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by: Rodger Reichel


Rodger Reichel
GPA 3.65

R. Gallucci

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R. Gallucci
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rodger Reichel on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLASS 80A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by R. Gallucci in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/226980/class-80a-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Classical Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
lndoEuropeans language includes most current languages in S Asia Europe and parts of Wand Central Asia Ancestors of most ppl in Europe India to Europe Linear AOrigin of Linear B still undeciphered Writing system of Minoans Linear B Greek Mycenaean writing system Resembles early Greek writing Minoans used Linear Awriting Part of the Greek Bronze Age Crete THINK MINOTAUR Mycenaean Palace Centers palace workshops and monopolies Palaces had PLUMBING Textile industry was strong along with metallurgy Olive oil was monopolized by royalty Shaft graves rectangular graves pebbles wooden ceiling Sea peoples sea faring raiders Piratelike 9 groups of ppl Heinrich Schliemann discovered Troy excavated 9 cities on Castle Hill including Troy Arthur Evans most famous for uncovering the palace of Knossus on island Crete First to define Linear A and B Pioneer in study of Aegan civilization during Bronze Age End of the Mycenaean Age 2 theories Population movement or internal strifeconflict Could have been attacked by Dorians or Sea Peoples Or too much conflict between rich vs poor leading to start of Dark Age Lots of earthquakes Migrations at the end of the Mycenaean Age Dorians or Sea Peoples moved into the area and attacked Pastoralism in place of intensive agriculture during early Dark Ageppl moved with livestock needs instead of settling in one place and farming Transition from monarchy to aristocracy during Dark Age Life in the Dark Age ppl moved according to livestock need No new architecture Loss of writing in Linear B Loss of trade Olympics 776 BC First Olympics dedicated to Olympic gods on the plains of Olympia Was linked to religious festivals of Zeus Delphic Oracle gave answers of great authority but were always very vague Thales first philosopher Aristotle was main source Freed natural phenomena from godly intervention rise of the Greek Polis Archaic age mountainous terrain Each polis developed independently due to difficulty in travel and communication colonization able to colonize S Italy France Black Sea N Africa and more 2 periods of colonization One is at end of dark age One is with the dorians Orientalizing Period Near Eastern influence on Greece new trade with foreign cultures Allowed new artistic influences Ex black figure painting Daedalic style Tyrants ruler who seized power Phalanx new military strategy for hand to hand fighting For shock combat Hoplites heavy soldiers that were part of the phalanxes Had shields pikes Heavy soldiers because they had armor Demise of aristocracy tension between rich and poor too great ppl like Solon and Pisistratus opposed it Through their reforms democracy replaced aristocracy in Athens Manufacturing and mercenaries were richer Aristocrats became poorer and poorer Had to marry other classes Rise of oligarchy and democracy Sparta vs Athens Spartan main opposition of Athens Kept oligarchy Mothers raised children up to 7 until they were sent to military training Best fighters political and social system Spartans Council of 30 elders dwellersabout helotswas putting ultimate power to citizens through council of 30 28 elected 2 kings 28 came from ppl from fertile plains Hill ppl could not vote dwellersabout Helots were workers tied to the land basically serfsslaves Helots provide Spartans with food Solon one of seven wise men of Athens Ended aristocratic control of gov put in rule by the wealthy put more human law code Put power by economic class Pisistratus classical tyrant gained power by personal ability Not oppressive Confronted aristocracy Wanted to relieve tension between the economic classes Clisthenes established democracy in Athens imposed democratic reform Allied self with popular assembly Appealed to common citizens New 10 tribes of Clisthenes at Athens see Starr pp 4654 4 birthbased tribes disposed of Replaced with 10 Named after local heroes This is how they were represented in the Assembly Electoral districts Greek Mycenaean Age 16001100 BC Trojan War c 1200 BC in NW Turkey Greek Migrations to Cyprus Aegean and western Turkey from 12001000 BC Greek Dark Age 1100700 BC Homer 800700 BC Olympics 776 BC Greek Migrations Sicily southern Italy France North Africa Aegean Black Sea 800600 BC Age of Expansion 700500 BC also called the Archaic Age or Age of Renaissance Thespis and the origin of Tragedy wrote the rst tragedy in 534 BC coordination between the choral groups and dialogue Croesusthe king of Lydia from 560 to 547 BC until his defeat by the Persians oracle said if Croesus attacked the Persians he would destroy a great empire Croseus was the great empire described in the oracle Cyrus 576 530 BC was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire7 Under his rule the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East 7 expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus Darius 550 486 BCEthe third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire Also called Darius the Great he ruled the empire at its peak rst persian invasion Battle of Marathon 490 BC during the rst Persian invasion of Greece It was fought between the citizens of Athens aided by Plataea and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphemes first attempt by Persia under King Darius I to subjugate Greece Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians Themistocles and the creation of the Athenian navyan Athenian politician populist and general he knew that for Greeks to survive the coming onslaught they required a Greek navy that to face the Persian navy and he therefore persuaded the Athenians to use the newly found silver to make ships Xerxesthe fourth king of the Achaemenid Empire He ruled from 486 BC until his murder in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus the commander of the royal bodyguard notable for his failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC Leonidas Greek warrior king of Sparta led the Spartan forces during the Second Persian War died at the Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Thermopylae 480 BCfought between alliances of Greek citystates led by King Leonidas of Sparta and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece Athenian general Themistocles had proposed that the allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae Battle of Artemisium and the North Windseries of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece took place simultaneously with Battle at Thermopylae the Persian navy was caught in North Wind and lose third of their 1200 ships After arriving at Artemisium the Persians sent 200 ships around the coast of Euboea in an attempt to trap the Greeks but these were caught in another storm and shipwrecked Greeks withdraw to Salamis after receiving news of defeat at Thermopylae Battle of Salamis fought between an Alliance of Greek citystates and the Persian Empire in 480 BC Persian navy sailed into the Straits of Salamis and tried to block both entrances In the cramped conditions the Persian ships struggled to maneuver and became disorganizedGreek eet formed in line and scored a decisive victory Xerxes retreats majority of army and leaves General Mardonius to nish the job Battle of Plataea nal land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece It took place in 479 BC near the city of Plataea Thinking the Greeks in full retreat Mardonius ordered his forces to pursue them but the Greeks particularly the Spartans Tegeans and Athenians halted and gave battle routing the lightly armed Persian infantry and killing Mardonius decisively ended the invasion Delian League founded in 478 BC was an association of Greek citystates members numbering between 150 to 173 under the leadership of Athens whose purpose was to continue ghting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea Athenian Empire By 454 the Delian League could be fairly characterized as an Athenian Empire suppress revolts not very stable and after only 27 years of war the Spartans aided by the Persians and internal strife were able to defeat it Pericles 495 429 BC arguably the most prominent and in uential Greek statesman orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the rst two years of the Peloponnesian War Parthenontemple on the Athenian Acropolis Greece dedicated to the goddess Athena patron of Athens Acropolis at Athens an ancient citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings including the Parthenon Sophoclesl of 3 Greek tragedians whose plays survived wrote Antigone and Oedipus Peloponnesian War 431404 BC was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Dissolution of the Delian League Spartan hegemony over Athens and its allies Thucydides an Athenian historian political philosopher and general wrote Histogz ofthe Peloponnesian War father of scientific historyquot strict standards of evidencegathering and analysis of cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods Cleon died 422 BCE Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War the first prominent representative of the commercial class in Athenian politics Thucydides and Aristophanes represented him as a warmonger and a demagogue Mytilenian Debate citystate of Mytilene unsuccessful in revolting against Athenian hegemony during the Peloponnesian War Debate occurred in 427 BC and Diodotus wins the vote to take the peaceful route only kill leaders of revolt Thucydides records this in History of the Peloponnesian War Melian Dialogue dialogue is a series of arguments in 416 415 BC when Athenians demanded that the Melians surrender their city and pay them tribute or face the destruction of their city Melians refuse starve the resisting inhabitants into surrender slaughter the men of military age and enslave the women and children Alcibiades Athenian general violated urns and secrecy of Eleusian mysteries sacrilege flees to Sparta gtadviser to Persian satrap gt returns to Athens then exiled again valuable military strategist Philip of MacedonKing of Macedon eradicated his rivals and began pushing north He was able to build a strong army he was very clever and an excellent observer of greek warfare He was able to establish a full time army with the money from the mines Conquers thessaly forms Hellenic League Alexander the Great becomes king when his father Philip was murdered by a discontented aristocrat undefeated in battle and is considered one of history39s most successful military commanders inherits support of Hellenic League and then conquered the entirety of the First Persian Empire Hellenic vs Hellenistic shift from ethnic Greeks to Greekspeaking culture regardless of ethnicity Also from city states to monarchies Know how the Athenian democracy worked citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills Participation was not open to all residents to vote one had to be an adult male citizen Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta politically socially culturally militarily Politically Athens Democracy Sparta Oligarchy Socially Athens Freemen were all male citizens divided into numerous classes Aristocrats had large estates and made up the cavalry or captained triremes small farmer Thetes urban craftsmen and trireme rowers Metics those who came from outside the city they were not allowed to own land but could run industries and businesses Slaves and Women no rights Sparta Spartiates military professionals who lived mostly in barracks and whose land was farmed by serfs they served in the army and could vote Perioeci freemen they included artisans craftsmen merchants they could not vote or serve in the army foreigners could be in this class Helots serfsthey were treated like slaves and gave 12 of their produce to the Spartiate citizens who owned the land Women had few rights but were more independent in Sparta than elsewhere in Greece Culturally Athens forward looking Sparta laid back Militarin Athens optional military service strong navy Sparta mandatory militarystrong land Be able to discuss the events and outcome of the 1st and 2nd Persian Invasions 1st Persian Invasion began in 492 BC and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE led by King Darius 2nd Persian Invasion King Xerxes l of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece The invasion was a direct response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece Persians defeated at Battle of Plataea in 479 BC How did the Greeks respond to the threat of the 2nd Persian Invasion What was the Hellenic League and who was the leader They founded the Delian League in 478 BCan association of Greek citystates numbering between 150 to 173 under the leadership ofAthens purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory Know how the Delian League was originally organized association of Greek states 150173 total formed after second Persian invasion led by Xerxes for purpose of fighting off Persians Know how the Delian League became the Athenian Empire Athens begins to use for own navies purposes gt Sparta feels threatened Pericles turns league into empire Describe what is meant by the Age of Pericles in terms of architecture literature and politics a period of Athenian political leadership economic growth and cultural flourishing Describe Herodotus merits as an historian quotThe Father of Historyquot wrote The Histories 0 one of the first accounts of the Persian Empire 0 divided into 9 books 0 mythological accounts from the beginning of Greece and span all the way up to the Persian War Discuss Thucydides merits as an historian Father of Scientific Historyquot wrote History of the Peloponnesian War Melian Dialogue How are the two historians similar different Herodotus exaggerates for entertainment unclear sources includes role of gods Thucydides as factually accurate as possible What were the causes of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides Spartan fear ofAthenian Power 0 Long standing rivalries o proximate cause Corcyra Alliance I alliance formed between Athens and Corcyra against Corinth Be able to trace major events of the Peloponnesian War from 431 404 as discussed in lecture 1 st phase Archidamian War 431421 Spartans attack Attica Athenians siege Spartans at Pylos Spartan capture town with silver mines they trade and sign the Peace of Nicias 2nd phase 415413 Con ict between Sicily and Syracusans Sicilian Expedition led by Nician fails and Athenian Empire on brink of collapse Between 410 and 406 Athens won a continuous string of victories and eventually recovered large portions of its empire thanks to the return of Alcibiadies 3rd Phase Ionian War Decelean War Sparta received support from Persia supported rebellions in Athens subject states in the Aegean and Ionian which undermined Athens empire and eventually deprived them oftheir naval power totally defeated the Athenian fleet in 405 BC at the battle of Aegospotami and Athens surrenders in 404 BC Know the key characters and storyline of the Oedipus Rex Medea Lysistrata and the Clouds Oedipus Rex Oedipus Laius and Jocasta Polybus and Merope Teiresias Creon Medea Medea Jason King Creon Glaucedaughter of creon Aegeus need med Lysistrata Lysistrata Kleonike neighbor Myrrhine seduces husbandLampito big spartan lsmenia nice body Korinthian ass Kinesias husband of Myr Peace handmaid Clouds Strepsiades Pheidippides son Socrates The Chorus of Clouds Unjust Argument represents all that is wrong with sophistry and the quotnew educationquot Just Argument represents the quotoldquot or quottraditionalquot system of education one that stressed obedience reverence for one39s elders What happened to Athens after the Peloponnesian War Athens was ruled by the quotThirty Tyrantsquot and democracy was suspended This was a reactionary regime set up by Sparta The oligarchs were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus in 403 BC once the strongest city state in Greece was reduced to a state of near subjection while Sparta became established as the leading power of Greece Know key events in Greece in the 4th century especially the idea of shifting alliances Sparta Thebes and Corinth vs Athens Peloponnesian War 431 404 BC Thebes Corinth and Athens vs Sparta The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC Corinth Athens and Sparta vs Thebes Thebes revolts Spartan defeat at the The Battle of Leuctra battle fought in 371 BC between Thebans and Spartans Rise of Theban Hegemony Who is Philip of Macedonia and how did he come to conquer the Greeks King of Macedon eradicated his rivals and began pushing north He was able to build a strong army he was very clever and an excellent observer of greek warfare He was able to establish a full time army with the money from the mines Conquers thessaly forms Hellenic League Describe Alexander s conquest of the Persian Empire In 334 BC he invaded the Achaemenid Empire ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles most notably the battles of lssus and Gaugamela He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius Ill and conquered the entirety of the First Persian Empire detached the coastline of the mediterranean from persia to deny naval support What happened the empire after Alexander after his death Alexander gives signet to Perdiccas his bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry Perdiccas does not claim power and joint kings Alexander IV and Philip III are appointed later killed After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC Macedonian unity collapsed and 40 years of war between quotThe Successorsquot ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocks Egypt Mesopotamia and Central Asia Anatolia and Macedon What is meant by the term Hellenistic the period when Greek culture spread in the nonGreek world after Alexander s conquest one who uses the Greek languagequot


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