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by: Noemie O'Hara


Noemie O'Hara
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D. Montello

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D. Montello
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 5 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by D. Montello in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/226988/geog-5-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 Lecture 8 Population Chapter 4 0 Population geography 0 focuses on the number composition and distribution of human beings in relation to variations in the conditions of earth and space I differs from demography the statistical study of human population in its concern with spatial analysis 0 World population distribution 0 68 billion people for october 2009 0 almost 90 of all people live north of the equator and twothirds of the total dwell in the midlattitudes between 20 and 60 North 0 majority of the worlds inhabitants occupy only a small part of its land surface I half live on 5 23 live on 10 910 live on less than 20 0 people congregate in lowland areas numbers decrease with elevation I 50 and 60 percent of all people live below 650 feeta zone containg less that 30 percent od total land area 0 50 percent of people live 125 mi within a coastline 0 major concentration of the world 0 east asia south asia europe NE US and SE canada 0 6 Top Countries find top 10 0 China India USA Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Nigeria Bagledesh Russia Japan 0 Eucumene o Permanenetly inhabited areas of the earth s surface I 60 of the land permanently inhabited 0 Physical factors related to distribution 0 Continental margin 0 Arable land relatively flat valleys flood plains 0 Climate o Demography o The statistical study of human population in its concern with spatial analysis the relationship of number to an area 0 Crude birth rate 0 Annual number of live births per 1000 people per capita 0 Crude because without regard to age or sex composition of the population I Ex country with 2 million with 40000 live births 40000 2million 20 per 1000 o 30 or above per 1000 considered high I 15 h Africa west and south asia latin America of population live in places with high birthrate o Fertility rate 0 Number of lifetime live births per woman 0 Shows the rate and probability of reproduction among fertile females Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 o TFR tells us the average number of children that would be born to each woman if during her childbearing years she bore children at the current year s rate for women that age 0 Replacement fertility rate 0 Marks the level of fertility at which each successive generation of women produces exactly enough children to ensure that the same number of women survive to have offsprings themselves I Replacement level in reality should be 21 or 23 to account for infant mortality childless women and unexpected deaths I Based on social values developed low developing showing trends towards developing 0 Crude death rate 0 Annual number of deaths per 1000 people per capita 0 Infant mortality 0 How many infants die before their first birthday 0 Deaths age 1 year or less1000 live births Population pyramidsincude distinctive shapes and their meanings 0 Graphic device that represents a populations age and sex composition Population pyramid distinctive shapes and their meanings 0 Rapid Growth future I Pyramid with sloping sides I A population with a high proportion of young people will experience a high rate of natural increase unless there is a very highlevel of mortaltu rate among infant and juveniles or fertility and birth rates change materially 0 Slow Growth future I Vertical sides 0 Decline o Disrupted Growth I war 0 Dependency ratio 0 Simple measure of the number of economic dependents that each 100 people in their productive years must support 0 of economically dependent people peopleproductive people ages 1564 100 0 Demographic momentum 0 Population growth tends to continue for a while after changes in fertility and mortality I Due to age composition of many societies 0 When high proportion of population is young product of past high fertility rates larger and larger numbers enter childbearing years 0 Continye until they make their way through the population pyramid Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 0 Population with a greater number of young people tends to grow rapidly regardless of the level of childbearing o Takes about 70 years for the momentum to stabilize 0 Demographic change equations 0 Summarizes the contribution made to the regional population change over time by the combination of natural change and net migration 0 P2P1CBRCDR O I Rate of natural change 0 crude birth ratiocrude death ratio I NET migration change 0 immigrationemigration o Doubling time o The related time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant 0 70 years for a population with a growth of 1 to double and 35 for a 2 0 World population growth Linear growthvs exponential growth 0 Linear arithmetic I Growth at a constant rate fixed amount 1 2 3 4 o Exponential I 1238 o Bioptic potential J curve and carrying capacity Scurve o Bioptic potential jcurvethe way an organism or population would grow without checks 0 Carrying capacity scurve represents a population size consistent with and supportable by an exploitable resource base 0 Carrying capacity 0 Number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology 0 Technological changes and carrying capacity 0 More advanced technology irrifation biocides allows for more people at a higher level of living than basic technology slash and burn Increases carrying capacity 0 World history and pattern of growth rates 0 Rates of increase have risen over the span of human history therefore the doubling time has decreased begins with industrialization provides new means to support population growth made possible nby changes in agriculture and food supply 0 DemographicTransition 0 Demographic transition 151 stage I Birth and death rates are both high the population grows slowly 0 Demographic transition 2nd stage I Modernizing and consequences falling death rates due to advances in medicine population growth is less rapid Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 0 Demographic transition 3rd stage I Birth rates begin to decline as people control family size when the birth rate falls and the death rate remains low the population begins to level off 0 Demographic transition 4 h stage I Very low birth and death rates 0 Demographic transition 5 h stage I Population growth will result from demographic momentum o Malthus Essay on the Principles of population 0 Population is inevitably limited by the means of subsistence 0 Population invariably increases with increase in the means of subsistence unless prevented by powerful checks 0 Checks are private moral restraint celibacy chastity or destructive war poverty and famine o Needtolimit growth argument Maltusian and neeMalthusian o Malthusian I Natural checks 0 Neo Malthusian I Government programs birth control family planning 0 Zero population growth 0 The population ofa place neither grows nor declines o Calculating the carrying capacity 0 Noneedtolimit growth arguement o Gensus 0 Procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population P o Expresses the relationship between the number of inhabitants and the area they occupy O 0 Number of people per unit area of land usally within the boundaries of a political entity r 39 39 39 39 39 39 A ncih 1 A 1 nun 19 0 Total population divided by arable land alone expression of population pressure exerted on agricultural land Lecture 9 Economic Geography Introduction Chapter 8 0 economics 0 Study of production distribution and consumption of commodities o commodities o Goods and services that have value 0 goods and service 0 financial business professional clerical and personal services Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 0 We satisfy our needs and wants by buying goods and services Goods are items you can see and touch such as a book a pen salt shoes hats a folder etc Services are provided for you by other people such as a doctor a lawn mower worker a dentist haircut and eating in restaurants 0 subsistence economy 0 goods and services are created for the use of the producers and their kinship groups I limited exchange of goods and only limited need for markets I ex farmer 0 commercial 0 producers or their agents in thero freely market their gods and service the laws of supply and demand determine price and quantity and market competition is the primary force shaping production decisions and distribution 0 buying and selling free price and production system 0 planned economy 0 39 Iwith the 39 t quot quot societies that o producers or their agents disposed of goods and services through government agencies that controlled both supply and price 0 government influences or determines the basic geographic variables quotm 0 price is the controlling mechanism 0 supplydemand curve 0 if you raise the price of the commodity producers will make more quantity supplied increases and consumers will decrease quantity demand 0 market equilibrium 0 marked by the price at which supply equals demand 0 assumption of economically rational behavior 0 notion that people make decisions based on the desire to obtain the greatest amount of stratification utility people prefer more to less 0 categories sectors of economic activities 0 primary activities I those that harvest or extract something from the earth I Beginning of the production cycle I Humans are in closest contact with the resources and potentialities of the environment I Hunting and gathering grazing agriculture fishing forestry and mining o secondary activities I those that add value to materials by changing their form or combining them into more useful commodities I provision of form utility may range from simple handicraft production of pottery or woodenware to the delicate assembly of electronic gods or space vehicles 0 manufacturing and processing industries Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 0 energy and construction companies 0 tertiary activities I those business and labor specializations that provide services to the primary and secondary link between producers and consumertrade o wholeale and retail industry 0 dotcom internet sales 0 knowledge and information to maufacturers about market demadns o quaternary activities I llwhite collar professional workers in education government management research 0 quinary activities I high level decision making roles in all types of large organizations public or private 0 minimum price that must be paid at any location for the necessary inputs of production for a given item I ex federal taxes do not vary place to place 0 additional cost incurred in overcoming distance attracting labor purchasing the plant site and so forth 0 differs based on location MTM Wiiu MaiLiiu i iai l w 0 model by which you make the most rational choice know all the alternatives most logical decision you can make Lecture 10 Economic Geography Agriculture Chapter 8 2 pp 4042 0 hunting and gathering 0 requires a lot of energy and effort cannot support large or dense groups of humans 0 sexrole division of labor 0 shrinking quickly today o agricultural hearth o from which many agricultural innovations came 0 the end of the last ice age 800010000 bc was first emergence of agriculture 0 agricultural origins and dispersal by sauer 1952 0 book about C 39 g39 39 was39 39 I 39 39 innovated in many places in the old and the new world 0 agriculture started as Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 O O O O O O O O o vegetative and seed planting hybridization 0 selective breeding to improce stock and make it better for humans animal domestication herding o wandering but controlled movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage plants Sauer s Agriculture Origins and Dispersal rst Agricultural Revolution innovations in agriculture 0 irrigation mechanical tractors and other equipment chemical fertilizer and herbicides green revolution 0 introduce chemical agriculture 0 shorthand reference to a complex of seed and management innovation adapted to the needs of intensive agriculture and designed to bring larger harvest from a given area of farmland o modification hybridization Biotechnology smart agriculture 0 uses geography tailoring resources to maximize yields and minimize wastes extensive agriculture 0 involves large areas of land and minimal labor input intensive agriculture 0 cultivation of small landholdings through the expensiture of great amounts of labor subsistence commercial agriculture 0 high value product US tends to be run by large corporations that aim at profit maximization not minimal food security planned agriculture 0 collectivestate farms Shifting Cultivation o Slash and burn A form of extensive agriculture use lots of land slash and burn it then build until sopil nutrients used iup and then move nomadic herding 0 type of extensive agriculture 0 cattle sheep push to survive requires greatest amount of land per person sustained rice 0 known to have been cultivated for more than 7000 provides for the calories of half of the world s population truck farming o if product is perishable transportation costs increase because of the special handling that is needed refrigerated trucks and custom packaging reason for locations close to the market Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 O O O O O agrobuisness 0 growing merger of the older farm centered crop economy and newer patterns of more integrated production and margetting systems price supports 0 help farmers with the uncertainties of their specialization and stabilize the return of their39 quotquot39U 39 by communities U prIces for selected von thunen model 0 formal spatial model recognizing that as distance from the market increases as the value of land decreases isotropic plain 0 flat has no travel or communication barriers in any direction evenly distributed population land rent locational rent 0 function of overcoming the distance separating a given farm from a central market town the lower the transportation cost the higher the land rent concentric ring patterns 0 growth in demand would expand the ring of production and increase in transportation costs would shrink the ring of production margin of cultivation o the distance from a market where the revenue received from a product exactly equals the marginal cost relaxing von Thunen s assumptions mediterranean agriculture 0 specialized farming economy known for grapes oranges figs 0 need warm area and a great deal of sundhine 0 most productive in the world plantation agriculture 0 introduction ofa foreign element investment management marketing into an indigenous culture and economy crops were frequently foreign to the area of establishment as well as use of foreign labor gathering industries 0 fishing foresty fur trapping extractive industries 0 mining and quarring removing non renewable resources renewable resources 0 materials that can be consumed and then replenished relatively quickly by natural or human assisted processes nonrenewable resources 0 exist in finite amounts and are not replaced by natural processes or are replaced at a slower rate than that of use Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 Lecture 11 Economic Geography Manufacturing Chapter 9 not pp 288295 0 O O O O 0 000000 cottage and guild industries 0 small home based crafts people things were hand made origin and diffusion of industrial revolution 0 England mid 1700s replacing handmade by machines fuels replace human and animal power Multimodal freight movement transportation for second industry 0 involves the assembly and processing of inputs and the distribution of the outputs to other points and therefore poses the problem where the processing should take place terminal costs 0 charges associated with loading packing and unloading a shipment linehaul costs over the road 0 vary with shipment allocated according to the distance traveled break of bulk point 0 sites where goods have to be transferred or transshipped from one carrier to another when the transfer occur another fixed cost or terminal cost is levied significantly increasing total transport costs tapering principle shorthaul penalty 0 fixed and terminal costs are applied to every shipment regardless of the distance moved Weber cost minimization approach to factory location 0 explain the optimum location ofa manufacturing establishment in terms of minimization of 3 basic expenses relative transport costs labor costs and agglomeration costs material index webers 0 weight of localized raw materials divided by weight of the finished product used to decide where to put factory close to raw materials if sum greater than 1 place clost to market if sum less than 1 localized and ubiquitous raw material raw material resource orientation market orientation characteristics of materials or products other than weight that are relevant to factory location spatial median location allocation problem 0 finding the best location minimizing total distance spacecost functions 0 attempts to find an optimum location by incorporating all the costs I ex power skill ect conglomerate o conglomerate companies sole focus is money Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 O O O O O O transactions and hidden costs 0 costs in addition to what a company pays to create sell a good or service externalities 0 apply to everyone in an industryregion 0 costs or savings not resulting directly from the activity of a particular economic agent backwards links 0 going to get resources forward links 0 a way to distribute product ancillary activities 0 banking law enforcement things that not associated with the core activity of a firm agglomeration 0 spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefits advantages of agglomeration o industries can share labor force specialized reasons developed around a particular industry disadvantages of agglomeration o more I I I and land value becomes more costly agglomeration economies and diseconomies functional independence linkages and ancillary activities 0 multiple industries that rely on each other because activities provide a common link deglomeration 0 when the costs exceed the benefits firms will relocate to a more isolated position industrial quotparksquot 0 usually created in area not so developed to boost growth and land is cheaper justintime manufacturing 0 seeks to reduce inventories for the production process by purchasing inputs for arrival just in time to use and produce outputs just in time for sell corporations 0 formal business association with a publicly registered charter recognizing it as a separate legal entity having its own privileges and liabilities distinct from those of its members U39 39 quot 39 of ing 39 corporation 0 corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country globalization of manufacturing of conglomerate corporations maquiladora operations 0 foreign owned along the US border partially or completely foreign managed zonalibra o 12 miles buffer in northern mexico up against us border us and mexico agreed that the companies would be treated like state companies no extra charges added or regulations for being in mexico Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 o NAFTA 0 mid 90s 0 extendsthezonalibra o KAFTA o 2005 includes South America under quotzonalibraquot terms 0 comparative advantage 0 using resources from elsewhere 0 outsourcing 0 element of globalization 0 moving labor production manufacturing elsewhere 0 offshoring 0 foreign management to take over and run particular industry 0 hitech manufacturing o r 39 tand r 39 39 that is39 39 039 part ofthe advanced economies Lecture 12 Economic Geography Service Chapter 9 not pp 288295 0 changing structure of workforce in US 0 shift from mostly primary 66 1850 to mostly tertiary 83 2006 0 reasons for shi s o retial sales 0 hotellings locational interdependence model of retail location 0 looks at spatial variations in demand and the need to look at the locations of your competitors focus on revenue rather than cost 0 elastic demand 0 varies strongly with price and effort unnecessary things 0 inelastic demand 0 stays constant with variation in price necessary things 0 footloose industries 0 internet commerce mail order companies doesn t matter where the location of the company is because it is invisible to consumers o spectator entertainment 0 movie films games o tourism 0 worlds largest private industry makes up over 10 of world s economy 0 ecotourism o sustainable tourism trying not to pollute appreciate nature based on the environment legal gambling gaming in the US Indian Gaming Regulatory Act by US Congress 0 0 Lecture 13 Economic Geography Development Chapter 10 0 Definition and characteristics of development Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO o The extent to which the human and natural resources of an area or country have been brought into full productive use 0 May carry in common usage the implications of economic growth modernization and improvement in levels of material production and consumption 0 Also suggests changes in traditional socialcultural and political structures to resemble more nearly those displaued in countries and economics deemed as advanced o For other development and underdevelopment were postWWII inventions of Western cultural thought and economic institutions Indicators or measures of development 0 Statistics of national production per capita income energy consumption nutritional levels labor force characteristics and the like Economic and noneconomic social welfare and demographic indicators 0 GDI GDP vs GNI GNP GNIGDI per capita Purchasing power parity Aggregate multivariatemeasures of development UN s Human Development Index Northsouth line More developmed and less developmed countries know general world patterns Coreperipherysemiperiphery Trickledown effects Informal economy Technology transfer Women and development Gross national happiness Four core ideas of GNH Dependency theory Rostow modernization model 0 Traditional society I Subsistence I Lack of infrastructure I Low levels of technology I Poorly developed commercial economies I Kinship societies 0 Preconditions to take off I Setting stage for industrialization I Enterprising elites 0 Start investing in infrastructure I Organizingpolitically o Takeoff Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 I Industrialization factories I Sustained growth of the economy for about 2030 years I Growth in manufacturing sectornew industries I Resource exploitation 0 Drive to maturity I Technology becomes integral to the economy I Diversification of industry I Past industrialization 0 Mass consumption society I Consumer goods and services rival heavy industry I Consumption levels go way past subsistence levels 0 Postindustrialsocieties Lecture 14 Urban Geography Chapter 11 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Definition and varieties of cities Function of cities Megaciteies Census definition of core based statistical areas metropolitan and micropolitan SAs Conurbation consolidated MSA Megalopolis Historbal origins of urban centers when where why Worldwide urbanization trend Today s largest cities and fasted growing cities Informal housing squatter settlements Basic and nonbasic industries Basocnonbasic ratio and city size Multiplies effect Ranksize rule Primate cities Christaller s Central Place Theory Settlements central places and hinterlands market areas or complementary regions Market area tessellation Regular market area polygons Irregular market area polygons hierarchical nesting of central places and polygons urban hierarchy orders of central places and their commodities commodity threshold and range Geography 5 Midterm 2 Flashcards card 146 O O O 0 effect of accessibility and land value on the internal structure of North American cities 0 city center highest values land rent 0 reserved for most intensive land uses 0 distance decay moving away from the center I think van rutten intensive and extensive land use in cities 0 city centers urban nucleus are most intensive land use tallest buldings highest rent 0 extensive Central Business District CBD 0 City center is the urban nucleus aka CBD 0 Most intensive land uses pattern of population density in cities modal ring shift 0 also shows distance decay away from the center except for one exception 0 modal ring region with the highest density 0 it is a rig because you have to think of this as a two dimensional slice I tendency for modal ring to shift to periphery urban landusesocial demographic patterns internal structure TEXT BOOK SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC look at text book I concentric zones circles I sectors I multiple nuclei suburbanization o historically rich moved to fringe of city 0 mid 19 h century street cars and light rail in british and American cities people could work and shop and get entertainment in the city center but live in periphery because transit allowed them I Space time budget amp the power of transit role of transit in suburbanization 0 reasons for postWWII increase in US suburbanization 0 Kick started after WWII I Ascendency of the automobile I Reduction of work week I Flight of industry to cheaper periphery I Government sponsored housing loans I Baby boom I New values and attitudes problems of suburbanization o deterioration of the inner city I Central city was left to urban underclass of ethnic minorities and lowerclass I Less ofa tax base in inner city 0 Lac of supprt and decline of mass transportation in favor for automobile o Sprawling development I Eats up farmland and open areas and wilderness o Homogenization suburbs as bedroom communities 0 sleep in the bedroom and work in the city 0 malls shopping center that are in the periphery around freeway interchanges v the study of population s density size around the world or 7 7391 h39 Ml m within a speci c area lillu m d East 1 W mmn tmm e an North America 1 China 2 India 3 USA 4 Indonesia 5 Brazil tr 9 rate of the number of live births a woman has in her lifetime government in uence socialculture acceptance of big families 1 r h of opulatron a group of subjects who have shared particular time together during a particular time natural change net migration New Population net change aths net migrationImmigration 7 Emigration an m technological advances expand life expectancy arrying capacity u w le relatively stable and gr population growth is positive however growth rate in developed lg adual 2 The earth cannot sustain m w t in J g llmit the population or technology labor shifts across sectors primarysecondary jobs in V W 1 1quot u Maj w39 the old days to tertlary present l7 139 H F v technologymechanization advances cause modern day jobs in the US to be mainly tertiary makes manufacturing more efficient and replaces humans 4T Wham w does not have spatially variable costs the location does not depend on some cost and demand logic example are mail order companies Indians on reservations in certain states that laws permit gaming took advantage of the gaming industry 39 is the production or income of wealth generated within a countries border the wealth the productivity and interaction generated within a company based in one country wherever the company is located around the world MMquot r I u l A z Fl 391 taking wealth into account with what the costs are to live Aggregate multivariate measures of development n m New 39i m e ml in c l V i39 the index that the UN uses to rate how developed a nation is based off of the countries wealth GDP literacy rate death rate etc 7 39 the average happiness rating of a country n1 I Hf promotion of sustainable development preservationpromotion of cultural values conservation of natural environment and establishment of good governance rl 39 wily wily l L39U MDCDeveloped North vs LDCUndeveloped South M 1 my began after WW2 in 1950 s because countries that were colonizedruled by foreign countries began to gain independence Modern countries wanted poor countries to be at level with them thus believed that undeveloped countries should industrialize modern countries Modernization is the movement from subsistence to commercial economies that is made possible by building capitalistic and physical infrastructure LDC wants to create wealth by mass production specialization of an industry and substitution of capital labor replace manpower with mechanization MDC transfer capital to LDC through investment institutions like the Intemational Monetary Fund and the World Bank Ughm minus dynamic between rich and poor countries kept them poor To counter the of rich countries poor countries use protectionism and import substitution H wm 7 U Mum pro free market and the belief that state owned industries and protectionism did not relieve dependency but rather promoted it For LDCs to receive loans the IMF and World Bank required that government owned industries be sold to the private sector free trade be guaranteed and devaluation of their currency relative to other countries sz LDCs would protect their environment but at the same time opardize their standard of living es lm p wit W lacement mov to an entirely new area no overl External intercountry vs intracountry mi quot pattern of migration from one to the other ex certain county in China many people move to Chinatown African Americans out of the South towards the North and West low cotton prices ooding Jim Crow laws v i ucm ir1 JL l J Lquot l m 39 my practice of Europeans enslaving and transporting African slaves away from the African continent majority took place over 18Lh century Forced migration of many Native American tribes to ing in 183 l rublin Push a factor in the current location encouraging a move away pushes away Pull a factor in a different location that is attractive pulls people to it 7 how a place can meet one s needs how useful living in the place will be If current place utility lt new place utility a movemigration is likely people forced to leave their home country for reasons beyond their control disaster war etc Spatial search and choice models multiple story skyscrapers getting the most out of your property lmlx ands outwards as population grows within a city M h 1 mlw W 1 Automobile 2 Flight of industry to cheaper periphery 3 Baby boom 4 Government sponsored housing loans 5 New values attitudes 6 Reduction of the workweek hllhgt39he 4 l mmy 11 mm most of the workforce commutes out to earn their livelihood LEMTamquot wealthier people buying housing property in a less prosperous community mu warwt a geographic region de ned for the purpose oftaking a census ll l1 rjlew 39 lemma land use planning used by local governments may regulate building heights and prevent new developments l mw wm m m willquot Study of production distribution and consumption of commodities goods or services Subsistence Commercial market planned economy Performing economic activities for you your family and intermediate social ill L gr oup This often has no currency used Guided by a profit mentality Flamed economies Government controlled or in uenced Economic agents are motivated by maximized econom1c ut111ty maX1mize what you get for minimal costs Economic agents have complete and accurate knowledge that is relative to their decisions j Uses resources from primary activities to manufacture v Retail Wholesale personal and public services and transportation and communication 3954quot MIL w i to location Variable coss adjust depending on location metho Sexrole division of labor taxi HMM Elm Wits lru uiv m Small amount of resources cheap less valuable products More cost more workers more valuable Produces better product l lwmml Min quotxil l xr i Government Shifting cultivation 3 t 113139 MM fit Rice Truck farming Agribusiness Price supports Von Thunen model Land rent locational rent Concentric ring pattern Margin of cultivation Relaxing von Thunen39s assumptions Monoculture Plantation agriculture 39ml on x l139uluuj39u H 1 gym 1 u l wu39imx haw m Transport ofresources raw materials to factory that creates products for the market y r 1 Weight of localized raw materialsweight of nished product 7 llw W M a 1 il Localized Resources harvest d nearby Ubiquitous not localized factory or manufacturing center placed near raw materials An aggregated settlement of relatively high population size and y that is internally structured nucleated really fucking big ass cities like New York Los Angeles and Tokyo 1 mm t i ood supply It is a strati ed society lO GEOG 5 Fall 2011 People Place Environment Professor Montello Study Guide for Final Exam Questions on Final Exam cover the following topics in addition to material from Exams 1 and 2 Chapter 12 de nition of politics and political geography o the study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena including their impact on other spatial components of society and culture Nationalisty is a basic element in cultural variation among people and political geography traditionaly has had a primary interest in country units or states 0 socialcultural rules and institutions for the control and administration of people and resources includes land two main concepts territory and politics territory 0 territorialization of Earth39s surface practiced by all humans attempt by humans to identify with control claim administrate their landwater land disputes and war 0 invented and actual countries eXist mostly in the minds of its citizens must get others to recognize it and its legitimacy you are a country if others recognize you as one Disputes over territory are mainonly cause of war political status of Antarctica 0 Has territorial claims for seven countries These claims have not been pressed because of the Antarctica Treaty of 1959 It has neither an established government nor a permanent population so it is not a state microstate of Sealand 0 Prince Roy took over an abandoned WWII bunker 6 miles off the coast of England population of about 5 people Outside of British national water geopolitics o the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state 0 the effects of the locationspatial properties of a place on its political situation electoral geography o The study of the interactions among space place and region and the conduct and results of elections 0 how voting patterns are related to demographic patterns in a particular region or space voting demographics o electoral districts are types of administrative regions who does this elected official represent who gets to vote for them redistricting 0 when population changes must change districts aka redistricting changes size shape location way of redistricting makes big difference gerrymandering o a type of redistricting done intentionally to try to control the outcome of an election like salamander 1812 Elbridge Gerry signed into law a redistricting plan gave majority to self highly irregular shaped voting districts CA has highly gerrymandered districts Lois Capps dems have gerrymandered texas has republican gerrymandering ethnicracial maj orityminority districts 0 racial gerrymandering an attempt to ensure minority representation usually african americans an attempt to create majorityminority districts on the assumption that african americans will vote differently than nonafrican americans compactness of electoral districts 0 region is as close to rest of region as possible most compact shape circle should naturally occur as a result of distance decay compactness is good but also need to quotrepresent smallergroup minoritiesquot so con icts w compactness sometimes state as administrative region 0 same as a country internationally recognized under own sovereign control about 200 in world right now a bounded territory nation as thematic grouping of people with or without region 0 nation a group with a common ancestry cultural identity if they have land can form a thematic region not synonymous with statecountry a group who selfidentifies with a nation common belief cognitive many nations do not have own territory may have current cultural claim to a homeland there are around 5000 nations nation as cognitive grouping of people with or without region 0 sovereignty 0 complete independence in selfgovemment complete powerrule over state combinations of states and nations 0 centripetal and centrifugal forces in political states 0 centrifugal forces 0 Forces that tend to divide a country 0 centripetal forces 0 Forces that tend untie or bind a country together autonomous nationalism o terrorism 0 multistate supranational organizations 0 two or more countries eX United Nations European Unions NATO United Nations 0 designed mid 20th century created after League of Nations failed created by President Woodrow Wilson but US didn39t join European Union 0 use similar currencies europound similar financial systems NAFTA and CAFTA o NATO internal administrative regions 0 cadastral regions 0 largest and smallest states o characteristic state shapes 0 enclaves and exclaves o landlocked states 0 A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes cores and capitals of states 0 administrative boundaries borders 0 can be made very precise like 1 dimentional in past boundaries were thick vague borders the extent of a country39s ability to control its territory in past borders are often contested cause disputes especially when resources are at stake culturalracial differences frontier zones 0 natural physical vs artificial geometric boundaries 0 often correspond to natural features naturalphysical boundaries like mountainsrivers can also not follow natural borders lines drawn by humans also rivers change riverbed moves if define border as edge of river amp river moves what happens lose gain land antecedent vs subsequent boundaries 0 antecendent o A boundary line established before an area is populated consequent vs superimposed subsequent boundaries 0 maritime boundaries 0 countries extended out into sea normally 3 mi extended out into sea is country39s territory in past how far cannons could be shot UNCLOS UNCLOS 0 United Nations Convention on Laws Of the Sea 1982 created 3 maritime zones territorial sea contiguous zone exclusive economic zone and high seas continental shelf 0 land underneath shallow water still part of continent territorial waters 0 12 nautical miles out from ocean boundary contiguous zone 0 24 additional nautical miles out to sea from territorial waters exclusive economic zone EEZ o 200 nautical miles out to sea includes territorial sea and contiguous zone high seas international waters 0 past 200 miles out to see noman39sland Chapter 13 natural vs anthropogenic built environment 0 natural unmodifieduntouched by humans as opposed to human made anthropogenic human made nature as constructed 0 aren t humans quotnaturalquot can humans quotmakequot nature is nature good humans vs nature geography and the natural environment 0 specify natural environment vs human environment environmental determinism o envgt culture idea that the environment determines the nature of human culture cultural determinismautonomy o autonomy envltculture idea that cultures impact the natural world but cultures quot 39 are only 39 are other humans human body o cultureenvironment interactionism o envltgt culture medium between other two termsextremes can39t eat sh if don39t live near water if live in wet climate develop different types of agriculture environmental possibleismprobablism instead of determinism resourceland use appreciation of nature tourism deforestation deserti cation pollution environmental hazards 0 old form of geography extreme vs hazard events extreme events vs hazard events 0 extreme events of unusual magnitude MAY OR MAY NOT be hazardous to people hazard an extreme event that IS hazardous to humans physical magnitude vs hazard magnitude 0 Richter Scale for earthquakes hazard meter in terms of how many people feel it and how much gets broken as well as physical as human beings we really care about hazard magnitude classifying hazards as natural or anthropogenic o no hazardous event is ever completely due to nature ex frre lightning arson AIDS caused by virus spread by humans hunger governments amp crops humans always involved start spread are threatened by factors etc so not really anything that is truly solely a natural hazard same with blaming solely on human activity types of natural hazards I O I I 39I 39 I I39 I gculuulJ 39 hazards includes geophysical meteorological blizzard snow fire ice and geomorphic erosion avalanche earthquake and then biological oral fungal disease weeds athletes foot and faunal malaria rabies termites plague types of anthropogenic hazards o technological and social nuclear bombs air pollution deforestation wastedumps climate change cause of hazards in nature society and technology 0 classifying hazards by spacetime parameters 0 frequency duration areaextent speed of onset spatial exertion temporal space pervasiveintensive continuum for hazards 0 historical trends in hazard outcomes during 20th century 0 more people living in hazardous areas more economic development loss of life due to hazards has declined because of better warning wywtems evacuation plans predictive models storm drains economic loss due to hazards has increased rescue attempts damage loss of tourism cost of prevention measures hurricanes in the US since 1900 0 ON WEBSITE top 10 deadliest before 1950 top 10 costliest after 1950 Santa Barbara earthquake of 1925 0 San Francisco earthquake of 1906 o hazard perception o people s beliefs and attitudes about hazards likelihood they will occur consequences preparation expectation risk perception vs risk assessment 0 perception lay person39s perception of risk assessment use of statistical data computational models reasonsbackgroundstools that lay people do not have often very big discordance between F rquot amp ex 1 J quot riding in plane is more dangerous than car not true intuitive statistics 0 discrediting risks 0 causes suboptimal decisionmaking tendency to discredit serious risks don39t take chance of hazards seriously decisionmaking heuristics 0 little rules of thumb that people have for decisionmaking at times of stressnot optimal thinking for rapid decision making tiger jumps out at you from a bush availability heuristic o if you have a personal experience with a hazard have greater perception of risk house burns down more aware of fire danger also media pushedin uenced gambler s fallacy o the belief in the nonindependence of events that are actually independent pull slot machine pays off person before you you figure it won39t pay out anymore go to different machine belief that events are based on previous events lightning never strikes twice residential inertia o the desire to remain in one place live in same house for long time not move caused by many factors can t just pick up and move even if living in hazardprone area ex live by ocean hazardous but benefits nice shops climate house burns down rebuild in same spot unwillingness to move reciprocal interaction of humans and natural environment 0 environments in uence humans in good amp bad ways human beings are major cause of species extinction but also protect them resources and hazards reflect human needs and values 0 humans effect environment turn it into resources humansltgt natural environment


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