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by: Noemie O'Hara


Noemie O'Hara
GPA 3.72

K. Clarke

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K. Clarke
Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 12 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by K. Clarke in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/226985/geog-12-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Geog 12 Maps and Mapping Lecture 8 Map generalization Examples Fig re F39g Scale 124000 e 5 I 1 inch zooofeet 1 Inch nearly 1 mile 1 Inch nearly 4 miles Area Showquot 1 Square Area Shown 6 34 Area Showni 107 square uare miles miles mile Bigger range Verbw Scale napreaamn39ve 1 in1485 mi quotWWquot 1 cm 940 km 1 94000900 1 Im 535 ml 1 cm 370 km 1 in 250 ml 1 em 160 km 1 16000000 c m m 17 1300000 Small scale 2235 Zoom New features at new scale standard quadrangle slze Series Scale 1 Inch represents 1 cermmeter Quadrangle are approxlmately represents llamuae by lsquare mllesl longnuael Rm 5 12EI EIEIEI 1 667reet 2nnmeters 75 W75 mlrlute 71 7 5 mlrrute 124mm Z EIEIEIfEEL eltat 24m meters 7 5 by 7 5 mlrrute 49 te 7n 7 5 mlrrute 125mm Z DEBfEEL 25m meters 7 5 by 7 5 mlrrute 49 te 7n 75nyl5mlrrute 125mm Z DEBfEEL 25umeters 75wl5 mlrrute BEIDMU 51520 5 15EI EIEIEI 4166mm 5mm meters 15 by 15 mlrlute 197m 282 15 mlrlute 1625mm lmlle 625 meters 15 by 15 mlrrute 197m 282 AlasKaMaps lessen lmlleexaet 6336 meters 15 w2ute asmmute 2u7te 2m cmrrtymaps 15EI EIEIEI 4166mm 5uumeters Cuunty area varles cmrrtymaps l mu nnn ls mlles l mlemeter Cuunty area varles an by an mlrluIE l mu nnn ls mlles l mlemeter an by an mlrrute 1568 te 224m an mlrlute 1 125mm 2 mlles l 25 mlemeters an by an mlrrute 7EEtu1 124 sedgigge azdegmes l 25n nnn A mlles 2 5 mlumeters 1 W2 ur 3 45am tn 8569 state Maps 1 5nu uuu a mlles 5 mlemeters state area varles state Maps 1 l EIEIEI EIEIEI ls mlles m mlemeters state area varles u s Sectlunal Maps 1 2 uuu nuu a2 mlles 2n mlemeters state gruups varles Artaretlea Maps 1 25u uuu A mlles 2 5 mlemeters l we tn 15 was tn E BBE Artaretlea Maps 1 5nu uuu a mlles 5 Kllumeters 2 W7 5 23174 te 3mm Some common map scales Round numbers makes life easier 100 250 500 1M 0 124 000 50 000 000 62 500 63 360 000 000 What happens as we generalize Selection Simpli cation Combination Displacement Exaggeration Size and display matter Selection The number of features and labels we can display depends on the space available Need to select features to display by some criterion eg population size ofvillages Need to carefully assign and place labels At scale Simplification 1028 pts Combination Combination A complex process foca non of such miersec ons Displacement Hwy 217 Highway 2112 mute to the University Image tourtasy of Caluans Hwy 217 to canal 10m V thout displacement lines are not separable Solution Move the lines 10m becomes 200m Exaggeration Attribute generalization Fan hum solaran I997 Lud u nu ma Cam Summary generalization is necessary when scale changes generalization Notice how details become blurred as the scale decreases 39 1250000 SLC 495 Geog 12 Maps and Mapping Lecture 6 Coordinate Systems and Global Grids Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a standardized method for assigning codes to locations so that locations can be found using the codes alone Standardized coordinate systems use absolute locations A map captured in the units ofthe paper sheet on which it is printed is based on relative locations or map millimeters In a coordinate system the Xdirection value is the easting and the ydirection value is the northing Most systems make both values positive A very simple coordinate system II V Advantages of standardization Can avoid confusion among cities Cells of grid can be comparable in size Can be terse Can have authority VWI work when other reference systems fail Can be used in positioning systems Jourdan Street Lower 9th Ward New Orleans LA Coordinates in action We ve already met Geographic Coordinates CLARKE 1866 ELLIPSOID PointA 34 24 2083000N 119 50 3993000W PointB 34 25 0394000N 119 49 856000W Accuracy A degree is on average 111 000m A degree is 3600 seconds A second is 3083m A tenth ofa second is 308m A hundredth is 031 A thousandth is 0031 or 31 cm Why notjust use Geographic Coordinates J Lu Kw nl lhl OWE huh 01 Nam Bamlma mm Vhuhnlmvaphwaslakevamch 4mm 1 39 Esx mmmm o PM a m MW MW df 395 quot POSTCARD has on um L rs MW 5239 act MAX Alba wll r9665 MADDTS W 3wquot 2 mquot N Mquot v atquot N Will cover only a few systems in Geog 12 There are many more Universal Transverse Mercator System UTM National Grid State Plane Coordinate System USPLSS Next class UTM Takes advantage of the Transverse Mercator projection s properties Distortion is minimized along a central meridian that goes from pole to pole Actually the projection is made secant 60 zones cover 84 N to 80 S Polar stereographic projection covers the poles Prettier map But no poles 551 9553 lt1mzobuz 33 UTM Zones P 1o ooo ouo m N 500000 m E Equator o m N 10000 000 m s Fo e 0 x m 5 Figure 214 11 umvelsa nmlsversc M cnmr conrdumm 5mm UTM zones in the lower 48 Figure 213 Umvcmu lmnucrsc Melcmm me m me 43 mnngunm mums Example PointA 239 305 m E 3 810 798mN 11 N WGS84 necessary Lute 33 Goleta Point Using UTM on the Goleta Quad 1 3424 30 77 a 7777lt7777Vag5 r 1 1 119 72 BU 3 J 3 1 11 we FLU Produced by the United States Geological Survey 1988 Revision by USDA Forest Service 1995 Topography compiied 1947i leinneln derived 1mm imagery mkun 1994 and mm Snllrces Public Land Surng Syh nl and survey mmml current 5 pi 19 Numb American Damm oi 1927 NA 27 Projection and 10 0004001 Iii ln v Caliinmia unordinale system mne 5 aniwn mniuminl cnnic Blue 100041er Linivmai Transverse Meicamr ticks lune 11 Nnnh Amurican Datum at 1983 NAD 33115 shown by dabhud Corner irks The le1250 he shift imwpen NAD 27 and NID R3 or 75411111111 iinm39seuiuns an uhlainnblo frmn Nalimml Geodclit sinwy NADCON soflwatc wonNanonni Forum Sysigm lands within me Nniinnai Forest lnlmldings may vxi5 in rither Nni ional Ur Siam ruservalinns This map 5 ml 3 legal lam line in ownership document Pnblh lands are whim lo change and leasin md may have 55 resiriuinns check with lural of ces omnin permission hemp emerihg private lands The Military Grid aka National Grid Mmu gzwwgcqx Military Grid Coordinates 78 W 72quot w is39rwcs713 r mm m square 60 Figm 2l6 Mlllmry M1 cell lcucrs USNG Principal Digits identify he gna line In this example the principal digits for grid lines 22 and 07 are circled The superscript values are for complete UTM values Issues grid boundaries USNG 11S KU 38527 10830 NAD83 m w m m m w a g amrMmm w nwummums M Il is a m w mm 51me lb m mum mu Suvlzn mm gunman l a m SMu 4 ms mu um mun was uqu luwud mum mm A tun Last but not least State Plane Coordinates Works only in the US and territories Old system based on NAD27 and feet shown on many USGS maps New system based on NAD83 and GRS80 uses slightly different zones and meters Each state works independently More accurate than UTM used in surveying and engineering Nationally Zones elongated NS use Transverse Mercator Zones elongated EW Use Lambert Conformal Conic Some exceptions State Plane Zones in California 2 l3 iiA ll5 lls Zone false origins Formerly some number of feet west and south of zone edge Each zone different need to look up details Origins changed when converted to metric Example from the Georgia data eorgia WestZone 1002 includes Atlanta Latitude of Origin 30 0039 00quot Longitude of Origin and Central Meridian 84 103900quot Datum MAD33 Scale 0 False Northing at Origin 0 meters Fal E ting at Origin 700000 meters


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