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by: N3koKikyu

Notes 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002

GPA 3.5
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)

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About this Document

10/20/15 and 10/22/15 notes enjoy
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002 at George Mason University taught by Keith D Renshaw (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Tuesday October 20 2015 Psychology 100 Language Communication vs language Structure and rules Sets us apart from most animals Phonological Development Babbling 46 months full range Semantic development 1 year Holophrases Vocabulary spurt around 2 years old Errors overextension gt you start to use a word to refer to more than it actually means Underextension gt narrow use of the word use it to refer to a very specific example Gramar Acquisition Telegraphic speech like text speech Errors Overregularization gt applying rules to words that don t apply lgoed to playground instead of go to playground LanguageThought which shapes which Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis gt our language affects how we think political correctness Other s say thought shapes our language gt Tuesday October 20 2015 tribe known as Dani look at color differentiation they can tell the difference but only have few words to describe them color has no relevance to themtheir culture Interaction Nature VS Nurture babbling is innate and initially similar environment then shapes development Critical Period of language development 39 07 815 Nature vs Nurture Nature is primary genes determine personality behavior ect Monozygotic gt Dizygotic Biological gtAdopted Nurture is primary Environment determines how we develop Monozygotic twins aren t identical Extreme examples Interaction Social Development Attachment gt bond between baby and caregivers see this by approximately 6 months of age Strange Situation 1 Stranger Enters 2 Mom Leaves Tuesday October 20 2015 o 3 Mom Returns Types 1 Secure gt mildly upset when Mom leaves not out of control happy to see Mom when she returns 2 Anxious Avoidant gt shows little to no reaction to Mom leaving 3 Anxious Ambivalent gt extreme upset baby is distressed kicking at the door 4 Disorganized gt Nature Temperament stable traits in infants child personality Easy babies slowtowarmup babies difficult babies Nurture Parental Responsiveness 0 Consistently responsive Consistently nonresponsive lnconsistently responsive Interaction combination of both Lifespan Development Theory Erik Erikson 8 stages Stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust 1st year of life is the world predictable and supportive Relates to attachment Stage 2 Autonomy vs ShameDoubt 12 or 3 years now asked to control actions am capable of doing things myself Stage 3 Initiative vs Guilt Tuesday October 20 2015 o 2 or 3 5 or 6 start exploring asserting self is it ok for me to do things independently Stage 4 Industry vs lnferiority 5 or 6 12 or 13 now asked to do things deemed worthwhile Am I competent Stage 5 Identity vs Role Confusion adolescence ages vary Who am I Stage 6 Intimacy vs Isolation 20s30s Do I want to share my life with someone Does not have to be romantic relationship just relationships in general Stage 7 Generativity vs Stagnation 30s 50s 60s 80s Will I leave something meaningful behind children 39 Career Stage 8 Ego Integrity vs Despair Elderly years Was my live worthwhile Social Development Thursday October 22 2015 Psychology 100 Social Development Pain reactions 2 Months facial expressions pain 5 months facial expressions pain anger Social referencing 8 to 10 months Look to others to determine appropriate response James Marsha s Identity Status adolescence Diffusion no exploration no commitment Foreclosure no exploration yes commitment Moratorium yes exploration no commitment Achievement yes exploration yes commitment Cognitive Development Piaget Stage 1 Sensorimotor Stage 02 years I am separate from the world around me I can have an effect on the world around me Development of use of mental symbols Obiect permanence gt we can understand that somethings exists and continues to exist even when we can t see it Stage 2 Preoperational Stage 2 yrs7 yrs Thursday October 22 2015 Mental Representations of objectsevents Symbolic play gt make believe imagination Verbal symbols language gt letters have sounds and make words ect Problem areas Egocentrism gt having difficulty taking another persons perspective Reversibility gt you can undo certain physical actions playdoh Conservation gt mass can t just disappear squish playdoh child thinks there is less playdoh now Stage 3 Concrete Operational Stage 711 years Conservation reversibility Beginning of logical thought Stage 4 Formal Operational Stage 11 years and up Abstract thought Deductive reasoning Problems Children develop more quickly 4 12 months some object permanence 1 12 years some perspective taking ego centrism 3 years some understanding of conservations People use reasoning from different stages at different times Moral Development Kohlberg How do people deal with moral dilemmas Stages based on reasoning not answer Thursday October 22 2015 3 levels 2 stages in each 1 Preconventional Level overt consequences rules and punishments 2 Conventional Level rigid social norms an individual life is more important than anything vs the greater good is the most important black and white 3 Postconventional Level flexible moral principles understanding the complexity of situations Problems within these levels Not everyone reaches postconventional level People do not apply consistent type of reasoning across all situations Cultural biases Postconventional level is not considered highest level of morality in all societies Highest stage is selfdetermined principles Personality Personality traits Consistent over time Organized and coherent Affect behavior Personality psychology tries to explain and predict behavior Trait Theory Descriptive Thursday October 22 2015 comprehensiveconcise Big 5 Basic Personality Traits OCEAN Openness gt how open to new experiences is a person 39 Conscientiousness gt how much people conform to rules Extraversion gt how outgoing a person is stimulated by external things 39 Agreeableness gt being affable tolerant sensitive trusting kind and warm 39 Neuroticism gt being anxious irritable temperamental and moody Situationism lnteractionism


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