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by: Noemie O'Hara


Noemie O'Hara
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C. Still

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C. Still
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This 73 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 167 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by C. Still in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/226986/geog-167-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
The Physical Environment and Biogeography I5 January 2009 Lecture 4 Note for next Tuesday s lecture please read the article by T Root that is posted on the course website Chapter 3 The physical environment and the distribution of life Light Temperature Moisture other contributing factors interacting factors Thursday January 15th at 500 pm Join us for Coal Oil Point Reserve s Monthly Lecture on Gray Whales and the Gray Whales Count Project with Gray Whale Researcher Michael H Smith Reservations requested Leeza Charleboix at coprstafflifesciucsbedu Michael H Smith will provide a talk on Gray Whales the Gray Whales Count Project and the experience of conducting research and education outreach for a fifth annual survey at Coal Oil Point The 2009 Gray Whales Count begins Monday February 2nd and continues every day from 900 am to 500 pm through May 17th Gray Whales Count observers experience quite a lot from the vantage above the beach Michael H Smith will share information about opportunities for UCSB students to become Supervisor Interns and also for individuals to become Gray Whales Count Volunteers httpgraywhalescountorg Note changes to term paper task due dates Lecture days see also Sara s section syllabus Course Syllabusl Topic Assigned reading January 6 8 January 13 15 January 20 22 Ian 27 29 February 3 5 Feb 10 12 Feb 17 19 Feb 24 26 March 3 5 March 10 12 March 17 Introduction and overview of global biodiversity and productivity pat erns taxonomic trophic and ecological levels of organization Physical controlsinteractions and the distribution of life Physical controlsinteractions and the d1stiibution of life cont Biological c nlrolSrnteractiuns and t ie distribution of life Biological interactions and the distribution of life Disturbance Term paper topic and abster Inc in section this weak Disturbance dendrochronology midarm exam 1 F0175 Communities and bioines Geological time and continental drift Quaternary climate change Trrm paper annotated bibliography lac duo in N Overni htfield m M the Big Sur mart February 20 Quaternary climate change cont Dispersal colonization and invasion Dispersal colonization and invasion cont midu39rm exam 2 March 4 Biogeography and human evolution Trrm pnpar inc Tuesday March 17 by 12 pm Is ctian this wen r Chapters 172 Chapter 3 Chapters 3 4 Chapters 45 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapters 7 8 Chapter 8 Chapter 1 1 Note please check the Web page frequently as the syllabus Will Change slightly throughout the quarter I Will announce major changes to the syllabus in class C02 00 FEquot sTomotol Terrestrial PhotosyntheSIs Solar energy Iation rad u IllIll 11 u Nutrients N P ion V 02 Transpirat H20 6C02 12H20 gt C6H1206 6HZO 602 Phytoplankton Photosynthesis 39l Nutrientdepleted Photosynthesis C02 i H20 gt CHzo 02 Nutrient Net export of carbon and nutrients Oxidation of carbon CHzo 02 C02 H20 and nutrients What factors determine the spatio temporal distributions of organisms Clamwe Climate competition Histora topography predation disturbance dispersal 10 Mean July quot temperature C E Distribution of white spruce Picea glauca in Canada FIGURE 34 The relationship between the northern limits of spruce and July temperatures in Canada A cautionary note on correlating species distributions with climate variables 39 correlation is not causation 39 an organism s distribution may be correlated with multiple climatic factors which are themselves highly correlated with one another eg mean annual temp and potential evaporation rates 39 thus it is important to understand the physiology of the organism n Nunbeinisnecice Numheinispmss Square imiuinimbeinispeeus o Breeding bird species in Britain 10 I 12 In is I stmmei ta39n ueramrc39 m 1 Ma ne gastropods in the eastern Paci c 1an set sen quot50 mm quot5 50 mt zen quot 39 39 an Iquot u39 it is in 25 Sea urlacs tempimture C Beetle genus in N America as mquot as ma 1 a is quot quot 05 39 Ann mm mm tam Quan ps mmdlEVMHJHSUWAUUH41HHV S quot D Number 0 species ID Number oi species Bird species in the new world Woody plant species in south Africa a lt60 40 20 0 L31 Nude S H quota v f 200 400 600 500 1000 1200 100 Annual precipitation 1mm K Gaston Nature 405222 2000 Light and the distribution of plants diurnal seasonallatitudinal I i i I I I lnsolation PL 875 at x E 42 g E V V 350 kw g 1 Infrared gt 75 E g E L u 0 x i i SW E j 4 175 Reflectlnn a 39 t 7350 a 7LWl y 9 Mai lull II An Sen Dd MW 0 525 i i Infrared i l Month MIanghipjL Ali Noon PAH Pi Mldnlghl Time local Light shortwave radiation fundamentally affects the physical environment organisms inhabit II N O 1 I K Humidity SW radiation hWmAZ Temp C PET mmday 80 40 i 20 IOO so 6705 6805 6905 Fischer Still and Williams j Biogeography 2008 0 Relative humidity COPRISmin 1 WX COPRISmin 2 Soil Radiometer Solar Soil Temperature 542 I M 153 39 5m 1 1 Z I U lquot I 15039 11 H 1 50 A w COPRISmin l WX l L TemW RH 95 WW MW WW H H 000 d 39 L 9939s 92 1 120000 AM 95 7 r 120000901 11312009 90 11812009 95 30 20 as 60 55 45 3121 120000 AM 12000 11312009 111512 A general model of the response to light in plants 2 I 1 E C g the downturn at high light levels IS E exaggerated in this gure D 5 m Photomhlbltion iii cc Respiration lt photosynthesis Respiration photosynthesis Light intensity FIGURE 32 A generalized model of the relationship between light intensity and rate of photosynthesis clearly plants need light for photosynthesisbut what is the form of the photosynthesislight response linear saturating declining Photosynthetic rate Light flux Leaf lightresponse curve quantum yield the initial linear slope of the light limited Ilght saturated lightresponse curve varies with plant water and nutrient status as well as physiology C3 vs C4 light compensation point the flux of light at which plant photorespiration is balanced by photosynthesis Light ux Net p otosynthetic ate Solar radiation within a canopy vertical light gradient in a glant canopy Canopy height 0 IOO transmitted light How about light penetration into the ocean and coastal waters gghtresponse within a canopy many house plants are adapted to the low light inside houses because they are from the tropical understory Sun Plant shade plants tend to have larger and thinner leaves than sun plants also true of shade leaves versus sun leaves annual or perennial life cycle Shade Plant C02 Fixation High Light Intensity lrradiance httpwwwbotanyhawaiied ufacultywebbBOT3 l PSynlmagel 33gif Canopy lightphotosynthesis relationship diurnal response Net photosynthetic rate integrated over a season Hnear Light flux Light flux The lightuse ef ciency concept lightuse ef ciency LUE is a way to describe how ef ciently plants can convert solar energy PAR to chemical energy glucose and other sugars LUE can be calculated on timescales ranging from seconds to months longer is more typical LUE is determined by many physical and biological components Terrestrial Net Primary Production NPP in this gure was calculated with a LUEtype model NP 39 2 I I I 2 I Global total 00 Pg Cyr I2 on land H2 in the oceans Credit new at al Sclence 2m 2374009921 Clouds can enhance LUE and forest photosynthesis 15 1 7 n a a we 10 V a I a ggzo 7 A 39 La NW1 3 5 39 7 arms 0quot one 75 E Z V n a shc i 5 P P FDxm Va 8 NEEredwcuud o warmgummy iNEErm 45 a son 750 was 250 moo PPFD umol quotr2 squot b s 3 5 Wmon 3 4 E 3 2 Amway Imam a ANSUW 39 DSunn 0 ANN v 7 0 son 70 1000 250 500 0 w 2 300 PPFDumo melse SELA umuS Urban et 2 2007 GLOBAL IMPACT OF AVOLCAN C EHUPT ON 12 km a mammal 5 read by Mmmmenc wmds I Hermspnere w n 5 c u g m Emissions Gigatons C year HNWbvlmdoo 0 1950 Global f or are 5 a ed 1 me Hansen Global Fossil Fuel C02 Emissions 9 1980 1990 20 ossil fuel 02 emissions with division into ponions that remain airborne 0 up by the ocea an and Annual Emissions 39 7 Year Mean quot F r cm A noun ndi and Sam PNAS 101 161051 2am Fig l Regression between the cioudless solar radiation and the solar elevation angle for the 6 years 1992 to 199 after the Mount Pinatubo emotion The regiession Ela tien isir C i c 1 expi c l l i39 is the direct beam or the diffuse solar radiation ct c1 and 12 are regression coef ficients is the solar elevation angle Diffuse radiation and iii i El I beam radiation were measured independently Be cause of tth some minor mis match between diffuse and di rect radiation in the yearwto year variations existed but it was not found to affect the final resuits considerably 50M teait figs 53 and 54 A Direct beam solai radia tion on the nomnal plane 3 Diffuse solar tradiation Jilted 8mm Sulur Hudmuun INtx39riul wm Diffuse Solar Radiation wm i39ji 1000 000 400 I 00 quotr rtar 1052 393 13938 393 195d 3 13 1 95 5 093 1950 Cl 93 WWI quot1 5393 139 I 5 0 4 30 Solar Elevation Ang 5 Degree 80 28 MARCH 2003 VOL 299 SCIENCE wwwscience Gu et al Science 2003 Hate I V was Fhutosyntheta 3 Gross thlusyrm netnc Rate 6 y nthetu H at Lune mquot 5 ms Photos 1 1 r l I pmul mquot 339 W Hmol rr39 5quot I d U I F anJraed radiator regime Narnv aa radiation regime 20 40 ED 53 at Elevation Angle Degree Gu et al Science 2003 Leaf Hairs amp t plants also use waxes on the leaf surface to absorb damaging UV radiation what else would leaf waxes be useful for k Leaf Orientation 3 some plants are also solar trackers heliotropic The effect Of leaf on a clearJune day at 50 N angle on absorbed 1000 Ha solar radiation Perpendicular perpendicular is a solar 800 tracking leaf that keeps Its leaf at a right angle TE Horizontal to the sun 5 rays 3 600 r throughout the day 7 quot 3 I c I horizontal IS relative to E39 400 t E I the ground surface t I Vertical I vertical is a leaf 200 N S oriented northsouth 1 Le parallel to the 0 l 1 n I 1 1 sun 5 rays at solar 06 12 18 noon Time I Leaf characteristics and the light environment Character High light Low light leaf size leaf thickness leaf chlorophyll content leaf orientation leaf hairs leaf lifespan Climatology and Physical Geography Overview 8 January 2009 Lecture 2 Interested in understanding more about global change How do materials move through the Earth system What processes control the level of CO2 in the Iatmosphere run up ndnu ln lnnllln llanpn anal A L AU VIII ua ulna vvnuul tv tuvnlu quotluau unu vulul GEOG 95JK Special Topics Course VWnter 2009 4 cr Lecture MW 111215 Discussion W 45 Instructor Jennifer King jykinggeogucsbedu Enrollment code 62067 The spatial distribution of global NPP this is the food available to the rest of life 180 120w sow u an E 1201 12 o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Global total l00 Pg Cyr Credit Field et al Science ZSI 23740 I998 Photosynthetic Pathways C3 Plants C4 Plants CAM Plants all trees most grasses sedges many succulent plants in CA largely tropical and plants like cacti largest group of subtropical some orchids the three some C4 crops are smallest group sugar cane and first product of sorghum rst product of carboxylation has carboxylation has 3 carbon atoms first product of 4 carbon atoms carboxylatlon has 4 evolved gt200 carbon atoms evolved gt200 MYA MYA evolved 2030 MYA earlier Carbon and Energy Flows 01 Petagrams Cyr 14 x 10quot19 Jyr quot10 mLe 1 X 10quot22 Jyr 1 00 Petagrams Cyr How much solar energy is captured by plants as chemical energy First approximately how much solar radiation energy is incident on the earth39s surface in ayear solar constant at TOA 545 Wm2 roughly 12 of this reaches the surface so 172 Jm2 sec PiX 10quot7 secyr 5 X 10A14 n12 area 27 10A24 Jyr NeXt approximately how much chemical energy ATP is liberated during heterotrophic respiration in a year heterotrophic respiration is 100 X 10quot15 g Cyr 855 X 10quot15 mol w2yr so 51 kJmol ATP 52 mol ATPmol 002 855 X 10quot15 mol CO2yr 156 X 10 22 Jyr So only 05 of solar radiation energy at the surface is available for heterotrophic respiration each yearll Global Climate To rst order earth s climate is determined by the seasonal distribution of solar radiation the presence of wellmixed greenhouse gases albedo cloudcover distribution the differing heat capacities of water and soil the distribution of land and ocean and the presence of mountains Tmpical climates vamhermai climales Dry indsemimid climaxes Polarclimalss Mesamelmsl climaxes Highland climates A rm lALLJHAYL w lrmmwmuw l l mm W Jug u r r ll39ll The latitudinal distribution of climate Norm P e Polar lrurrl Polar lei slveam Sublmplcal lei stream Subtruplcal 39 mgn 7 Sublmplcal high Sublmp al jel slream Polar rmnl Chapter 7 Changing Continents and Climates cent 24 February 2009 Lecture 14 Paper structure and desidn A good paper would try to touch on at least a few of the major topics we have covered this quarter eg basic distribution past distributions and evolutionary history if known physical and biological controls on distribution dispersal etc Torrey Pines on Santa Rosa Island occur in only one other place Torrey Pines State Park near Del Mar The Channel Islands western portion of the Transverse Ranges started out near what is now San Diego watch the rotation over the last 20 million years Much of coastal California and baja California moved several hundred miles northward overthis period ii Animation Credit http ernvc geol ucsb eduanlmatlons Animation credit httplemvcgeolucsbedulanimations This plate movement helps to explain the disjunct distribution of the Torrey pine Pinus torreyana on one ofthe Channel Islands and the mainland near San Diego At least one other plant species Brandegee s sage Salvia brandegel is found only on Santa Rosa Island and on the northern Baja coast Biogeograghy informing glate tectonics The coelacanth of frogs 2003 article in Nature concerning the discovery of an entirely new family of frogs 1st since 1926 in India sheds some light on a plate tectonics mystery jay ulllle 251755 unmmu d rllwlr 1 up flour In lmw Suugloaslrlau FlgircISur Km helr Ocean travel mglhenew mmquot sptclugam only in newly ly by sallrwater r IIumlm or lcslumlml qu mm r not urnwry lu Hedges Nature 425669 2003 rvLy and law lhry Biju and Bossuyt Nature 425711 2003 h39Ipjwwwlaxuwyoedugeemwxnotexhap5znient4 lexfng2002yf according To This figure India was isolated for 100 million years before if cr39ashed in ro Asia roughly 35 MYA The bio ric fer39r39y39 hypo rhesis holds Tha r India should have delivered a unique flora and fauna To Asia ifthe biotic ferry is correct India should have fossils of distinct organisms during the late Cretaceous 70 MYA however fossil data dinosaurs frogs lizards mammals from this period suggest that India harbored biota with close relatives in Africa Asia and South America the newly discovered frog family on the other hand supports the biotic ferry model since its closest living relative is a kind of frog found in the Seychelle lslands Three al rerna rive scenarios Hedges Na rure 4252669 2003 IHd i0 i 39 53 r 65 i MYA limi red bio ric bio ric land land bridge bridge II bio ric ferry ress Release 08025 I I l l I I P A g39ant frog W39th SOUth Amerlcan a lnltles Scientists Discover quotGiant Fossil Frog from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar from Hellquot Susan E Evansquot Marc E H Jones and David W Krause EVIdence Suggests Late Cretaceous Perlod South America Madagascar Link 16 lb 10 frog was largest ever Z Beelzebufo ampinga This find suggests physical linkages among Madagascar the Indian subcontinent and South America since frogs are lousy saltwater dispersers 7 7 Ti 80Ma Fig 2 Beelzenmo ampinga Late Cretaceous or Madagascar A pltandrldge ornament stlppllng Right 3 Skeletal reconstruction inferred body oucnne or averagesized skull width zoo mm SVL 425 5 I areas indkate pans represented by fossil specimens For size compar quot the me In Hug are shown in mm parouca rm foramen magnum rrp frontoparletal maxilla n nasal pmx premaxllla ql quadratolugal qu quadrate sq mosalv Scale bars 50 min Fig5 Map showing positions and coastlines of the southern continents at BOMYaB 4 s m y as 1 c position 2 and Wawelia position 3 The Paci c plate is moving over a xed hot spot in the lithosphere 39 39 http wwwiru triceiedtl Ieeman 39 5 I hawempchalnilpg Age mm tms of yam new 39 Duecuon mm r i mmnvemem pvmmr L httpzllmaritimehaifaacidepartmessonsoceanwwr98gif JE Z00e Bunsew Juusswc 135mHHn Vs Future World 50 Ma hm Mm mm mm a W 1w aws punk mm mm mm L s rwmm a 4 2000 c RScmess httpwwwcoteecom Future World 250 Ma mm a mmmmm 0 Wusz magnum1m wvmmmw 4 hrwbrmnn e Pangea Ultima httpWVNIscoesecom Quaternary Climate Change we will discuss climate changes over the last 2 million years includes the Pleistocene ancl Holocene epochs RELATIVE GEOLOGIC39HME ABSOLUTETIlME ANIMALS ERA PERIOD EPOCH Millions of l39ears Q Holocene umemaw Pleislocene a Cenozoic 3222 5 Eocene 53 Paleocene Lale 55 Cretaceous Early 1 44 Lale M85020 Jurassic Middle Middle life E lll 203 Lale T assjc Middle Lane Penman Early 236 Lale Pennsylvanian Middle Early Lane Flepliles MISSISSIppIan Delawhip R n Quaternary Climate Change glaciations and deglaciations Ccrdilleran r ice sheet i 255 E l f quot what did the glaC ialm t7 cycles do to blOth if f w my L I ll quotfJ 4 distributions f 1 r I Ice sheet El Arctic sea ice FIGURE 77 The location of major ice sheets and major areas of continental shelf exposed due to lower sea levels eustatic sealevel changes during the last glacial maximum after Roberts 1989 rst we need to cover some basic isotope concepts The Nuclei of the Three Isotopes of Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium O 1 proton 1 neutron Pro um 1 proton 1 proton 2 neutmne Some isotope notation There are 3 stable isotopes of oxygen oxygen16 oxygen17 and oxygen18 R I8OI 60 o22 I in 450 18 R the delta notation units are 5 0 Rm 11000 per mil or ppt Std sample standard R 000 l 985 l 5 000200520 d 1ta O per mil 0 per mil Oxygen isotope patterns in precipitation Owls prefer ntially removed relative to O1 by precipitation H2018 H2016 IS H20 evaporates sligaijily easier than H20 b Source Samson University of Michigan Source IAEAGNIP These fractionation processes are temperaturedependent lnterpolated539 OofPrecipitationoVSMOW 46 32 23 24 20 l6 12 8 4 U Map from G Bowen UCSanta Cruz slope is 069 per mil C annual mean dl80 precip note this Mean Annual Temperature C works best for extratropical adapted from Dansgaard I964 latitudes Poles Middle latitudes Tropics Image Credit Earth s Climate by W Ruddiman Surface 0 H 2 ocean Typical 8 30 values 000 Deep ocean 3lt gt4 Simple rules that describe spatial and temporal variations MED of precipitation l the relative amount of oxygenl8 and hydrogen2 decreases with increasing latitude 2 the relative amount of oxygen l8 and hydrogen2 decreases with increasing altitude Inter alated llOOleipiiatlun WillSMC M my r 3 the relative amount of oxygen l8 and hydrogen 2 decreases with increasing longitude across a continent 4 the relative amount of oxygen l8 and hydrogen 2 decreases with increasing storm intensity waterixotopemrg Quaternary Climate Changg at the beginning of the Quaternary period 2 million years ago mya the continents were basically where they are today the Quaternary climate is marked by periodic glaciations in the northern hemisphere lasting O0000 years with interglacial periods of I 530000 years with big implications for northern hemisphere biogeography the last glacial period extended from IOO kya to ID kya and the ice cover peaked 20 kya a time often referred to as the Last Glacial Maximum LGM a great website for all things paIeo httpwwwngdcnoaagovpaleo Drilling Ice Cores httpearthsciterced ucontentinvestigatlonSlesz IDSImagesesz I 05 P l VostOk b39lpg httptoxicsusgsgovpubsFS05 02images g2jpg how deep do the cores go how far back in time can they go i r 7 1mm the Vastok ice core znuz W mom 1mm mom 255m 2mm mum VulMuNumlMvanrnl w h zc D C zc W M3 e m J h quot 0 cm r Mun WW w n s M M n v W s39 m Mw n NW WW mm mm mm 2mm nu nm mm Imam saw u MMNWMHWWM mum 6 MW A Hum w Annual ice layers Image Credit Earth s Climate by W Ruddiman Image Credit Earth s Climate by W Ruddiman Ocean sediment cores can also yield a great deal of paleo information in this case it s not ice cores that are used as proxies but foraminifera tiny shellforming organisms forams are very widespread organisms that sink to the ocean bottom when they die and become trapped in the sediments these sediments can date back millions of years much older than the longest ice cores but at the expense of temporal resolution Coastal ocean I39Id Deep Continental 3 en es shallow seas ocean I k Typical sediment 1 mm 10 cm 1 m 1 cm per year per Per In ux rates 1000 years 1000 years Typical Typi ca resolvallle 10 100 100 1000 1000 5000 I 5 years years How do foraminifera record environmental information they form shells of calcium carbonate CaCO3 also called calcite or aragonite 0200 H2018 6 azcogs H2016 a when these shells precipitate from immigrrgmmgwm seawater they carry the oxygen isotope httpwalruswrusgsgovsoca Signature of seawater smbayimagesforamjpg 539805hell 53980seawater fractionation T if you know what the 63980 of seawater was you can reconstruct the sea surface temperature based on the 63980 of the shell alternatively you can use the 63980 of foram shells to tell you about the 63980 of seawater which varies with the amount of water locked Netr in glaciers 90 01 3Is preferentially removed relative to 0 by precipitation IS H20 evaporates slightly easier than H20El because the lighter isotopes of water atoms H I60 will be preferentially deposited on ice caps with very cold temperatures the ocean surface becomes enriched in the heavier isotopes 2H l80 and this is recorded by foram shells that sink to the bottom sediments lce volume CO2 0 200 240 280 5180 100000 200000 300000 400000 nus x cu Lulu 1 Years ago unnuu v vv n 5 N July 55 lnsolation 65 N W m4 1 m a 50 o Tao marine n mix o o a o a S o o 200 Dust mass ug kg Credwt EP CA Nature 2004 400 600 Age kyr BP 75 3 W m z mam ouvo lnsolation Thousands of years ago Deepsea core Ice core lt e 6091 220 ge oeoddequot Ame G Ioday 200 400 MS11 Cool 600 i cycles S 30quot 996 Nb 00 g Carbon l4 about in a trillion l0quot2 carbon atoms are C l4 formed in the upper atmosphere by the collision of cosmic rays with nitrogen atoms Outer space Cosmic pa 39cles protons from other galaxies be ectlon By stream of solar particles 14N 14C Enters fossil record Earth s atmosphere Radioactive Stable Stable daughter isotope product Isotope J J J J I J r r e 7 r 4 4 39J J J J r J 1 J J J 4 t 4 2 JQ J J r I A x n J a 3 39 gt J J H J I J gt J J J J J J J 1 J J J J J i J S v Q 1 Parent LE 5 isotope 0 C 395 E 4 H 3 Q 39 E g Paughter Z m Isotope Time in halmives all parent 2 parent 2 4 parent 34 8 parent 78 isotopes daughter daughter daughter Image Credit Earth s Climate by W Ruddiman Activity wgfm 678 Cl4 dating only reliable out to 50 kyrs max after 57000 years only 0 of the original of Cl4 atoms remain 339 TJLUQHE 000 l l 39 l I I I I I I 0 5570 13911 40 1610 22280 2739850 Time yr httpwwwgeoarizonaed upalynologygeos462c l4halfgif


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