage and erosion of rocks chemical reactions Fall 2007 I IntenSIty of Interaction varies With the type of geologic environment I Interactions most intense at plate margins The effects result from a set of biogeochemical These mteracnons processes called weathering de ned as l Sustain the nutrition ofthe biosphere mainly through release of lithologic elements into solution in hydrosphere I Generate a waterholding soil that sustains primary production I Mechanical disintegration and chemical I Keep some ecosystems impoverished decomposition of rock minerals in situ near Earth s I Create some toxic hydrochemical and soil environments surface Within 1 km and Cause hi h rates of erosion and sedimentation M g f b I d d b d I Shortdistance translocation of the dissolved t t t 39 Eg t 39gii ugwquot 339quot e Hquot 59 quotquot9quot my ism wquotwarps39quot substances Within the nearsurface enVIronment I Major oodplains and deltas I Sedimentation stores rock minerals carbon and incorporated l Modulates COZ content ofthe atmosphere and ocean over the long term 104 yr by incorporating COZ into weathered minerals ESM 203 Weathering 1 11212002 Solutes Nat Ca2 K n u General weathering reaction Fey Mgz an etc Solid residuum Primary rock minerals H20 C02 HNO3 02 organic acids i changes in temperature and pressure Secondary minerals separated into fragments clay to gravel coated with precipitates of amorphous oxides storing cations and trace metals Solutes General weathering reaction Fey Mgg z w Primary rock minerals H20 C02 HNO3 02 organic acids i changes in temperature and pressure To groundwater and streams water quality Mechanical weathering I Unloading or pressure release I Crystal growth salt or ice I Create microfractures and joints in rocks that allow penetration of water Chemical weathering process1 Needs water acids C02 302 HN03 oranic acids from plants I Solution of carbonates eg CaCO3 CO2 H20 2 CaHC032 Insoluble Soluble hard water ESM 203 Weathering 11212002 Chemical weathering process 2 Chemical weathering process 3 Needs water acids oxyen Most common weathering process I Silicate hydrolysis I Oxidation eg I Especially Fe and Mnbearing minerals turns dark 2KASi30a 2H 9H20 gt AIZSiZO5 OH4 4H48io4 2K minerals reddish or yellowish t T T acid from kaolinite silica amp potassium atmosphere and clay mineral dissolved FeS2 gt FeSO4 gt FeOH3 J HZSO4 acid mine drainage I Catalyzed 1000 times by bacteria Other rock minerals also dissolve in the presence of acid Ht to yield a variety of solutes nutrients clay minerals and relatively insoluble minerals such as quartz SiOz Incorporation of H ions from soilwater solution increases pH Primary silicate mineral structure Potassium feldspar KAISi3os I Slllcate hydrolySIS 2KAISi30a 2H 9HZO gt AIZSiZOEOH4 4H48iO4 2K acid from potassmm kaolinite Silica amp potassmm atmosphere feldspar and I I clay mineral dissolved Other rock minerals also dissolve in the presence of acid H to yield a variety of solutes nutrients clay minerals and relatively insoluble minerals such as quartz SiOz ESM 203 Weathering 3 Chemical weathering 4 I Chelation ltgtCgt Metal Large soluble organic molecules such as peptides and sugars produced during plant decomposition form complexes with metals Cu Zn Fe Hg I The metals may be very insoluble in water I The complexes are soluble I Artually all biochemicals including manufactured products exhibit the abilityto dissolve metal cations I Involved in bioremediation to remove metals 11212002 Chemical weathering process 5 I Cation exchange 1 I Clay minerals produced by silicate hydrolysis have sheet structures lt0002 mm across I The sheets consist of layers of Si Al and O atoms stacked in various con gurations forming different clay minerals Kaolinite Smectite Montmorillonite l O atoms r Sr 0 atoms 39 A O atom l Al 0 atoms Q Sr 0 atoms I Cation exchange 2 4 H R Na 2 I The sheets of atoms have negative charges on their edges I These attract and hold the positively charged ions released into solution by weathering liming fertilization etc I The resulting electrical bonds are weak and the cations can b eached and replaced by other ions especially hydrogen Ht and thus become available for incorporation into plants via roots that exude H ESM 203 Weathering lCation exchange 3 I Clay minerals differ in their capacity to store plant nutrients in this way ie their cation exchange capacity CEC Smectite 100meq1009 Illite 30meq 1009 Kaolinite 8meq1009 Organic matter in soils 200meq100kg I Cations stored on clays can be displaced by high concentrations of other cations Na ifinundated by sea water or evaporated irrigation water H from large amounts of recharge H20 H H OH39 H from acid rain 11212002 Summary of weathering of a polymineralic rock eg granite l Granite usually consists ofquartz feldspar mica and FeMg rich inerals l Quartz survives as quartz sand K feldspar gt clay mineral dissolved Si and K Na feldspar clay mineral dissolved Si and K I K mica gt clay mineral dissolved Si and K I FeMgMn minerals gt clay minerals dissolved Si and Fez gt Fequot rustcolored precipitate The result is a weathered layer which ifinvaded and churned by the biosphere becomes a soil consisting of sand clay minerals and solutes some of which are leached out and some are held on clay minera s A number of redistribution processes differentiate the soil into horizons AF Decaying plant matter An Mineral horizon with some organic matter A1 Leached most organic and clay and dissolved material removed B Accumulation of clays oxides and solutes leached from upper horizons c Unconsolidated earthy disturbed but little or no bioturbation D Parent material with little or no weathering Soil characteristics depend on I Rock mineralogy minerals weather at various rates to various soil minerals I Climate T P gt weathering rate leaching intensity I Vegetation source of C02 and other acids I Topography affects drainage and erosion I Time age of soil Global patterns of soil characteristics I Global tectonics and global climate interact to generate regional patterns of these soil forming factors I There is much local variation superimposed on the regional patterns by topography and local variations of rocktype but broad generalizations can be made ESM 203 Weathering 11212002 Boreal forestl tundra lquot landscape N 39 Canada Cool humid climate with coniferous forest in Pacific Northwest Cool wet regions I Cool wet climate with copious primary production 002 and organic acids promotes all forms of weathering 9 soils with clays and oxides I Slow decomposition of organic material in cool climate allows survival of organic acids chelating agents I Intense leaching high PE of dissolved products from topsoil so few nutrients stored Low fertility acidrich soils I Chelating agents leach even the Fe oxides leaving bleached upper horizon I Clays Fe oxides deposited in subsoil as a dense horizon sometimes impedes drainage I Podzol or spodosol 24 Podzol or spodosol Organicrich topsoil leached shallow horizon accumulation of clays and iron in subsoil on welldrained sites ESM 203 Weathering 11212002 Wet tropics High T P primary production with rapid decomposition to C02 Intense weathering and leaching to deep soils with clays and oxides Organic matter and even dissolved organic acids quickly decomposed to C02 so there little or no chelation and iron oxide remains immobile coating soil particles red Few nutrients stored on clays because of leaching by high soil water recharge nutrients mainly in the small amount of organic matter near surface Low fertility once the efficient recycling mechanisms in the roots of primary forest are removed source of organic matter Former Tropical rainforest Kenya 25 Latosol or oxisol 739 Temperate continental grasslands Moderate rainfall and temperature regime Organicrich surface horizon significant weathering to clays but not heavily leached Fertile with good waterholding characteristics Chernozem or mollisol Goldilocks Midlatitude grassland ESM 203 Weathering 7 11212002 Desert landscape in Basin and Range Province Deserts Weathering slow low P and primary production Thin soils usually with low clay content Significant fertility when watered because solutes are leached from profile only slowly Solutes released by weathering may be redeposited durin evaporation within the soil profile as a layer of CaCOa caliche Fe203 iron pan etc If irrigation water is evaporated from the soil without drainage concentration of solutes causes salinization of the soil Aridisols Cold regions with impeded drainage Weathering slow due to low temperatures and waterlogging Thin profile because of slow weathering and short life of soi Organicrich topsoil due to slow decomposltlon Reducing conditions keeps iron in ferrous 2 state coloring soil blueto olive Acidic and nutrient poor Gley soil or inceptisol ESM 203 Weathering 10252005 From lecture on Planetary Hydrology Continental hydrology largely subsurface ESM 203 Groundwater I Storage and transmission of water below ground generates a resistance to evapotranspiration allowing water to escape from the radiation load at Earth s surface and remain liquid and available as a water su l in roundwater and streams Jeff DOZIer amp Tom Dunne ppy g a 2007 4 Ground water storage and discharge Ground water storage and discharge Conceptual model 1 Conceptual model 1 Advec ion of KW 4 I Ddepth of root zone sensibelLl P Mttransient soilmoisture heat lt gt A content volarea I volume fraction of water I Vt volume of groundwater storage resulting from balance SM 9txD where D rootzone depth Soil Storage 1 v Gravitational drainage occurs when 9gt 9q a critical value called eld H between drainage from capacity 50 and dramage to W volume of groundwater storage Ground nve rs Q quotround water resulting from balance between drainage water from soil drainage to rivers Wt W W 39Uutflow to rivers 7 kV 00 3 dt ESM 203 Groundwater 10252005 Groundwater storage and discharge Groundwater storage and discharge AV l discharge quot a I I as a Linear storageout ow relationship TkV linear reservoir that is the volume of outflow in 7 7 some unit of time V f is some fixed proportion In differential form taking limits as I 0 dV I of the volume stored V d1 dV AV Reorganizing Vkd At dV 39 39lntegrating both sides 7 kIdl Eg the rate of out ow in m3lday is 1 per day of he volume that is storedquot 30 k 001 per day InV k1C Since V is a decrease we use a negative sign in hem of it a Groundwater storage and discharge cont Exponential decline In volume stored InV k1C V b We know a boundary condition when t 0 V ln Therefore In V C s v var t ubs itute his result back into the equation above my 7k 1 VJ V InV r In VJ rkt InVrInVa ml ekt V0 p t o t Taking an ilogs and moving V0 V Vaerkt 7 g ESM 203 Groundwater 2 Implications I If the groundwater is recharged by drainage from the soil during a wet season a snowmelt season or a rainstorm ie if its volume is reset to V the volume in storage will decline exponentially through time I Since the volume of groundwater storage is reflected in the height of the water table then the water table behaves in the same way 10252005 Also I Since river discharge in the absence of quickflow originates from groundwater draina e g Q kV09k39 Que39639 d I The flow of streams will also decline exponentially through time after some sharp rise due to a pulse of recharge Q0 am Conceptual model 1 Advepion 0f w 4 l Ddepth of root zone sensiblelL 39 l I P heat lt gt a l volume fraction of water I Vt volume of groundwater storage resulting from balance between drainage from soil and drainage to rivers Qt 339 Ground water WY Physical model of groundwater ESM 203 Groundwater I If water drains down to some impermeable boundary by gravity it will accumulate above that boundary and ll all voids pores 39actures in the rocks up to some ei t 10252005 Groundwater Conceptual model 2 Physical model of groundwater I If water drains down to some impermeable boundary by gravity it will accumulate above that boundary and ll all voids pores 39actures in the rocks up to some 39 t l Above that height water will not ll all ofthe voids there will be some air lled spaces I The airwater interfaces in small openings like capillary tubes will J result in concave air7water interfaces that develop riegativepressure and hold up water Within the voids against gravitational drainage Saturated zone Grou ndwater Impermeable rock Groundwater Conceptual model 2 Physical model of groundwater l lfwatier drains down to some impermeable boundary by gravity it will accumulate above that boundary and ll all voids pores 39actu39es in the rocks up to some height l Above that height water will not ll all ofthe voids there will be some air lled spaces Unsaturated Watertable I Vadm 2 quote The airwater interfaces in small openings like capillary tubes will result in concave airwater interfaces that evelop negative pressure and hold up water within the voids against gravitational drainage saturated l lfwe dg an unlined hole a well into he saturated soil or rock water will h f ow quot1th tlhe hole and stand to some constant level which is caled the 7 p rea ic zone 7 wa er a e GrountMater Water table the height at which the pressure in the uid is at atmospheric pressure If pressures are expressed relative to atmospheric pressure then above the water table pressures are nega ive below they exceed atmospheric pressure Impermeable rock ESM 203 Groundwater 4 10252005 Groundwater Conceptual model 2 Some terms groundwater and allows it to drain to streams springs or wells W H 0 t d l Aquifer geologic formation that stores a large volume of e per ra e 39 at rates that humans consider use Unsaturated 2 quote Watertable l Aquiclude geologic formation that does not transmit water at rates useful to humans r Water table J r indicated in I well I Con ned aquifer bounded on its upper surface b an Saturated zone aquiclu e which precludes direct recharge 39om the overlying Groundwater land sur ce but only from some remote upstream zone of the surface l Uncon ned aquifer upper boundary of saturated zone is a I 17 water table atmospheric pressure and connected directly to hem mpermeable rock atmosphere Groundwater ows down gradients of Conflned and unconflned aqurfers otentIal ener In the water I A unit mass volume orweight of water has v potential energy by virtue of l its elevation above some datum l lts pressure Uncon ned aqulfer I Energy per unit weight has dimensions of length so we convert each energy component to this form and obtain a convenient measure of potential energy called head z energyi J kg mzs weight N 7 kg m 572 ESM 203 Groundwater 5 10252005 Measurement of head I Insert solidwall pipe not a well called apiezometer into groundwater to measure pressure and head I Measure elevation relative to some datum eg sea level to which water rises in the pipe Pressure P pw gv Pressure head w P p g w talheadhzv L z elevation above sea level Darcy s Law for flow through a porous medium I Negative sign because ow Q 7 Ah direction is down the A As gradient ie in opposite 3 1 direction to it Q dlSCharge m S l Yet another example ofa A crosssectional area m2 diffusion Process K hydraulic conductivity of medium h head m 7 6 distance in direction of flow Q dh 2K A ds Hydraulic conductivity K I For a given fluid and temperature ie viscosity and density the hydraulic conductivity K reflects the properties of the soil or rock containing the groundwater I Hydraulic conductivity correlates roughly with the 2nd 3rd power of the radius of the largest pores or fractures in the medium though it is not eas t 39 specify exactly which fraction of the largest of these conduits Some values of hydraulic conductivity K I Gravel 10000100 mday I Sands 1001 mday I Silts glacial till 10001 mday l Clays lt0001 mday ESM 203 Groundwater 10252005 Formation of a groundwater body early stage i1 Formation of a groundwater body t 2 Water table has not yet risen to stream channels so no Water table rises to stream channels which drain water away but still alaratelowe 39 nP 39 m ilnule gradients are low ridges channel 77 channel no stream 77 no stream Wmmble an stream stream impermeable substrate 25 2 impermeable substrate Formation of a groundwater body t 3 in words Water table xed at stream channels has continued to rise due to l Equilibrium state occurs when outflow of groundwater quot mquot 439 quot 39 39 to s reams Darcy s law balances PE on the land equal the areal sum of P E surface P I Water table is a diffuse mimic of the topography I The lower the value of K the steeper the water table must be to convey the water I If P E varies seasonally the watertable gradient and therefore height and outflow rate will also change impermeable substrate ESM 203 Groundwater 7 10252005 Effects of lithologic heterogeneity Shape and steepness of water table l Rockssoils have very heterogeneous Kvalues 14 I Rock properties mainly K affect orders OfmagnitUde groundwater flow The lowerthe Kvalue the steeper is the equilibrium gradient required to convey the P E that is draining from the ridges I Why are water tables convexupward in homogeneous ie constantK aquifers l Therefore the arrangement and orientation of the rocks also affect the volume direction and speed of groundwater ow Equilibrium watertable profile 1 Equilibrium watertable profile 2 P E l Strip of aquifer 1 meter P Darcy s law Q Q dh PE wide parallel to the page r K I At equilibrium after a A h dX suf ciently long time of dh stable recharge out ow Q Q Kh to the stream or any other dX distance x equals input from recharge on the upstream drainage area which begins at X 0 half way between the channels 7 HX xxH inlP EVX xo 1 F M NH hdh P Ede QXP7Ex At equilibrium P Ex Kh dx ESM 203 Groundwater 8 1 0252005 Equmbrium water table prome 3 Equilibrium water table pro le 4 P E P E P E P E P E Imm K Mde PE h2h52 K XL2 X2 hz P Ex2c 2 K 2 Stream P EXL2X2 Channel K Channel Boundary condition at X XLh hS hs hsz XL2 C s The result is a convex upward water table the height and I 2 P E 2 o X I of which depend on X0 gtX XXL ChS l XL y39 39 X39XL theheightofthestreamsun ace K and the ratio of recharge to conductivity 33 coaStal aquifers Ghyben Herzberg static model of the fresh water lens above salt water at a coast nearshore 1 seepage Sea Water Surface Uncon ned aquifer From Din gman Physical Hydrology ESM 203 Groundwater 1 0252005 Ghyben Herzberg static model of the fresh water Calculation of heightdepth ratio of freshwater leiasoagp eaaallitfyater at the coast lens II Remember that h 7 densrty offresh water depends on PEX pfgh 13ng 1152 ll lfh is lowered h 75 density of sea water p fh pi pf Z h height ofwater table above SL by Pump39ngy Z W39 pf diminish by Z Z h Z depth of salt wedge below SL 40h pi p f pf 1000kg nf3 pi 1025kg nf3 Z 2 40h 37 From DingmanPhysicaHydrolo Coastal aquifers Real flow fields are somewhat more complex and diffuse than the Velocity of a parcel of groundwater flow GH idealization but it capturesthe big picture I Darcy s law gives an apparent velocity but strictly speaking this is a discharge per unit crosssectional nearshore area of aquifer seepage 3 71 1 Sea Water Surface Q m s m I But if we are interested in the velocity of the water molecules themselves or a solute we have to considerthe porosity p of the aquifer which is the crosssectional area of the pores Q m3s 1 m 2 Ap pAs m s Uncon ned aquifer ESM 203 Groundwater ESM 203 Ocean Processes and Circulation Oceanographers use the sigmaT description UtST fSTP 0 1000 ranges from 20 to 40 Dissolved salts gases and organic substances as well as particles 0 Physical properties are mainly related to the pure water along with the dissolved salts Water mass characteristics 0 Salinity temperature nutrients vAyscll Key property for circulation is sea water density 0 Variability in vertical inhibit or enhance mixing 0 Variability in horizontal drive currents ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation L U Changes in temperature generally regulate changes in density except where ice is formed which increases salinity Rule of thumb ie Ap m 1 kg m 3 for AT 75 C 11272007 11272007 H l l W l l l ll j mass quotsaltsquot Sahmtym mass sea water lnnml l i 39 39 Imam 39 Equatorial Pacific WOCE150W Mi parts per thousand 0 Good water mass tracer 0 Lowerhigher values are unusual river input high evaporation sea ice formation Rule of thumb ijlljllgl mu M c mu m cl ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation 2 4 4 ILJ4A 4s 0 Varies from On gt500 bars I bar IO5 N m4 0 Reference P0 at sea surface I Rules of thumb AP bar e U 1 ressmes 1ncrease 1 bar at U m uepth Ah m 7 A pe 01kg m Ap e 1kg mi3 forAP 10 bars AP bar 11272007 Global sea surface temperature ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation Land 291 of area Precipitation Evaporation amp transpiration Ocean 709 of area Precipitation mmsyr 108 62 46 410 11272007 10 i i i i e i salinim AF an in i 7 m E m Irnmnarari m Araan 27 m 77 PS Brine is left over when sea ice is formed 0 Source of Arctic and Antarctic bottom water 40 7 WWWwwwmw salinity V 7 L5 39 so 45 i i i i gas 505 305 E0 SUN eoN 90M T h I I k I ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation 11272007 Q Winddriven Circulation at the surface Descending air leads to PltE net evaporation and salinity 4 a w x h m S w w v u K 39 I Won 0 mi N V leis15 lo mes 3 935M316 vim or swim a 3 m Figure if am Anquot 4 I I i J Am Luumu 39 Wptne a cornmqu oi mesa mu iown by the mm mm I ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation 11272007 try to reach North Pole I893l896 0 Unique design to be locked in the ice and wait 42A Nansen deduced correctly that the direction was caused by a balance of frictionwind stress and Coriolis forces Ekman did the math Nansen later was instrumental in forming the League of Nations and in repatriatingWorld Warl refugees Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in I922 0 Once closer to Pole Nansenone other amp dog team set out to try to reach 0 got to 86 3 N o httpwwwarcticwebsitecoml Nansenmehtml ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation 6 11272007 ii Con39oiis Win C Dr HL 9 Coriolis Fame Hagar7mquot Weak Coriolis IIID9 Motion is to right of the wind direction in Northern Hemisphere f p results From halanre of Wind stress friction and 11 Ekrnan veloc1ty D depth of Ekrnan layer Coriolis 1W Wind stress QE Ekrnan transport 0 Layer 2 s direction results from balance of stress from Layer I friction from L r 3 and Coriolis 0 Etc 1W 1W 1 u sou mS fE 0D E fDD QE H1254 111357111171 Volume transport per length of fetch ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation 11272007 K Divergence leads to vaseamsunaca u upwelling Convergence leads mum l to downwelling 1 horlzanlal pressure nevsuucxvir Warn 4 gradienl Iowa l l NORTHERN gunman cvmmc WlM an atom va I i 1 f Comparatively little water is moved by Ekman transport it s the boundary layer But it causes the gyre circulation which moves a lot ofwater Downwelling in gyre interior lowers nutrient availability and algae biomass ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation 8 t a A N Westerlies Polar 39 1 J w New we 739 uniMW FF Convergence of Ekman I V n Hr Sum High a Home minus 7 ah transport p4 Jm JD39VJJ iT Equaloviii Law or Daldnm 0 l 39 BetweenWesterlIes and 39 39 s KY Downwelling Subtropical gyres tomimm Mw smopmnva alHW l lMS Polar Easterlies Divergence and upwelling Subarcticgyres 11272007 is nearl alwa s at saturation concentration Supply of nutrients is therefore critical Upwelling increases nutrients light nutrients Fixed Carbon E s CO2 3902 Driven by downwellingwhich is caused by Ekman pumping ESM 203 Ocean processes and circulation l 978 0 Sea surface temperature from NOAAAVHRR I 0 Chlorophyll from Coasta Zone Color Scanner 3 ESM 203 Ice in the Climate System 11202007 gains out fossil DNA 3 Shrinking ice Glaciologists nailed down an unsettling observation this year The world39s two great ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica are indeed losing ice to the oceans and losing it at an accelerating pace also see New York Times 0 Oct 2007 for a cool graphic on sea ice httptinxurlcom2ne94h Formed from snow through metamorphism Dossiblv melt amp refreeze and compression 0 Mountain glaciers to continentalscale ice sheets which account for 2 of Earth s water and 80 of fresh water 0 Sea ice C Formed from freezing of sea water and incremented by snow on the 39ce ESM 203 Ice in the climate system Rivers 0000 I Biosphere 000004 BlackP El995 On the critical nature of uselessquot resourcesWater Resuurces Bulletin 11202007 Y 0 Where some snow survives melt season layers pile up and squeeze lower layers increase density causing snow to turn to ic Typical densities kg m393 snow at end of accumulation season 39dway thru ablation s end of ablation season older unmelted snow 250 400 pure water ice 917 melted and refrozen snow 300 600 liquid water neve or firn 1000 glacier ice equilibrium line s 01 past atmospheric composition and tempe t re 83980 in ice and in ocean sedime ts allows estimate oftemperature at time of snowfall 0 ratio of 398013950 compared to ocean water standardmore 3980 in evaporated H20 when warmer ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 11202007 KohrirBandaka Hmdu Kush N6000m elevation of equilibrium line ecreases glacier advances but then area of ablation increases 0 lfglacier has negative mass balance a ow from accumulation zone elevation of equilibrium line to ablation zone creases In 4 glacier retreats but then G boundaries stable area of ablatIon decreases Accumulation Rs Ablation Accumulation lt Ablation Accumulation gt Ablation ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 11202007 l X55323 0 Mountain Valley Baltoro Yosemite in Pleistocene o Piedmont Malaspina v FloatingGlacier Bay Ross lce Shelf Mountain icecap Patagonia Tuolumne in Pleistocene 0 Continentatoday onl 120 1880 1900 mm 1940 1 HBO GreenIand an dAmarctica Vein Sea level increasing I 8 mmyr perhaps half from melcing glaciers From GlobaIChange Electronic Eamon Top rate of sea level rise showing recent acceleration I 5 Bottom sea level I978 mine 0 at I990 Sea Level V iol l l9osrrom he Berkelez l r Geo in Collection V i man who i920 i940 1660 sen 2600 Year 5 Rahmstorf Science 315363 370 2007 Publlshed by AAAS ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 4 11202007 ESM 203 Ice in the climate system httgwwwglaciern39ceedu Antarctica Science 8 October 2004 11202007 A III W 0 Lateral moraines of tributary glaciers combine to form medial moraines ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 11202007 mused hv orbital variations There is also a IOO I kyruriztioninthe x 1 orbital inclination z mm the plane of the ecliptic 0 Precession 0 period ZlZ3 kyr date of per helion cycles through calendar ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 7 Synthetic time series of periods 004 amp 22 kyr 0 Add together 1 MWWWJ lamillmzlrmtl 0 Add random noise to the sum 0 Apply spectral analysis to the noisy sum 0 Periods recovered 11202007 Curran clnnA II Resistance Internal stiffness Basal and marginal resistance Velocity RA Muller 8 3 MacDonald Glacial Cycles and Astronomica Forcing Science 2 77 2 52 8uly I I997 ll l l l ll lulllll mm quot hwlvmk wmn I quotl H N H quot f a mu m nquot 7 4 kyr cycle dominated li52i5 i l i ll WW I l l l millionyearsago l lll ll l l l lll ll i a l W N I l l ll g 1 00 kyrcycle dominated in last l i ll lll l 3 ll millionyears l i n y l U l l all quot oilWT m quot Humvme 4 if u l mr l m m J km W Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Mission RAMP I997 ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 11202007 700 ma Glaciers feeding lost ice sh elves accelerate up to fr m B ndschadler et all I996 4 o I Omla 8X9 Iceshelf buttressmg Elevation Jakobshavns lsbrae Centerline Speed M Landsat ThwaitesGl 0 Calving of arge SmithKohl icebergs MODIS I 39 All data from satellites 39 i fromjoughin etal200 Oceanic forcing is inescapable ESM 203 Ice in the climate system 9 Snow Hydrology in Watershed Analysis Tom Dunne Winter 2008 Building on Dozierlectures in ESM 203 connected to ESM 236 The Mountain Snowpack Snow Hydrology in Watershed Analysis Show pack as a water resource Free storage and favorable timing of release Analyze through water balance and energy balance of snowpack and soil 7 HOW much accumulates 7 Prediction of melting rates 7 Effect ofyegetation cover on accumulation and melting rates Example Merced River Happy Isle in Yosemite Valley E f tam Daw laluss 1m 1m Nm u in m MM Anr Ml Jim in Aug Snvl uni mummy ESM 203 Snow Hydrology in Watershed Analysis Show pack as a water resource Free storage and favorable timing of release Analyze through water balance and energy balance of snowpack and soil ESM 203 labs a HOW much accumulates 7 Prediction of melting rates 7 Effect ofyegetation cover on accumulation and melting rates a Spatial patterns of groundwaterrecnarge Snow Hydrology in Watershed Analysis 5 ow pack as a hazard Snuw men eees Landshde hazard pure pressure bquup Tnggenng deb s qu ahars un aeuve vmcanues Snm m Watershed Ana ysws Snuwaccummahun Snuw men Snquackm2tamummsm m pack wakes c annes nndmams Snow accumulation 39 Charactemsucs of nterest was WWW was mm m snw mm m WWwammvmmeusue mm Measurements of Snowpack Remote sensmg r V sm e Waxe enmhs avea r Rana snquEvammg wetness quack Regional snow distribution 39SVHDWD scale stuvms El2vatiun Juliumapmc cun guvatiun Daziev Esmzm Measurements of Snowpack Remote sensing r Visible WaElenuths area 7 Renal snuwmgvammu wetness ulpack Snow pillows formonitoring Snow pillows Automated measurement with snow pillow Estm J Esmzm Snowpmow data from Cahforma Cooperauve Snow Survey Measurements of Snowpack Remote Sens n ev s pxe Wave engms area eRauar snwmgrammg wetness pr pack Snow PwHostorreanme momto ng Samphng by snow course 75va e epm epuurrurareax uverage Snow samphng at snow courses Adwrondack snow sammer for shaHow packs 1 Snow samphng of deep packs Wm a Mt Rose sammer Dazm Esmzm California snow courses Use of snow courses Average pf SWE measurements uurmg peak accummatmn seasurr at accessrpre mdex srtes currerateuwrtptutar rurruff m succeeumg mert seasurr m mure accessrpre terfawr srrw cuurses are urstrrputeu m a stratrfreu samphng scheme 7 Erevauun 4qu anatsrs cfcumruumefactursfurwaterspeu management asweu as pener men arm water resuurce premctrun Effect of forest cover densrty on peak sprmgume 5va upper Cofumbra R basm us Army Corps of Engrs 1956 Rmsnns cm mumum spauameeuencv i aemsuransaf 2 re spme We 5 3va under 3 efferent sunace 5 Driver taprauur Tundra Labrador Open hcherv W00d arvd Labrador C osed hcherv W00d arvd Labrador Burnt forest Labrador spanameuuencv msmbuuunsm i a i ms Labvaduv cnange m vamab erdepm snow cover durmg rnen season Vmu was ammo nu nun mm M w MW quot1 SpauaHy vanab e accumu auon causes vamauons m groundwater recharge v mm v m Tempora centre s on snow accummauon Eastma snquaH Ma s Mmrwmlev mens were nua and unmevmhends Seasuna enev ba anc mummumsmmuwavmrup nmannuax and unmevm ends n 2 Watershed Functions and Runoff Processes Tom Dunne Vl nter 2008 A word on the use of analytical and predictive models in Watershed Analysis Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior Parameteriz e Whazzat Limitations on what can these models tell us They express not only our best understanding but also the uncertainties 39 in our understanding of processes in our knowledge of critical Values eg albedo of clouds iii in our capacity for computation Eg 5 degrees 6720 vertlcal levels Ltme steps 30 mm 39 t radlatlon balance ET runon Pammetalze means to represent processes that are complex on small tlme and at express average behavlor over some tlme perlod and spatlal scale e g m RraPrQQ ESM 203 Lecture 19 Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior How should we insert values in or interpret results 0 C in the light of what B7 e understand in A and express In How should we insert values in or interpret results of C in the light of what Use and interpretation of analytical models of watershed behavior e understand in A and express in B Well on ee nine what is going onere in the watershed when x changes to Y Watershed functions are driven by runoff processes which vary geographically In this context runoff means the processes by which water travels to a stream channel Watershed functions Collection of water and transported materials Storage attenuates response to temporally discrete inputs Floodplain storage of water sediment pollutants Conveyance attenuates response to spatially discrete inputs Discharge Transport Assembly of sediments into landforms that are exploited as habitat for plants or animals Watershed functions Runoff processes supply water and transported materials into channels The channels and valley floors temporarily store these substances as they move downvalley This channel and valleyfloor storage acts like a reservoir to dampen the response making the waves or pulses of input later and more diffuse Asm sue mum Wa evshed ncveases me stuvage and dampmg mum mHs upe vespunse bym channeWaHey uuv mcyeases m smaH wamsheusm mHs upe pvucesses dumma e me hydvu ugma vespunse Thevemvethe cundmmv mum Wa evshed SUNace cunums hydvu ugma vespunse Watevshed su ace a emed by namva and anmyupugemcpymssesoe andmanagemem m Wavge watevsheds hydvu ugma vespunse s dummated byvaHeyr uuv s1uvage pvucesses Tevmmumw sounmwu mm mm mm mam mm mam m ESM 2m Runoff m the Waer Ba ance ESM 203 mum zwmmenadmn mum a men h 31L r Mmcmnav f E 1 E w mm 5mm mmmmm ba ance Wm mm mm m mam 0mm ahamzane Vegetation change and waleryield mom auev davkevvaue auun Yamvs canupv WevcEmmn uham m snuW and evapmvanspwauun ESM m3 quotmes R39 7E nadvenem mampmatmn muuuh Meava 12 m Mmmanun mmwmshes E anmmmve moveasesR manned vmatmna c eannmuvvmevwe d managemem Vegetation change and water yield results of paired watershed experiments nl1wln m L39 lint 4 tum u L Tree removal and increases in water yield R in a Douglas fir forest in Oregon results of paired watershed experiments Harr 1983 Rt mm 308 009Pt mm 18t yr E g for P annual precipitation of 3000 mmyr 560 mm extra after year 1 398 after 10 year 10 218 mm after year 20 Vegetation change and water yield in Eastern hardwood forests results of paired watershed experiments Douglas 1983 0 145 AR1z39n0022 M S Durationofincreaseyr 15 7AR1 ARiz39nAR1 blogz39yr Runoff pathways determine the partitioning of total R into overland and subsurface flow and that makes all the difference to the functioning of a watershed Precipitation There s a maxwum rate atwmch a and surface m a gwen undmun can acceptwater Tms rmwmum vate s caHedme m malmn EapacW n mahuncapamwsmemawmumvalea wmcha sun can absuvb vawau n 5012 kw cumvu an panmumng mam mm su ace and sunsmace cw paths mnmauun capacw memesexpunemauvmmugha vams1uvm eratmn apamtyw dechnes Expunemawmruugh ramsturm asume ursuH mmsmre Bantam ufsuH surface a mcrease A E E Hunun menanunw s ueneva edmen vawmaH mensw exceedsme wmvanun capacw mm sun Ana yuca theory of nmtrauon rate V mmmmm Davcv s LEWIESM ZUS39J quotmes 3 W I H emu Menu 1 mmquot WM hygmd mofelevmun Mm rxcwu b39 mmde Frauwre 7 w themsenmemcemdhe Mmrmmmm CHM x mm Ymmpenarszm im 9mm ammexy GreenAmpi derivation HzLw pg 2H a mum K9E Kquota 7 7 7K99 GreenAmpi derivation EJPNWWJ minle 3 A I Ft Ann W 7x0 plho mmgfmnlallml m mzlwn up to am TX pmm4 mew wam mm mm 7 mml mm zonmnl ofm GreenAmpt derivation K 9 K Pg Ft The in maiiun capacnv decveasesimuuumime asihewemng 1mm peneuaiesme Sui eeueasmeme messne madieni batman me mace andihe wemnmmm Controls on infiltration capacity mainly effective hydraulic conductivity Km Population of pore sizes micro to macro and therefore texture structure biotic activity organic content etc Blocking of pores by frost Vegetation coverlittersoil macrofaunamacropores Root zone collapse burning trampling traffic Surface crusting especially in silty soils Lemon groves in Goleta Nabateanlsraeli runoff farming by removing stones Asphalt Antecedent moisture of the soil previous rainfall pattern affects rate of convergence of f on K sat Honon overland flow J f Horton overland flw quot Augmentation of irregular sheet of overland flow Surface detention Depth and velocity of overland ow increase downslope Y Depression storage depth of depressions greatly exaggerated Stream channel Spnnkhn mmmem Sedwmk Reserve Mm m civznv mm mmmm me Spurmmu m mumelev m Weaem Armzun vawmme wmvauun capamlv 18Um Sp nwng nmtrometer m 107w 0 d pasture Centra Amazoma In ltration capacity of soil mmlhr Pores Pasmre Cama Amazun MB 98 Ms un Ternary 156 m5 sad mentary racks 181 an W Amazun unduma 146 41 Ms un Precambnan 13 mcks Measurement or esumauon of mmuauon capacm Mummvmgmmnn and Suwbasedeshmales um vamVaHvatesunp ms handbuuksandsu suww 12pm my cahbvaled thndevmmmmelev agammumpmeuam measure vun Spnnkhnmmmmmelev smmavevagmamw V suammmmm mm rum s1uvmvamvau ustma mm mmquot mm mi ggg gm mm m mmquot m emu Mervst 1m SmaH basms S urm vevaued m can 0 wax stnevumme new uhawmaHrtne vumme damn uhunu mwded bvduvahunufsnadedavea Horton ovenand ow environments Lowmmtrauon andsca e SparSe vegetauon dayrnch 50H Sparse yvegaated uwmmtranun andscape Wmquot cam mummyquot MED mmmvmvsmam a1mwmw mm MSWva canmash MSHeens1m C eaku umhveme wuumanu and han mazm mummy pumaan ouncemvauun m own way m N Kama veduces vmnvalmn capamlv and mHsmpe vuuuhness Reducmuvegetauun cuvev veduces mnmauun EapacW and mHsmpe mughness Bush dea ng for agmcu ture E Kenya Tum umegelaledmmespu shae wm mauun capacmes Luggmg mam W Wasmngmn O ympm Mts mmtrauun capamw1 mmhr mpemuus uman mace vemacmgmemu suHS mu Changes to infiltration capacity surface roughness and slope length increase and accelerate overland flow in urban areas lmpervious cover is inversely proportional to lot size pawn g a E 393 BE 5 E parvi m Runoff pathways Precipitation Steep shallow forested soil over volcanic rocks Japanese Alps generates shallow subsurface flow throughflowlinterflow Island arc environment in wet climate 13 ammup m saluvauun and pave messme m OvegunCuaa Range DEEp permeame vmcam ash Aberdare Mts eas1em ank er Rm VaHEy Kenya DEEp y permea ME Verde cmmauu we fractured sandstune Gmunewaeremergwgrrem fractures m bedmck pruduce hanne s by seepage Emsmn eunng snmvme t Vermum Emergmg gruundwaterm was me tseasun Vermum mtemuw Gmund waeremergmg m deep gumes m a andscape mm deep permeabhe suHs s E Bram ntenmw exm a1 samrauun avenanu aw un pans ur andscapes V min and wrest prempnanun genera e Samranun uvenand w Vermunt Seasunawanatmnuf semaan uvenand aw un uwpevmeammv E ama mu Vevmum Macmpuve w Subsu ace uw muuuh quotacmvesm mumch sun cemva Camuvmacua Verticairissures in SEIH uh yuicahi ashi N Tanzania unset pr heavy grazmg Gtu pmduced pytuhhei erusiuh arter remuyai pr wuudiahd and N Tanzama apprux 19601982 Scheman summary pr uhtrpis uh ruhurr pathways F ELMA IEVLEVAHM MN is sighihcahce ot runoff processes pathways for ooding erosion and particutate transport Forunderstanding ood ninovriseeiater on in odeiing of watershed runom For understanding eroslon and contaminant sources and transport rrneretore need for a spatially registered eldbased appreciation ESM 203 Erosion of Continental Surfaces Jeff Dozier amp Tom Dunne Fall 2007 Soils erode Weathering has severely weakened the rock material as the soil is Soils are granular mobile and subject to gravity on hillslopes They can be moved by several processes They enter rivers and are transported long distances am d ownstre The conditions that mobilize soils erosion can be strongly affected by management They can also be natural beyond human control Fate of soil The existence amount depth physical chemical and biological condition of soil pro les are subject to changes in environmental conditions land management including socioeconomic conditions rapacity poverty disease efuel policy e c Soil profiles are differentiated into horizons that have various functions root space water and nutrient storage that sustain chemicals are migrating O 90 Z a o 139 us and solutes e g nitrates cations That migration and o ge processes can be the biosphereincluding us A A0 Mineral horizon with some organic matter Al Leached most organic and clay and B Accumulation orclays oxides and solutes c Unconsolidated earthy disturbed but little orno bioturbation soil tunctions see ESM 202 While We retreat to the safety of physical ses D Parent material with little or no weathering Pvume M 5m and weamenng bedvuck 80H depth 5 the product ofthe mass ba ance of so formauon and remova werume T Wand En mm Ems Perunnam w mm Mass ba ance of so formauon overume AW mewsmnc mdecamvasmammame MW mmmmuss 1 Emanmwe wwca m mm mm mimemT w mum um deevsm warm mmm hm mural and and mmquot m mam Mass batance of so formatton overume A WM Wmquot Wm m we avdecamvosman mam Mm mmmmuss 2 Mmmtam um um myth 5m New 50 NW MN mm m hmquot mvhemsa meE warm vow aw m m beans 5 mummy ansa e Wm when Say mm a on 5mm nmvew my manvmmevab m Pumawnnweameved mam WWWmm Wk ctavm oz Mass batance of so formatton overume A W mquot Wm m we avdecamvosman mam MW mmmmuss Vt my deme momquot comm an my stapes pm M1 am amt 5mm sud has m Dwsmmvmdm mm bedmw 19mm etooat generahzauons about eroston rates and seotment Supphes to mom Set by male tectomcs 7 patterns of rock propemes and topography Acttve votcamsm an tmportant acceterant Recent penurbauon by gtactatton Effects ofhumans Erosion processes A m min may v ammo W v unan i v ChmaleVEgelatmn anduse Erosion processes 5mm 0mm sum my aichmalevagetalmn andu Subhumwd hm vegetatwon ow mmtranon capacny ofsoHs RaMow Wash E my m nmmwm mm mm m Wm WWW Subhumwd hm v ufs 5 Can u MW 9Wpr V 5mm H mm myqu Mimi 7 W m WWW cmmmwamm Mass Wastmg Namm andsthsdebns shdes underfurest Mass Wastmg mggereu byweakemng uftree mats nywuume ur uggmg Landsthsdebns shdes Adueumuens muumamvanges Renew uescnmmn muck mpugvaPW and emsmn PvucessesmLecmvesM m WWW m W v mm M i v C xmmemgetmmrmanduse Lung steep mHs upEs a ung amve y dwncumng Wars very arge natura andsthsruckshdes am 5 Ewes mm mm me an mm mm mew as Wm 3m Mes mmquot cam mummyquot MED mmmvmvsmam a1mwmw mm mmwemm MSHeens1m Aeuve and recenny acme vuanues a su supmy arge ameums er semmenue Wars cunem and eemuemaw vecem mamauuns evaded ame armumsuhuck umme nunhem cummems and muumam vaneesa dEpusnem mehm Nweakdebnsm sunuun mmemuns CLIMA he Last Glacial Maximum F v Examp e excepuunav semmemsuurce Luess P ateau mme YEHW R basm Anthropogenically accelerated erosion Mostforms of resource use acce erate 50H eroswon Effectvames dramaucaHyfrom p aceto mace EspecmHy m propomon to natura rates Magmtude of mpact and uuhty of conservauon therefore debaed Erosion d st 339 ization ofwind blown silt an a deposits Ioess in Shaanxi ProvChina Wand an and cszo Sedwmem re ease by mmmg on a Steep mechamcaHy Weak Wet convergem mate margm Papua New Gmnea meme Cemencma mp meeysane avgsmerwmem mm ubhurmd vege 5 won egra e Eneusmmmmmm mspusamnOkTem and w My cumvauon or gramg strong acce erauon of ram owwas mensmed W smile and smace dw uvbance PapuaNeWGumea Wm Dem m nmxwmwwm Humwd veg tam verdegraded am mmtranuncapacwursuus Ram m Wash mg n x m w mm mm Humm veuelahun cuvev uemauew hm wmvauun capamlv mm Ramr uwwash 5mm thuxm9me9gxu xuxmn wnwwemmamcleivmv Effects of erosion Reduces depth and sometimes lifespan of soil reduction of rooting depth and waterholding capacity Wash selectively removes the finer and lighter components of soil clays and organic matter chemically active portion Many toxic pollutants stored on fine sediment Hg pesticides etc Degrades aquatic habitat through turbidity and sedimentation feeding and spawning conditions Creates turbidity problems in water supplies Effects of erosion Fills reservoirs reducing their economic value for storing watersupplies and floods Fills navigable waterways requiring dredging But when we reduce high rates of erosion rivers can become sediment starved and begin to incise their beds and create other ecological and engineering problems Mississippi delta European Alps Measurement of erosion Measure loads of sediment nyr in rivers US Geological Survey wwwusgsgov Sample sediment concentration MgL and multiply by ow rate Lsec omputation of average soil loss rates from hislope C sites kghalyr Sampling problem many diverse hillslopes Rely on computationswith statistical models Universal Soil Loss Equation USLE A RKCLSP A average soil loss rate kgha R erosivity kinetic energy of rainfall K erodibility of soil C vegetation cover factor L length of slope eld factor S slope P management practice factor All terms on right looked up in handbooks based on measurements or estimates made by ag engineerssoil technICIans Controversy about is universality and precision A planning tool ratherthan absolute measure USLE or some similar derivative index isvery widely applied in land managemen USLE apphed m Kenya un basws u ueax datafur esumanun urme mpactuf mamma pmductmn J in h v Tolerable Soil Loss T EshmaleT ummdapendemwmence Thenset SP m USLE Gwenmevactuvsvuucan tchangE mampmalecandP tuWkeepmgAT Thuuehwmewappheu nmeusnmscuncep uvns verv vaguew de ned and new ueVenueu 1mm empmeax Wuvmauun usugwmewusemnmanmnu Examp e of use of USLE as a p anmng 00 Hm much muease M 5m emsmn and assume ed chemmax vmev puuuuun shumd we expeu nmamma cmmandsma ham been vemed 1m uecauesm veduce sun emsmn ave cumvaled aeamm muducE evammv emanuw The Erosion Conundrum Su emswun s d cumu uuamW and espemaw m memct Because mums 01212 53 mam cumvuvarw uvev Whethev N sbemu accuvatEN e wmaled uv exaquvated seeWatemhedAna vswsand heTnmmeeta anmesm the cuuvse ma a Thecumvwevwhasmmvpuhwmphcalmnsabumme demee tuwmch suH cunsewatmn shuum be suusulzeu ESM 203 Climate Change Observations 11292007 Ability to explain Longterm trends in global climate 3 Spatial variability in climate 0 Response to shortterm forcing Paleoclimatology and historical climatology 0 Record of past changes ESM 203 Climate change observations mm WWW ring nuaa guvmggimagEcrustagepustenpg unnurnnhlr varmrlnnc In cnlar rarlmrlnnywhmh are caused by orbital variations 11292007 Aul um Al l l Will A39I My illll l l l l il llilil Allllllllll39il lilquot ll ll l l my Jul 9 Wm n 2 D39EM39W l Kyr cycle dominated l5Z5 million years ago u a n 00 Kyr cycle dominated in last million years RAMullerampGJMacDonald 3 1 it ForcingScienceZ7ZZ5Z8July Jll 997 GlacialC cles andAstronomical l I l y rquot i ii iii ll l l i l i l l qlr l i l i There is also a IOO 39ation in the gt NOW 3 as 3 a i a a a of the ecliptic 0 Precession period ZlZ3 kyr date of per helion cycles through calendar ESM 203 Climate change observations JimIL A 3 quotWVquot quot Y P U ClarkR B A11eyamp I ll u iillinl Pollard Nonhem He isghere 11041111NOV 5 1999 AVariability at suborbital scale Ice sheets easily owed on so bed were thin thus coveredlarge area 11292007 9A J a I p l A a m SELL swam F Vostok DH ratio Antarctic temperature Increase in 5 5N shows ra id D CO2 in the Vostok core P 0 Deep ocean temperature and temperature Change amplitud in mm a V V J ii 3 02 are In phase With IOO Kyr 0 Increase In CH4 lagged 2050 WA V V ny V 5 cycle h I 1 T ears I l l i 0 Ice volume and Antarctic y V V r 1 I 3 temperature affected stroneg by 5 Thus warming Started in 3 r r cycles i N l ShackletonThe loo OOOYear ice Age Cycle identi ed and Found to a La Tem erature Carbon Dioxide i and Orbital Eccentricity Science 289 b I CH f I g law I902 September Is 2000 e 39eve 4 mm trOPquota a w W igu amz v wetlands quotminnow l mum V 000 and 20000 years ago m I North Lupp DansgaardOeschger events Hudson szer Accompanied by changes in Santa Barbara Channel sediments Routing Kennett Switch 0 0 Heinrich events Short cold periods El6 C colder As quotYounger Dryas event 2900I 500 years ago ended atmospheric methane increase J JSIJN O Q 222 2a clot4523 VIEW 733w forcimzofL quot L 439 L39 I Science I3 luly 200 ESM 203 Climate change observations 3 11292007 YDAL 2E 3 Planktonic AHC showing decline in u g 5 formation of North Atlantic Deep mm its to 9 6 Ml Water 0 Freeing methane trapped in hydrates formed at low Increased re ectance of temperature high pressure sediments indicating stronger But 2 problems Tradewm ls 0 Getting the medaane through due water column I as c Change from forest to grasslands in u 2539 Venezuela E 25 an Hughen et altAbrupt tropical mm mm mm mm mm man 1321 cmvww vegetation response to rapid Dickens review of Kennett et al Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate ChangezThe WEE SCience 20 May Clathrate Gun Hypmhesis 2004 T J Crowley Causes of i Climate Change Over the MarineGevIus BiodiverSIty I Past 1000 Yams Science Extlnctlon lntensnty 289 270271me 14 2000 Nan K J Tr Fl t39 1 ti 4 g the hockey stick Miedeval Warm Period from 10001300 173911 Century coldi Little Ice Age early 193911 century also cold Crowley explains the E M 1 x l variability as caused by M quot volcanoes solar 39abi 39 y greenhouse gases ml 39 L 39 1 39 3 K in l httpenwikigediaprgwikiClathrate Gun Hypothesis ESM 203 Climate change observations 11292007 I m 1 A 39 Warming variable by location I Regional changes in precipitation I IO to 25 cm sea level changes 0 Glacial melting ocean expansion 0 Measurements difficult because of isostatic rebound c lavluixhull 10x0 1900 1020 1940 1010 WHO Yen From Global Chan e Electronic Edition Top rate of sea level rise showing recent acceleration Bottomzsea level V A V 39 V k 0 at I990 l l Sea Level 1cm 8n 5410 1 H quotI 39 r I n 9 r 0 030 l 1 1 l 5 ND 9 ay W 9 5 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 am Emmaquot cum madman mm 5 Rahmstorf Science 315 365 370 2007 Published byAAAS ESM 203 Climate change observations an akin lawtn Al N u Ian ia n lr n Anna InnaIquot or transitions between ice ages and warm periods Precipitation pattern changes show different trends 11292007 data arnuired between I958 and I976 indicates that the mean ice draft at the end of the melt season has decreased by about 3 m in most of the deep water portion of the Arctic Ocean from 3 m in I958I976 to LB m in the I990squot Rothrock et al Geophysical Research Letters26 I5 December 0 An ImlIIIIrlllirul39rl 39l Science 286 537 540 Nov I9 I999 Observations of rain and NDVI greenness Primitive climate model with xed soil moisture Model with soil moisture iability Model with soil moisture and interactive vegetation ESM 203 Climate change observations O Batman mum Dayseavhar mm em 1mm Less snow Earlier melt Service R F As the West goes dI39V Science 20 Feb 2004 ESM 203 Erosion of Continental Surfaces Jeff Dozier amp Tom Dunne Fall 2007 Soils erode Weathering has severely weakened the rock material as the soil is Soils are granular mobile and subject to gravity on hillslopes They can be moved by several processes They enter rivers and are transported long distances am d ownstre The conditions that mobilize soils erosion can be strongly affected by management They can also be natural beyond human control Fate of soil The existence amount depth physical chemical and biological condition of soil pro les are subject to changes in environmental conditions land management including socioeconomic conditions rapacity poverty disease efuel policy e c Soil profiles are differentiated into horizons that have various functions root space water and nutrient storage that sustain chemicals are migrating O 90 Z a o 139 us and solutes e g nitrates cations That migration and o ge processes can be the biosphereincluding us A A0 Mineral horizon with some organic matter Al Leached most organic and clay and B Accumulation orclays oxides and solutes c Unconsolidated earthy disturbed but little orno bioturbation soil tunctions see ESM 202 While We retreat to the safety of physical ses D Parent material with little or no weathering Pvume M 5m and weamenng bedvuck 80H depth 5 the product ofthe mass ba ance of so formauon and remova werume T Wand En mm Ems Perunnam w mm Mass ba ance of so formauon overume AW mewsmnc mdecamvasmammame MW mmmmuss 1 Emanmwe wwca m mm mm mimemT w mum um deevsm warm mmm hm mural and and mmquot m mam Mass batance of so formatton overume A WM Wmquot Wm m we avdecamvosman mam Mm mmmmuss 2 Mmmtam um um myth 5m New 50 NW MN mm m hmquot mvhemsa meE warm vow aw m m beans 5 mummy ansa e Wm when Say mm a on 5mm nmvew my manvmmevab m Pumawnnweameved mam WWWmm Wk ctavm oz Mass batance of so formatton overume A W mquot Wm m we avdecamvosman mam MW mmmmuss Vt my deme momquot comm an my stapes pm M1 am amt 5mm sud has m Dwsmmvmdm mm bedmw 19mm etooat generahzauons about eroston rates and seotment Supphes to mom Set by male tectomcs 7 patterns of rock propemes and topography Acttve votcamsm an tmportant acceterant Recent penurbauon by gtactatton Effects ofhumans Erosion processes A m min may v ammo W v unan i v ChmaleVEgelatmn anduse Erosion processes 5mm 0mm sum my aichmalevagetalmn andu Subhumwd hm vegetatwon ow mmtranon capacny ofsoHs RaMow Wash E my m nmmwm mm mm m Wm WWW Subhumwd hm v ufs 5 Can u MW 9Wpr V 5mm H mm myqu Mimi 7 W m WWW cmmmwamm Mass Wastmg Namm andsthsdebns shdes underfurest Mass Wastmg mggereu byweakemng uftree mats nywuume ur uggmg Landsthsdebns shdes Adueumuens muumamvanges Renew uescnmmn muck mpugvaPW and emsmn PvucessesmLecmvesM m WWW m W v mm M i v C xmmemgetmmrmanduse Lung steep mHs upEs a ung amve y dwncumng Wars very arge natura andsthsruckshdes am 5 Ewes mm mm me an mm mm mew as Wm 3m Mes mmquot cam mummyquot MED mmmvmvsmam a1mwmw mm mmwemm MSHeens1m Aeuve and recenny acme vuanues a su supmy arge ameums er semmenue Wars cunem and eemuemaw vecem mamauuns evaded ame armumsuhuck umme nunhem cummems and muumam vaneesa dEpusnem mehm Nweakdebnsm sunuun mmemuns CLIMA he Last Glacial Maximum F v Examp e excepuunav semmemsuurce Luess P ateau mme YEHW R basm Anthropogenically accelerated erosion Mostforms of resource use acce erate 50H eroswon Effectvames dramaucaHyfrom p aceto mace EspecmHy m propomon to natura rates Magmtude of mpact and uuhty of conservauon therefore debaed Erosion d st 339 ization ofwind blown silt an a deposits Ioess in Shaanxi ProvChina Wand an and cszo Sedwmem re ease by mmmg on a Steep mechamcaHy Weak Wet convergem mate margm Papua New Gmnea meme Cemencma mp meeysane avgsmerwmem mm ubhurmd vege 5 won egra e Eneusmmmmmm mspusamnOkTem and w My cumvauon or gramg strong acce erauon of ram owwas mensmed W smile and smace dw uvbance PapuaNeWGumea Wm Dem m nmxwmwwm Humwd veg tam verdegraded am mmtranuncapacwursuus Ram m Wash mg n x m w mm mm Humm veuelahun cuvev uemauew hm wmvauun capamlv mm Ramr uwwash 5mm thuxm9me9gxu xuxmn wnwwemmamcleivmv Effects of erosion Reduces depth and sometimes lifespan of soil reduction of rooting depth and waterholding capacity Wash selectively removes the finer and lighter components of soil clays and organic matter chemically active portion Many toxic pollutants stored on fine sediment Hg pesticides etc Degrades aquatic habitat through turbidity and sedimentation feeding and spawning conditions Creates turbidity problems in water supplies Effects of erosion Fills reservoirs reducing their economic value for storing watersupplies and floods Fills navigable waterways requiring dredging But when we reduce high rates of erosion rivers can become sediment starved and begin to incise their beds and create other ecological and engineering problems Mississippi delta European Alps Measurement of erosion Measure loads of sediment nyr in rivers US Geological Survey wwwusgsgov Sample sediment concentration MgL and multiply by ow rate Lsec omputation of average soil loss rates from hislope C sites kghalyr Sampling problem many diverse hillslopes Rely on computationswith statistical models Universal Soil Loss Equation USLE A RKCLSP A average soil loss rate kgha R erosivity kinetic energy of rainfall K erodibility of soil C vegetation cover factor L length of slope eld factor S slope P management practice factor All terms on right looked up in handbooks based on measurements or estimates made by ag engineerssoil technICIans Controversy about is universality and precision A planning tool ratherthan absolute measure USLE or some similar derivative index isvery widely applied in land managemen USLE apphed m Kenya un basws u ueax datafur esumanun urme mpactuf mamma pmductmn J in h v Tolerable Soil Loss T EshmaleT ummdapendemwmence Thenset SP m USLE Gwenmevactuvsvuucan tchangE mampmalecandP tuWkeepmgAT Thuuehwmewappheu nmeusnmscuncep uvns verv vaguew de ned and new ueVenueu 1mm empmeax Wuvmauun usugwmewusemnmanmnu Examp e of use of USLE as a p anmng 00 Hm much muease M 5m emsmn and assume ed chemmax vmev puuuuun shumd we expeu nmamma cmmandsma ham been vemed 1m uecauesm veduce sun emsmn ave cumvaled aeamm muducE evammv emanuw The Erosion Conundrum Su emswun s d cumu uuamW and espemaw m memct Because mums 01212 53 mam cumvuvarw uvev Whethev N sbemu accuvatEN e wmaled uv exaquvated seeWatemhedAna vswsand heTnmmeeta anmesm the cuuvse ma a Thecumvwevwhasmmvpuhwmphcalmnsabumme demee tuwmch suH cunsewatmn shuum be suusulzeu 10202005 Water and ener balance ofa ve etated Fluxes between stores note that the soquot By f 669 covered land sur a ocean area l5 about thCe the land area FltM 9111 I 39 39 W cmyv NM 5 E 4 I eEhAat Enfadriya Burr Pleclpllallun DMD DEEan m7 cmyv wuem lam HE mass Warm Water and energy balance of a vegetated soil pwmmquot W W 74 my equatmn mrwater ls vapuva e l he 49 cmyv PE wWwMzhavge R unu lmrn land 25 cmyv SM l5 the WatErEDntEnt Jeff DOZler amp Torn Dunne Fall 2007 oftne SEIll Ovevlhe ucean E gt P Ovev lane P gt E Suggeasthatthe sluvage ulwalev eh Unlts are m3m2xt or he at e uep hthhe e g mmo mam an 5 me e e evapuvallun so that some etthe pveclpllaledWalev escapes evapuvallun and sunNesta Hm emhe eehthehts as slveaml luw R Water and energy balance ofa vegetated Suppose And then suppose soilcovered land surface I Fur some At E da or I We eah measure or predlct P depth orvolumearea 39 The 50 55 5 Wed WWWquot water mm m a Enfareya Dr pertlme WWW CSDSC W land he mass balance 7 equatan turwater l5 We eah predlctQulckFow e g asa framon ufP Sme DX 9 w re DlS me rootan zone depth m and 5 935 the held capaclty of the sell mlm n 5 on SOll texture We eah predlctEdeptn orvolurnearea pertlrne PEWtkfbwRuhwge l SM l5 HE Water EDHIEHI Ralnfall tnatdoesnot run away eulew overorunder Tnus SMquot has dlmenSlOnS of m mlm2 We 5 the surface and l het lrnrnedlately evaporated of land surface Umts are mJmzxm ur enters the sol uep hthhe e g mmo mw ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle landatmosphere interactions 1 And that I Soil moisture content SM m3m2 varies each day a result o the accounting ASAI P7 E 7 chkFluwi DelayedFluw M I If SM rises to SMmax excess water draining from the soil recharges the ground water store which a vo ume per unit area Le a dep h Vthat also changes eac 1 0202005 We need three values for this accounting I The waterholding capacity field capacity of the soil profile BIC I The root zone depth D for SMmaX D x 610 The evapotranspiration rate E Soil particles and soil pores I Soils consist of par icles wi h a ran e of size from clay to gravel Between the particles are irregularshaped conduits called pores I The diameter of the pores is rough y propor ional to the sizes of the particles pores in sand gt pores in silt Water holding capacity of soil or sponge I Soil contains pores of differing sizes cm to Frquot Experiment in the bathtub to understand the waterholding capacity of a soil 1 Get into the bathtub Experiment in the bathtub to understand the waterholding capacity of a soil 2 Squeeze a sponge underwater release pressure so that sponge is saturated and place it on belly ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle land atmosphere interactions 10202005 Experiment In the bathtub to understand the Experiment In the bathtub to understand the Watermelding capacity of so or Sponge waterholding capacity of a soil waterholding capacity ofa soil 4 Eventually no more water ows out ofthe sponge I Soil contains pores of bxgueany record he me 3 WhICh wa er ows om orme under gravity despite he fact that here is water in the d ering sizes cm to sponge The sponge soil has attained a constant water pm content I As in a sponge each Some force is holding the water inside the soil 5 quot Pore faws in against the force of gravity at his lower water content Wat is If It were a capillary tube The sponge39s water content has reached its eld capacity 33339 b OWIQW rate Time 1 Water is drawn into narrow spaces by the icapmary force Waterholding capacity of soil or sponge Water in soil pores I The capillary force I Soil contains pores of arises because ofthe di 39erirlg Sizes cm to presence of curved air I m water interf I As in a sponge each aces menisci inside me soil pore draws in water tubes as if it were a capillary tube I The capillary force u The suction negative 1 suc ion is greater in pressure holding narrower tubes water in a 39 narrower pores and he inversely proportional narrower parts of pores to the pore diameter ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle landatmosphere interactions 3 10202005 Soil water content and suction As seu dries the menisci retreat mm namuer parts at pares the Suctiun unthe remalrllrlg r inthE necks er peres increa theirrauii Ecrease As seu becumEs WettEr iargerpures rm and the suctan lnthEm ueerease When all puresare lled saummn there are nu amatev intervenes a the suctiun lSZEVu When the suctiun increases tu me 3 a musphe es 122 drainage under gravity almus1 ceases Cneu many 5 1m enW min SM Whenthe suctiunincreasestu suil cwmmu mumquot Soil texture affects water holding capacity DinErEncE between hululng capacity AWC So we could compute all the components of the water budget ofthe surface soil and g ound water FursumeAl e e dart my land the mass balance euuatiunturwaler is P EWl ow Ruharga Wisthemtercumemm the undemmund s1me aui urumundwatEVJ Unns are quotamt m depthWm e e rnrm We still need to evaluate evapotranspiration E irwe eeuiu Evaluate Ewe eeuiu use the cuntinuity e We eeuiu accuuntfurthe lanusatmusphere lmeractlun including anyraetersuen as vegetatiun typethatrnight aneet it Els Extremely difficulttu measure dire iyfuriung Phase changetu vapur requires an input erz EXlEI ukg The energy balance equation ux per unit area W m4 applied to a surface 17 me E HLG Hearstuuuumm m issu acetuatrmsphem tiatemueanans1evm Eur a water u net cundensmu 0 is cunwevtuve B at AWNquot evaputvanspwauum 7 l5 muauieaumes n12 cundEnsallDquot grassland u w 6 5mm u H B Ghealcunductedintusuil Feuwmvamimmeu radialiun dependsun tempeatuve mewapuv ESZSu aceemissWW andcluu s o Stelaanuttzrmnn rs sunacetermevatuve stam 5 B7xl wvnr7Kquot ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle landatmosphere interactions 10202005 Convert latent heat ux into mass ux of End39member S39mamns rm day r m mhi 5 MODIS Maximum Land Surface water 5 H L Temperatures 33 11735333 Wateriess pianet ur miusanara per weenive L g pm H Wm Um s k Eki Yheeneiwmquiiedia in L minim wime Mi ucean ermieecwgu m E evens H u wind and undermng ware nave name We My were We eiemeei merma equilibrium Werequot ieniieemrx enevaeeweee Peer repereeweiemiem Wmm39mm V m L 1r H swmmmukv mwmmwwm M051 pieces are intermediate e mquot 39 J2 ni quotriiquotii 5r ii Neuieniieeimeemem a xm kaquot 5 M new e er 2mm a M EDsAeumns S71Ep xv 46 467 More general basic principle Estimation of each energy component Estimation of energy components cont 1 a HLG Seweieemewm e e we W pizess darnen bymmuieneenem m SEIH neamuw G quot Wquot Netrauiatiun PM drives nesum ufsensibie H and T J u r H e gap T5 iatent L neat aenange With the atmuspnere and 3 KG 5 r M neamuw mm uruur suii G A2 7 e e nuimaiiy smaii 50H tauperaure a depm AZ 7 minimum kvquotdevquot Temperatuie vapui pressure and em muistuie we determine how we paniiiuneu between H and r KG rmem WCWW d 50 u o T mme Dquot n quotrename meme the magnitude mthetempeiaiuiegiauiemvs the V quot39 5 quotV 39 vapuipvessuie giadienta meme sunace 5 pquot quotn5m mspeea muwmess the rate aiwmch the almuspheie mine buunuary iavei mums renew ememeswmienesm mm mewereemeeenee ESM 203 Hydrologio cycle landatmosphere interactions 10202005 Estimation of energy components Estimation of energy components Estimation of sensible heat transfer c c from surface 39 Later heal flux L l Instead of using a diffusivity K a measure qs qa of how easily heat or water vapor are H T 7 L Pa vKt Ah transported away from the surface pact r a p air density I We can use the inverse of diffusivity which is a the resistance to transport 5 Tis the difference between the surface erature A latent heat of vaporization I 15 Ta A temperature and air temp qsiqa speci c hqm39d39ty 3 su39facel 3quot 3 he39ght Ah I ra is the aerodynamic resistance ofthe surface KL eddy dlfoSIV39ty for water Vapor I Depends on wind speed roughness atmospheric stability depends on wind speed roughness 39 quot K Ah IS Jeff39s1r2 and atmospheric stability cgndmmels meme resistance Estimation of latent heat transfer from surface ie evaporationevapotranspiration Extreme cases for day or monthl 6 0 Penman 1948 1v 8 T 7 e no H depend on closely related quantities Wind speed suriace L p roughness atmospheric stability 1g gj TSTil a P 3921 rc Waterless Earth L 0 50 RM H Therefore neexpressedllinteniis ofL andtnus derived EsR 1Kp u rt 1 Midocean or midCongo H 0 so Rm L p H l e39ngeg oirrerenee between saturation vapor pressure or a R W The full form of the relationship IS dedicated student surraee at r and tne vapor pressure ufthe air and E De alumni Phys Hydrologyquot by L Dmgmm V p l P atrnospneriepressure Mo 1 l r aeroovnarnie resistance overtne surraee Um quotE are quot93quotquot Pemmel39quot 5 i r39quot39quotquot39 Mh Depends on Wind speed ruughness atrnospnerie stapilitv aggri gme iuncaon relating saturation vapor pressureto y psycnoiii etnc constant toss rubdeg Kt from Evaporation lecture I re resistance to vapor muvementfrum vvtnin tne stornates or eanopvleaves 2 ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle landatmosphere interactions 10202005 Saturation vapor pressure m T E t r E E I Potential evapolranspiralion Eduatrons t ke Penman S assume tnattne yegetated surface r e rnsrde or tne teat stornates tne 50M and water oodres rs Wet treety eyaporatrng wrtnout protrcauy rrnposed restnctron sucn as pamaHy dosed stornates We caH Ecomputed tor tnrs condrtron tne Potentrat Eyapotransprratron PE Converting Potential Evapotranspiration to Actual Evapotranspiration Yo mmtammr eviyo ransyrrz mMPEto ac uilevi o ran rri mn vast We modu alelhe VE by amnamntha d vendsunthe Wanna canammtnasan 1 A15 0 9m PE 395 402 9 M so mm urecomem anara Davact y an M n Wanna Men at wmng pant mx mu 80H texture u lawtare many quotmayquot AWE Conversion from PE to AB The SH 1 E runctrunrdependsun m h H m ex e E a J L umpute rnorsture content or root zone by a Ruutzune rnursture rs 5r Monteith 1965 Montert 1965 e prougnt ptant pnysrotogy rnto tne tand atmosphere rnteractron rnodet by rnctudrng a canopy conductance term Km ans new conductance represents tne ease rtn wnrcn Wateryaporcan escape trorn teat stornates and 5H tne teayes rn tne canopy I Thug he attered Penman s equauon to K1 K5 x E qyIW71 ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle landatmosphere interactions 10202005 PenmanMonteith equation 756 in Dingman The variables for potentIal evapotransplratlon I Java code to calculate this is available at in hj39zxmge t IMMMiel39me acuklcw2hlec8 m10htm quot n m a m SR p C K de T 7e A slope ufsalumuunmpurpressure curve d 7 m a a 5 a 11 KL 7 mam Emanuele pg eTSee p Awxy1i Wm RMA P 1r W p may L c wen chatufair alcunstanl pressure A y 1 Iz391salumuun Vapurpressure at mace tempEmlure I 7 a mpurpressurematmuspha e L NotethatDIngman uses 39 may 3 93quot and PE aerodynamic and canopy n canupwleaoresxsvznce fle conductancelnsteadof pquot Ensltyufwata39 W 1 A latent hat ufmpunmuun 5 PenmanMonteith Equation parameters Penman and Monteith Controls on canopy resistance KL or ra represent the conductance from the surface I Penman 1 into the atmosphere an depen s on su e K KW x LAI roughness and the stability ofthe atmosphere E sR zK gmjiu zLTel 2 I Kw or rc represents the conductance out ofthe PW 4 Iquot 7 I LA is he leaf area index of a vegetation cover stomates and canopy into the atmosp ere mzlmz As Kquot 9 or as c 90Ith I enmanMont ei h I Momeim N 1 graggland equa Ion ecomes e on Ina enman equa Ion N is as the canopy becomes in nitely conductivequot or E XR zK QWA u 21 I 5 dec duoug hardWOOdS m growmg Seagon as it provides no canopy resistance to vapor escape to P quotAlix g N 10 quotWW ra moregt he atmosphe a F e ple at n W lorsotemperate coniferous ralnforest he surface of leaves during and after rain quot I KW specie 9595 Ta 3 decreases from leaf surface to leaf stomate and as Th H h f H he soil becomes drier and the soil must exert greater I e we wequot or spec es as a range 0 3 ea a suction to draw water from the soil pores i V f ESM 203 Hydrologic cycle landatmosphere interactions