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by: Noemie O'Hara


Noemie O'Hara
GPA 3.72

D. Carr

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D. Carr
Class Notes
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This 119 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 155 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by D. Carr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/226987/geog-155-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
LAST TIME 39 Spanish Colonial Se r rlemen r pa r rer39ns TODAY 39 Poli rical Independence Neocolonial pos r independe Ex rr ac rive Economies begi A e Overview development and colonial LaTin America The wealTh of The Indies ie colonial LaTin America was creaTed by The labor of Amerindian and Africans This wealTh was removed from LaTinr America Huge influx of wealTh essenTiallykgk bankrolled The beginnings of Thequot riseof modern Europe Concept of Development Geography and hisTor y of colonial LaTin America gt spaTially uneven pa er ns of developmenT Uneven pa er ns of developmenf by raceclass as well These Too are r fr equenfly spaTially disTincT v Definitions of development I Improved condifions buT for whom of whcn measured how gtEconomic gr owTh To increase The economic pie gtModer nizcn ion Definitions of development II Improved condiTions buT for whom of whaT measured how gtIncreased social welfare and qualify of life gtGreafer social and economic eqyi ry self reliance and opporTuniTygpf gtSusTainable developmemL Colonial Latin American development Spain and Portugal as The developing powers Probably did increase fofal economic acfivify Did nof improve social welfare or qualify of life generally r 39 Did modernize offer a fashion 39 Did nof improve relafive equify 7 Did nof increase self reliance or self deferminafion Developmenf was nof susfainable in many cases Latin American Political Independence 39 Poli rical bu r no r economic 39 1810318203 pr39o rr39ac red struggle for independence 39 1820318503 balkaniza rionquot39info39 smaller s ra res amp I H an E w gain P 1 A hammx 2 E556 b H FREE 9 r 25 1 a uni Emm h f 2 again R As all or O CENTRAL AMERICA 501139 M Mllas 0 5 VDH 50 100 E CS Hammond I Do Manleuaa N I 58 L furnelle Island HONDHMS IsLAs DE LA HAHI39A Peninsula do Nicoya Longimdr W25 3 Greenwich mum Hf RAASCA 7 SHOW 5 um ea Level 160 5mm 3 0m m Cahuas 3200 It 65007n CANl ION III 5 anam 39 out or NquotM Neocolonial pos r independence Ex rrac rive Economies Governed by local ruling eliTes gtWelcomed foreign capiTal gtSame economic paTTerns 39 Huge expansion of economies in Europe and America in IaTer half of 19ThrC gt exporT opTions g gtGreaf demand for food and indusfr ial raw maTerials gtIncreasing availabiliTy of capiTal much from US Neocolonial pos r independence Ex rrac rive Economies II 39 Made possible by Transpor r and o rher Technology improvemen rs gtS reamships railroads e rc gtProblems wi rh colonial infras rruc rure 39 O rher problems gtSmall size of s ra res gtUneven developmen r spa rially gtNeocolonial pa r rerns of expor r i mpor r y 2 Overview of post or neecolonial economies I Huge expansion of pop and indusTr39y in NA amp Europe gt demand for foods and indusTr ial r39aw maTer ials CapiTal available Improved TransporT made LA expoer possibleprofitable n 39 Small sTaTes in LA hamper ed inl ert39n al developmenT Overview of post or neecolonial economies II Por Tcolonial spaTialeconomic pa er ns like colonial ones Neocolonial developments some examples 39 Tempera re zone agricul rure gtArgen rine pampas 39 Tropical agricul rure gtBananas in C America gtCoffee in Brazil amp C Ame r i ilg 39 Indus rrial minerals as opposed lo colonial focus on precious me rals Temperate Zone Agriculture in Argentina 39 Argen rina neglec red in colonial Times excep r for Po rosi supply rouTes 39 By mid19Th C if was realized Tha r The Pampas could supply Europe wi rh hides mea r wool and grain 7 Argentine Pampa development predicated on several factors I 39 Political stability 39 Expanding market in Europe 39 Indian threat neutralized Available English capital Nearly perfect agroecological 7 conditions r 39 Improving technologies Argentine Pampa development predicated on several factors II Immigration of Italian and Spanish labor by the millions 39 Innovations in land tenure in Argentina Results of this transformation Physical transformation of pampas Vast expansion of economically useful land area Reorientation of spatial economy of Argentina Development of an extensive raj L network Y X 39 By 1900 Buenos Aires and Argentina in top 10 world economies Was this development oad Bananas in Central America EasTer39n amp nor Ther n in Honduras coasTal plains besT area for climaTesoils 39 Huge planTaTions developed by USA 39 companies USA cor por aTions mor eorIess conTr olled small counTr ies 39 An expansion of spaTial economyibf cenTr al American counTr ies LiTTIe r eal developmenT 39 Declined 1920s30s due To disease and gr eaT depr ession new crops on o39ldf banana planTaTions Ans V Bananas in Central America II Bananas move To locaTions on wesTer39n 39 r liTTor al To avoid conTaminaTed soils in E New disease r esisTanT var39ieTies buT big problems lur k for bananas New cr ops now in old banana lands e g pineapples amp oil palm Caffee in Brazil Large Brazilian landowners r j39 Coffee needs several years amp labor Ending of slavery gt immigra rion Tenan r farming by immigran rs 39 Coffee boom ini rially cen rered on V 560 Paulo i 7 v39 Exploi ra rive of soils 39 Impac r on Brazilian popula rion Coffee in Columbia amp C America Hi h class shaded coffee mosle di ferenT beans Than in Brazil 399 Columbia gtMounfain locaTions amp mosle small holders in laTe 1800s gtMore balanced developmenT Than planTaTions 3 39 CenTral America gtWesTern and easTern slopes o a SWerE a Madres aT moderaTe elevaTions39 gtSome small holders especiall recenle buT bulk is in The hands wealThy local landowners quot of National Federation of Coffee growers of Colombia National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia 7 Th 7 Source unknown Sugar in Cuba 7 Ideal local agroecological condiTions f Near huge USA markeT Sugar presenT buT noT well developed 39 under Spanish USA acquired Cuba in 1898 as resulT of Spanish American war quot 39 3 USA corporaTions agribusines kgefiup huge sugar planTaTions mills r d s Sugar in Cuba ResuHs l VasTincreasein oquuT gt50 o of all land in sugar by 1930 39 gtLabor demand gt increase in immigrafion gtInves1 memL in early yellow 1 K malaria er adicaTion gtUSA com r ol of Cuban economyf seF sTage for CasTr39o in 1959 1 r and Industrial Minerals 39 Chilean ni rr39a res amp phospha res 39 Bolivian Tin Copper lead zinc in m 39 Oil in Mexico and Venezuela Latin America in 1650 A YLANTIC FA CIFIC OCEAN OCEAN 1 may ol ITntdBillll I n I Vlcetoya yof New Spaln VTcamyalIy of Peru Brazll ng g ATLANTIC OCEAN 500 000ml Al I 0 500 Lw km 39 msxi o 1m Meuo39mqmp Vww UNITED PROM A mm H mm CEN I RAL ME 1 823 1 Mum ccsm vacW s iatin America in 1 830 y u smug wan data at magnum vmu a an 1n n n m a nu 2 7 x 7 l i a B R A Z l I o gt 039 7 r 7 Tropiz of cup 0 mun39su39 ram 3911 I r 30 lt lt V n uni yzaHANDEZ C smNDS chd 1 noncnpnl u m mun V 39 A T L Mama A N T I C gt74 77 r 139 77i7 749 394 quot 7 H in x vita San Marius a awquotJquot hubm S 7 M m nivadavis jGoIn San large PM a OCEAJ N mphz LACO RC m Los cue B JAMAICA 1 5 Wu 7 V 7 W quot Liiin Ml mm 16mm 32mm 6500 15000 V i n r n5 0 H I 39 IASCA 7 V 51 me 4quot l 39 3 39 lt9 no Cahuas amp a Iquot 6 393quot d I f r 7 5 39 Illuulua V Vquot a we f L q w x Manrlg uk I WA 7 a 7 I 7 C I I m If o quot m i ngy 7 J0 5 f 7 739 7 M o 39k glamth gt ZENTRAL AMERICA 7 M 11 W 0 SD SEIIESdMKIQS in mo 77 yani s g I ma cm 2 det mm 1 an mumm 111 88 Lonunud W at Greenwich 8439 8039 Banana Parts 19th C banana development later banana development coffee development Central American 19th Century Agricultural Development NI muumun vgt Sanla larta Barjanqull 39 can anml PACIFIC 1 339 1 cm memm v M OCEAN 3 V quot2 5 7 r Busuavantu l O M B I M H fgmn39wrc V w r Anguslum I Banana Ports 19th C banana development later banana development coffee development Central American 19th Century Agricultural Development ENE Cm np uyurl nnr u u r quot1 E ltgtIIIIIII Multiple deposits Oil field S o Gas field Cumquot Coal eld Iron Copper Phosphates Industrial diamonds Bauxite Tin Ferrous metals Lead and zinc Manganese m PAW 3 Manaus 39m ltgt Mn F e quotn Belo Horizonte Multiple deposits 939 F Oil field Gas eld Coal eld Iron Copper Phosphates A A J PACIFIC lt OCEAN Multiple deposits Oil field Gas field Coal eld Iron Copper Phosphates Lima CERRO a 4500 gt quot Arequipa mg 309 PA I acaibo asilia o F I Belo Horizonle quot Sn H F J Al A TLANTIC OC Equasm F Salvador TABIW A d9 Janaim F 6 Tropic of Caprioon mas Volta Redonda Gludad Ju vez Nuavo Lafado REVNOSA ynosa alamoms A9 PbZn A9 HIDALGO Ag Tampico Guadala MEXICAN GULF 39 Pu Vevacvuz Onzaba A9 Guatemala cnx 39 WI Tropic ol Cancev 39Belmogan EWM O Havana LAST TIME Popula rion gr39ow rh distribution and size in La rin America 3 Urbaniza rion gtPr oblems wi rh ur39ban gr39ow rhxm con rinued 39 f The urban economy 3 Migra rion i TODAY Agricultural and Rural Development 1 Tropical Deforestation Agricultural and Rural Development Internal Colonization of Tropical Lowlands 39 An example from Amazonia gtgt 600 million ha gtAmazonian environments Terra frHe Va rza 5 ISavanna x Development history in Amazonia Early exTracTive uses gtRubber gtFor es rr39y Development history in Amazonia 39 SponTaneousquot peasanT agricul rur al colonizaTion gtBr39azilian gtAndean Development history in Amazonia Governmen rally planned peasanT colonizaTion gt highways gt planning excessively cen rr alized gt Highway loca rion bad for soils gt geopoli rical mo rives gtdomes ric poli rical mo rives Development history in Amazonia 39 Ca r rle ranching Fishbone pa r rer ns Development history in Amazonia Scae amp geography of change 39 Soil degradaTion on already poor39 soils 39 Poor39 r39ur39al healTh Poor39 governmen r planning Development history in Amazonia Consequences Farm abandonmen r Consolida rion by caTTIe ranchers and large soy farmers urbanizaTion 39 Solutions 39 Amazonian deforestation Wider consequences 39 gtin Brazil gtspeculation and abandoned lands gtdeforestation of rare tropical rain forest gtdestruction of species gtdestruction of Indigenous people39s traditional livelihood gtconsequences for global warming gtfails to solve land tenure problem Tropical Defores ra r ion faresfa39l ion rates Tropical Deforestation quot Causes v gtagricultural clearing 39 gtpasture clearing gttimber harvesting gtoil explorationextraction gtpopulation growth gtdegradation of lands in source area 399 migrants gtpoor land tenure equity in source area migrants 4 opulation and Environmental Change in Latin merica 519 million people in 2000 UN 2001 30 year doubling time 1970 2000 1 Billiom Declining fertility Rural outmigration 236a Urbanization but Rapid forest clearing re Amazon basin alone contains the greatest extent of closed tropical forests in the world 45 of all the fresh water on the Earth the planet39s largest carbon sink the planet39s most bio diverse forests man development Impacts rural underdevelopme nt food production 7 Cen39rr39al America Fores r Cover T Turka inu thawa Minds 9 ttsin News a 39 C a v man manas Jamama Nether ih Ammas 1 ouTh America Foresf Cover Resulfs Ce fral America 1961 2001 15 deforestatin 13 million ha Great fempoml and geographic var in on CENTRAL AMERICA Rural Population Rural Population Density Change Cosm Rica Dominican Republic El Salvador Gualun ala Haiu39 Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama 1961 232 251 196172001 81 722 8 106 71 109 21 29 51 Deforesla 196172000 196172001 93 745 26 100 51 749 156 749 62 751 101 711 39 76 137 751 37 740 Change ForestCapila 19317 19617 2000 2000 724 772 109 59 717 766 762 730 746 770 5 756 2 732 751 779 747 768 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Central America Pasture and Arable amp Permanently Cropped Land as a Percent of Total Land 1961 1981 2001 M Whitmore rr Central America Costa Rica 542 1297 2057 19 72 128 v Dominican Republic 1111 1193 1723 14 58 98 i 7 El Salvador 278 497 495 21 88 73 V Guatemala 208 398 682 15 89 183 Haifi 302 782 682 0 6 14 Honduras 338 465 560 6 28 152 39 Mexico 1263 2217 2315 191 1561 1870 Nicaragua 153 637 438 4 60 23 Panama 248 483 504 5 30 29 1039 1775 1904 30 222 285 Average 191611 3001 62 million decrease in rural populn on Fur al popula fion dens ify nearly halVed deforersfafib39n 12 weighted SOUTH AMERICA Rurai Pnpulztinn Rurai Pnpulatinn Density Change Defnresm nn Change Faresuc ap in 1961 196172001 196172000 196172001 193172000 196172000 Argentina 019 34 719 34 39 713 Bulivia 149 32 47 712 713 40 Brazil 141 66 721 3 20 23 Chile 064 46 712 713 715 77 Culnmbiz 176 40 20 716 3 30 Ecuadur 113 34 59 743 35 64 Paraguay 150 43 101 3 714 46 Venezuela 215 757 6 26 3 19 T M Whitmore South America Pasture and Arable amp Permanently Cropped Land as a Percent of Total Land 1961 1981 gt South America Argentina Bolivia 499 444 426 05 7 12 r 1 Brazil 173 259 435 270 2753 6773 Chile 2502 2274 5261 46 114 451 Colombia 455 743 2115 71 250 540 Ecuador 1753 2065 2595 11 7a 231 7 Paraguay 370 309 215 06 9 67 39 Venezuela 1446 539 1657 19 146 300 H 459 474 739 54 1170 Average Itmore evisiting hypotheses ulation and Forest Clearing Positive relation between rural population and population density dynamics AND deforestation rates and deforestation rates per cap ita rural YES AND N O at are the land use drivers Positive relation between rural population and density dynamics AND cropland relative to pa and NO Negative relation between rural population and939 density AND relative agricultural intensification D afa 39limifn 39ibns Policy impl icafions I w Tropical lorasl Foresl deslrayed TM a Game mm hn r u 1 39739 Coastal pollution Polluted rivers Poor urban air quality ATLANTIC OCEAN I m3 3 Gnlant h on Md uponnuns dung1511375 Im9 37199 1 J DEFDRESTHTIDH H l BR ZIL LHHDSHT39 Tl l 73088 quot 39 FOREST C ER I N THE r5 BRAZILIAN AMAZON yvzn ZUELA G39 quot5 3 COLOM IA 2 KHA PERU 39 B LIVIA lilhrmlm quot FOREST COVER IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON VEN 1UELA a 1995 A HAN m 7 MEAN hum Kuunnlms RONDONIA FOREST COVER 1986 AM AZONAS MATO GROSSO mam mummml Wm l l l hll unuswm I m1n o ll IL39AI39I I L I w TH E LEGAL AMAZO NZ RONDONIA FOREST COV 1996 mquot mm m mum n Um mu m n amyRuuu lel o ham 0 EnPrrALEm THELEGAL AMAZON mun Roger J Harris 2001 Roger J Harri 2001 Tquoth39fit SJake x 2 VE NEVE r wnux rbr 2 J HA I n I E 39 Y xDomwmg DELI V BRAZW RMJE u V I x MANHmm e SW WW0 39 wit THEE Q0 3m ma 1 39 39 Cu 19g T 99 I X1 22 RA 1 N Wm lr FOREST L 0le Cum h l was a39starving farmer down in Brazil m 39 afraidrj rd have a hardtimeiakingecological 7 advicegfromLNewlMdyke rsfl i Last Time Industrialization in The Ia re 19Th 39 39 Cen rur39y up Through WWII 39 Impor r Subs ri ru rion L 39 Industrializa rion ISI 19403 19703 L y it 51 f39 Expor r Pr39omo rion Indusr rr39fdnl i a 39on i 39V 39F TODAY Popula rion gr39ow rh distribution and 139 size in La rin America Urbaniza rion gtPr39oblems wi rh ur39ban gr39ow rh con rinued The urban economy Population Size 2004 LaTin America amp Caribbean 540 m i fquot USA 292 m quot World 6315 m 39 Caribbean 38 m CenTral America wiTh Mexico 144 m Mexico 105 m V f SouTh America wiTh Brazil 358 m 39 Brazil 177 m Mexico Brazil 282 m gt of tAf Demography Growth related i 39 Ra re of Natural Increase RNI Z gtMeaning of crude in demography gtCr39ude Bir rh Ra re CBR live births1000 pop in a given year39 gtCr39ude Dea rh Ra re CDR dea rhs 1000 pop in a giveriiigfggr39 r gtCBR CDR RNI assumesj m migration in a given year39 Vie Rate of Natural Increase RNIyr La rin America 17 USA 06 World 13 More Developed World 01 Lesser developed world 16 19 Caribbean 12yr Cen rral America including Mexico quotv 294 Mexico 24 quot0 Sou rh America including Brazil 151 139 gtBrazil13 o Rate of Natural Increase RNIyr39 39 NoTable exTremes 39 HisTor ical Trends 19503 19803 gtDecine buT less rapidly now Total Fertility Rate T FR i verage total number of births to 7 a woman in her lifetime superior to CBR 39 21 gt parents only replacing themselves called replacement level fertility i l y gtneed the extra 01 due to 1 childhood deaths Aw 2005 Fertility T FR 0 LaTin America 26 A 739 USA 20 World 28 More Developed World 15 Lesser developed world 31 35 CenTral America including Mexico Mexico 26 Sou rh America including Brazil 39f in quot NoTable exTremes GuaTemala 44 Chile 20 218 T Death related mortality Mortality gtmeasured by life expectancy at birthquot 2 2 AVERAGE projected span of life at the date for a pop Infant Mortality Rate gt deaths of infants lt live births in Cl given Yr Life expectancy at birth Eo Latin America 71 yrs USA 77 World 67 More Developed World 76 Lesser developed world 63 65 Caribbean 69 Central America including Mexico 74 Mexico 75 South America including Brazil 70 Brazil 69 Individual extremes Infant Mortality Rate IMR Closely correlated with E0 amp very diagnostic of social underdevelopment and poverty Latin America 29 per 1000 live births or 29 USA 69 World 55 More Developed World 7 Lesser developed world 61 64 Caribbean 38 Central America including Mexico Mexico 25 South America including Brazil 30 Brazil 33 Individual extremes 2 39 E T Ag Population age structure youth i 39 Youthful pops of pop lt 15 years old 39 USA 21 World 30 gtLesser developed World 33 36 gtMore Developed World 18 39 Latin America 32 gtCentral America with Mexico 35 quot gtCaribbean 30 gtSouth America 31 A 39 Latin American extremes amp consequences Popula rion age s rr39uc rur39es d PopulaTion pyramid ConcepT of dependency r aTio 39 gtpop aged 015 pop aged 65 100 Pop age 1565 USA dependency r aTio gt10021 o 1366 o Developing wor39ld dependency r afquot gt10033 o 562 o g a LaTin Amer ica dependency r aTio gt10035 o 5 o60 o g r Population age structure aged quot Aged pops gt 65 p 39 USA 13 39 World 7 gtLesser developed World 4 5 39 Latin America 6 gtCentra America with Mexico 5 gtCaribbean 7 gtSouth America 6 739 Latin American extremes amp consequences Geographic distribution of popula rion High densi ry zones amp low densi ry zones Geographic dis rribu rion of popula rion 39 Urbaniza rion gtLarge ci ry urbaniza rion in LA Geographic distribution of popula rion Urbaniza on gtMegacifies 99N9WWNP Tokyo 35 m Mexico Cify 19 m NYC 185 m Bombay 18 S o Paulo 20 m Dehli 15 m Calcu H a 7 r I Buenos Aires 13 m 391 I 1 Jakarta 13 m 10 Shanghai 13 m 11 Dhaka 125 12Los Angeles 12 m 7 r gtEmer ging Megalopoli zones Geographic distribution of popula rion 39 Concep r of primacy Geographic distribution of popula rion 39 Concep r of primacy gtEg of Lima i 739 Organizations Roo rs of urban grow rh 39 Demographic gtR ro Urban migra rion gtNa rural increase 39 Economic gtIndus rrializa rion gtRura s ragna rion gtBanks and governmen rs Benefi rs from urban growth EfficienT provision of social services 39 CiTies ar e cenTer s of infor mGTiOH flOW and knowledge ConcenTr aTed and be er educaTed labor pool 39 Physical infr asTr39ucTur39e ofTen beHer39r v CiTies concenTr aTe human cap itg l V g39CiTies are a huge inTer nal marke l l 1 Easier linkages beTween indusTr ies 39 CiTies ar e ofTen be er offquot r 39 Problems with urban growth I 39 Housing gtFirst destination of poor migrants is the inner city slums gtEliioften still in posh neighborhoods in inner city gtOften close juxtapositionof rich and poor Problems with urban growth Selfhelp offen squa r rer housing gtFaveas Brazil colonas proe faras cudades perddas e rc gt2nd destination of R migran r gtSeen as places of permanence gt2540quoto of Total pop in somg quotTies gtIni rially se r rlemen rs lack f f infrasTrucTure gtMisconcepfions w v w a w 4 6391 g3 n Wm M Mu Lu M W s W Win quotA x r 3 a g V 51 wgg Iquot I hm may 1 V g mg i Fhlan 91 he a E 39


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