New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Noemie O'Hara


Noemie O'Hara
GPA 3.72


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Geography

This 82 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 167 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/226991/geog-167-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
B i o eog ra P quot Plant and Animal Distributions Course composition Cl how mam5 qeograPMB majors 66MB va studies Cl how mam5 of 504 have taken 6606 3A or BB Awb oLasses with me before Cl how about basic courses Cm 600L065 or PLaw c 1314551014965 geoLogb Biogeography The Study of Plant and Animal Distributions GeographyEnvironmental Studies 167 UCSB Winter Quarter 2009 Instructor httpiwwwgeogucsbeducstillfGEOG167 Teaching assistant and Course meeting times TR 1230l45pm Ellison M 3621 Discussion soctlons T 4450pm W 1111150an1 Ellison 2620 Course text Biogeography Space Time and Life by Glen M MacDonald 2003 ISBN 0471 241938 on reserve at the Davidson library Other Optional books also on reserve at the librarv Song of the Dado by David Biogeography An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach by C Barry Cox and Peter D Moore Biogeagmphy by James H Brown and Mark lamghnmo Why Big F ierce Animals Are Rare by Paul lej uyamg Assigned reading January 6 8 Introduction and overview of global biodiversity and productivity Chapters 1 2 patterns taxonomic groping and ecological levels of organization January 13 15 Physical controlslinteractions and the distribution of life Chapter 3 January 20 22 Physical controlsinteractions and the distribution of life cont Chapters 34 Biological controlslinteractions and the distribution of life Lecture days Topic J an 27 29 Biological interactions and the distribution of life Disturbance Chapters 4 5 February 3 5 Disturbance denggpmmgnology midterm exam 1 Feb 5 Chapter 5 Feb 10 12 Communities and biomes Term paper topic and abstract due Chapter 6 February 12 Feb 17 19 Geological time and continental drift Quaternary climate change Chapter 7 Overnight field trip to Big gig coast February 2021 Feb 24 26 Quaternary climate change cont Dispersal colonization and Chapters 78 invasion Term paper annotated bibliography due February 26 March 2 4 Dispersal colonization and invasion cont midterm exam 2 Chapter 8 March 4 March 9 ll Biogeography and human evolution Chapter ll March 17 Term paper due Tuesday March 17 by 12 pm Note please check the web page frequently as the syllabus will change slightly throughout the quarter I will announce major changes to the syllabus in class i G railing better grades will be assigned at the end of the quarter based on the following cutoffs A 90 100 B 80 89 C 7079 D 60 69 F 450 The grade assignment will be determined from your performance in the following course components Assignments 25 Participation in section 5 2 lVIidterms 20 each 40 of total grade Term paper 30 Midterm exams will be held on February 5 and March 4 I only allow makeup exams in the most extreme situations eg unavoidable scheduling con ict from a University team sport or dire sickness and I require written veri cation in any situation ie note from coach or doctor Term paper There will not be a nal exam instead you will be required to write a term paper on a lgjggeoggaphgcwal topic of your choice The term paper will be due by Tuesday March 17th at 12pm this is the day the nal exam would be held see page 29 in the Winter quarter Schedule of Classes Details on the paper will be posted on the course web site under the Term Paper tab and I will give several handouts throughout the quarter Reader There is no course reader I will post on the course Website assignments and reprints usually 13135 of major papers to be discussed in class Assignments Assignments will be given most weeks and discussed in the following week s discussion section They are reprinted in the course reader Your TA Sara will discuss these assignments with you in the first section meeting held during the rst week of class Lectures I will post PDF copies of the lectures on the course website Each le will generally be available the afternoon after the lecture as I modify it right up to the lecture Field trip We will take an overnight eld trip to survey the ecosystems in the central coast region We will camp at the UC hwdwelsn Big Creek Reserve on the Big Q11 coast The trip is tentatively scheduled for be Fri Sat Feb 20 21 2009 Things we will see include Monterey Pines in Cambria elephant seals in San Simeon Redwoods at Big Creek and much more Attendance is not mandatory but is strongly encouraged so that we can examine in the field some of the vegetation patterns and ecosystems that we have covered in the classroom I will announce what to bring and other logistical details in the weeks prior to the trip We will also survey plants and different habitats around campus throughout the quarter Tree Tour Course description Biogeography is a scientific discipline that describes the spatial and temporal distributions of organisms and tries to understand the physical and biological factors and interactions that determine these distributions Biogeography synthesizes knowledge from a variety of elds including ecology geography physiology botany climatology biometeorology evolution paleontology and genetics some topics we ll cover speciation migration island biogeography extinction global change geological time we will focus on terrestrial distributions more than oceanic distributions and on plant distributions phytogeography more than animal distributions zoogeography Why study biogeography there are many reasons but here are a few To gaiw a greater appreciationi for Life ow earth To uwderstawd whg the patterws of awivwaLs avwl pLawts are what theg are To appreciate how humaws iwteraot with the sgstevus ofLife avwl how we are ohawgiwg them Some biogeographical questions whg do oowiferous trees iworease iw abuwdawoe awd broadLeaf trees decrease as owe moves from equator to poLe whg are there more hummiwgbird species iw the westerw Ms evew though overaLL bird diversitg is higher iw the easterw MS whg are isLawds so weird ex the sorubjag is Larger ow sawta Cruz sLawd thaw iw sawta Barbara but the sawta Cruz lsLawd fox is smaLLer thaw its maiuLawd couwter part whg are there LatitudiwaL gradiewts iw biodiversitg the Amazow basiw aLowe has jopoo species of oweriwg pLawts whg does caLiforwia have higher pLawt diversitg thaw awg oomparabLg sized regiow iw temperate North America What is this spatial Global Net Primary Productivity NPP pattern Nsiescribing Units gCrnZyear describing 7 Number of vascular plant specks Sea surface quot 000 km 100 I 5W1000 27 C I loozoo I 20003000 29 c New quotIn map scuncmly only av Ilnblcm I 20050 I 3500409 he RDblnSDquot prolrtuou a hombre companson wnmhc oihcrmaps which mom I wow I 004 the Moltweda nrogmnn as appvoxlmm I wooI500 I gt 5000 Plant Species Diversity Numbevul VIKMIIV plant wean Sea urhu per mm m lemperalun n IV C mun wucmlyanl wanbmx mmm uan nml meni mmpamcn mm hr mhrr mam u mlv an In llu PvlonrILlr wom mm JFW39U WM 3 E E What is this d5 45pm a pattern EU describihu E 5 Image credit D Prestiss UCSB MTPE Earth39s Biomes Temperate grasslands sonannas and shrublands Tropiral and subhnpkaltuniferous forest soreal foreststaigas Deserts and nerio shrublands asslan 5 s Tropizal and sublropiral dry broadleaf forests Tropical and suboooiealgresslands Montana grasslands savannas and shru l snow i Temperate buoadleafand mixed forests Temperate coniferous forests Mediterranean snub Tropitzl and suboopiulmoisuroadleaf forests un ra Inland Water What factors determine the spatio temporal distributions of organisms Physicl Iologia 01 a woe Climate competition Histora topography predation disturbance dispersal WE LL foams on Image credit D these two Ussery Roanoke quotq Kingdom Mime ngdom Pianhe 0 39 College Some web information http tolweborgtreephylogenyhtml http ucjeps berkeleyedu TreeofLife links php See also special issue of Science wwwsciencemagorg on June 13 2003 Volume 300 5626 o o o King Phillips Came Over TABLE 21 A Systematics Taxonomic Hierarchy of Eastern White Pine Pinus strohus and Humans Homo sapiens sapiens White Pines Humans Species Pinus srmDus Homo Sapiens sapiens Genus Pinus Homo Family Pinaceae Homonidae Order Coniferales Primates Class vanospermae Mammalia Mammalia Class 2122 liiiii mm iii Primates Order Hominidae Family Homo Genus sapz39ens species What is a species phylogenetic species concept a group of sexually reproducing organisms that share at least one diagnostic character present in all membersot the species MacDonald p 12 biological species concept a group of organisms that can interbreed freely under natural conditions but what about asexually reproducing organisms evolutionary species concept organisms that have a direct ancestordescendant relationship that is traceable in the fossil record but what about species that don t leave a trace in the fossil record Eastern white pine pine FA 33 A The needles cones and shapes of a mature eastern white pine Pinus strabus and a western lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Notice that both pine species share a general resemblance but possess clear differences in terms of their needles cones and mature form 10 The proloLcm with commow wamcs FIGURE 2 1 While pine trees of me genus and specins Pinus SVODUS growing in the Pocono Mountains oi Pennsylvania la and so called Norfolk Island pines of the genus and species Araucalia heterophylla growing an Norfolk Island in the South Paci c bl Although both species are called pines zhey are unrelated and only while pine is actually a member ofthe pine genus l Ecoloqical Levels of Orqanization individual organism l l individual organism J 11 coosgs cem I matenal o er popua 0 different organisms V metapopula rion metapopulation I populaiio I I 1 single species 391 l individual organism I l individual organism I J Trophic Hierarchies tgpicaLLg 5 eat other carnivores LCVCLS m a humans given troph39w quotpgramiol eat herbivores humans cat pLawts humans Heterotrophs 12 I39m r fHAerring Gull i T rophio reLatLowsllips avwl food webs iv the reaL worLd Zoopla klon JeHy Sh Barnacles i l Phyloplanklon FIGURE 23 The complexity of energy flow within an ecosystem illustrated by a simplified and small pan of the food web forms northwestern Allanlic Ocean after Lavinge 1992 Despite its complexity a lrophic hierarchy with planktonic plants at Ihe base and sharks mammals and birds m the top is still apparent Carbon and Energy Flows 14 X 10A19 Jyr 01 Petagrams Cyr quot10 ruLcquot 14x 1 00 Petagrams 10A22 Jyr Cyr 13 252 ll Trophic Dynamics Th n k of the size Terrestrial ecosystem Biomass Aquatic ecusystem Of OC ean C Secondary carnivores Phytoplan kton Primary carnivores and their rapid Herbivores turnover tlme Primary producers Terrestrial ecosystem Energy 0W Aquatic ecosystem Secondary carnivores Primarycarnivores Herbivores Prlmary producers FIGURE 118 Pyramids of biomass and energy in a is lost at each lrophic transfer Biomass terrestrial and an aquatic food chain The width of differ between terrestrial and aquatic for each box is proporliunal to its biomass or energy because most plant biomass is nol eaten content Pyramids of energy are structurally similar whereas most plant biomass phytoplai in terrestrial and aquatic food chains because energy eaten and is short lived in aquatic ecosyst The spatial distribution of global NPP Units grams carbonm2 year NP 180 120W 60W 0 60E 120E 180 0 1 00 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Global total IOO Pg Cyr Credit Field at al Science 28I 23740 I998 1439 Heterotrophic respiration HR Acronym soup CO2 from heterotrophs feeding off of G NPP ross primary Net I primary Pmduct39v39t GPP 39 productivity NPP photosynthesis CO2 from plant respiration GPP gross plant uptake of C02 NPP net plant uptake after pant respiration NPP 2 GPP HR NPP Emissions Fdisturn Rheiemir m it LMJL Soil organic anal and microbes NPP GPP Rpm 15 Chapter l Biogeography and human evolution Lecture l7 IO March 2009 Notes midterm 2 due back on Thursday 2 Final paper is due Tuesday March I7 by l2 pm please email to me and Sara as a PDF to save paper 3 course evaluations will be handed out in the last IO minuteswi someone volunteer to return them to Kathy Davis in the Geography office Ist floor Ellison Hall Modern biogeographic regions Oceania Antarctic ora plants and fauna animals combined httpwwwwordwidifeor gecor egionsimagesbior ealmnewg A central question how have geography and environmental changes shaped human evolution and the spread of humans around the globe mman taxonomy we are the only surviving members of the Hominidae family and Homo genus Homo sapiens sapiens we are more distantly related to Neotropical primates which probably crossed to S America when it and Africa were joined in the Cretaceous and more closely related to old world primates in Africa and Asia What makes a primate an order in taxonomy primates are distinguished from other mammal orders by having dexterous hands with opposable thumbs nails instead of claws 5 fingers and toes small litters and eyes on the front of the face providing good depth perception and color vision all of these traits are likely related to the early arboreal tree lifestyle primates probably evolved from an arboreal insectivore sometime in the Cretaceous between 100 and 70 MYA the primate order is divided into two branches the more primitive prosimians and the anthropoids monkeys apes and humans Ioris lemur tarsier AyeAye all prosimians Humans and our closest relatives w h I V i 39r La fili irr H r1233 C tc u C4 3r39iiui il V 1 I the similarity of DNA 98 3rd chim anzee httpwwwwwnortoncomcdlydi ersity g37gif Mammal evolution and history Therapsid a kind of reptile thought to be the cestor of mammals 270 MYA Early Mammals 200 mya rst mam mal s we re tquot 4eggIaying and shrewlike i wf ra httpwwwauburneduacademicc j e gazostrodon Sp erapsidjpe S momn061011 Sp 7 UK v 39 quot A A13 A M 398 39 gnu395 5quot L in Simmonudun from Shahlcr rll1urL 1987 j W SCIENCE and Earth l iistmy Prometheus Pg 420 Megazom39odon from Strickbergcr Monroe v 1990 Evolution JOst amp Bartlem Pg 30 Marsupials and placentals live birth came next marsupials are thought to have evolved rst in N America followed closely by placental mammals in Asia not only did the rst mammals appear around when the rst dinosaurs did but they coexisted with them for some I60 million years placentals outcompeted marsupials between ICC and 50 MYA except in Australia where placentals were absent Laurasiatheria GD 79 LT 83 Euarchontoglires quotquot60 94 LT 95 Xenarthra QD103 LT 103 Afroiheria 120na1oo so so 70 so 40 so 20 10 0 Million years before present mammal divergence into many orders started well before the demise of the dinosaurs in the KT extinction event although that event precipitated much more divergence Early placental evolution 103 MYA 4 3 V L I Equot i335 ii thra 3 i z39 gt g Boreoeutheriaj rq Murphy et a Science 2942348 ZOOI httpwwwgged acukhom es98 0658eastlothiantime Fossil Record scalegif Current Mass Extinction Event Terii ary Late Cretaceous Mass Extinction Jumssic Late Triassic Mass Extinction Permian Mass Extinction Pe rmia39l Ear bani ferou s Late Devonian Mass Extinction PRECRMBBLRN thy y w xv 4500 Ma The KT Extinction Event 65 MYA late Cretaceous paleontologists had long recognized a large change in fossils on either side of the KT boundary the extinctions were thought to result from climatic changes the fatherson team of Luis and Walter Alvarez at UC Berkeley proposed in I980 that an asteroid impact caused the extinctions this followed from the evidence of a large spike in the rare element iridium in KT layers around the planet iridium is delivered to earth s surface by extraterrestrial bodies but they had not identi ed a candidate impact crater that was large enough and of the right age httphyperphysicsphy astrgsueduhbasegeophysgeopiciridi mJ Pg L Alvarez didn t initially suspect an asteroid impact he wanted to look at iridium as a way to establish the time span of the KT boundary and thus inform the debate on the rapidity of species turnover seen by paleontologists 2000 by Jake Bailey Adapted from quotAtlas of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Coastlinesquot Smith et al 1994 httpwwwathenapubcommaymcrygif meteor diameter was probably lOl4 km the crater depth was some 40 km the shock impact Chichen produced magnitude IO mmmk quot1 earthquakes O r quotmquot YUCA TA N energy of impact was IOO million megatons of TNT to put this in perspective it is 6 million Mt St Helens eruptions or 6 billion times the energy of the Hiroshima atomic bomb Evidence for the crater Cenotes httpwwwathempubmumWcm lzf httpwwwjhe dunbrcwmcump utugmphyyu eg 5 Gravuty eld map Emma mew Imp wwapIarimmeduIsncIimpmmerin5Chicxulubgpcenmsjpg Environmental Changes following the Impact any organisms within few hundred kilometers were likely destroyed by the heat and shock waves the impact created huge tsunamis all over the Gulf of Mexico huge quantities of material were hurled into the atmosphere creating dust clouds that blocked incoming sunlight for months cooled temperatures and decreased plant growth precipitation was likely acidic sulfuric and nitric thanks to the ejected surface material Differential Survival Rates Support the Changes Resulting from an Impact those organisms that could regulate their body temperature by metabolic means small endotherms like birds and mammals had much higher survival rates those organisms that had a life stage resistant to cold temperatures seed plants insects also had higher survival rates Mammal adaptive radiation at the KT boundary 120 I H l I i l 39u ll l 39l 100 fa x 39 mammals speciated m a 2 o g 50 rapidly to ll the 60 min ecological l body size also n39c es 3 Process C l o 40 I increased known as adaptive 2 radiation left open 1 7 4 by the demise of the M a m m al 21 d O I Inosaurs 100 80 60 30 20 O A Timr lily httpwwwmicroutexaseducourseslevinbio304evolutionmammalspeciationgif Primate evolution I rst horninids SIEUUIUUD Miocene rst apes Old World monkeys Small maxed homunoids AFHICAN ASIAN I141 11 MM Oligocene messaged rst monkeys mamus 35400000 N e w 39a k car It Eocene monkeys MIOCEM 39 50500000 Paleocene 292m rstprosimiane v gt 00000000 Dusocswe u httpanthropalomareduearlyprimatesimagespri mate evo39uuon39glf httpcitdscarutorontocaANTAO ectu reimagesmaj ordiver PG Approxima re loca rions of confinen rs in rhe Eocene 50 MYA www5caiese cam Arboreal prosimian primafes were widely disfribufed across Africa Europe Asia and N America by fhis Hme whaf sorf 0F vegefafion was no re rhe closeness of rhese probably widespread ii con rinen rs and rhe separa rion of primafes were N America and Europe widespread Prima res in Nor rh America There is Fossil evidence For very early Eocene prima res in N America prosimians ances rors oF roday s lemurs These early prima res wen r ex rinc r by la re Eocene Times and no prima res show up again un ril aF rer rhe Grea r American In rerchange given rha r Asia and N America were Frequen rly linked via Beringia over The las r quot50 million years why did N America never have old world monkeys and apes Early An rhropoid Prima res Aegyp ropi rhecus rhe likely ances ror oF modern apes and humans From Fossil deposi rs in Egyp r rha r da re To The Oligocene quot31 MYA rhese prima res were small size oF a house ca r rree dwellers wi rh prehensile hands and Feel pro rec red bony eye socke rs For s rereoscopic vision and reduced snou r and olFac rory lobes Miocene Prima res apes came on The scene and became widespread rhroughou r Asia and Europe during The early Miocene quot2416 MYA ex rensive Fores r cover s rill exis red and mos r oF rhese apes were arboreal quadrupeds one of These prima res was probably ances rral ro humans rhe Ramapifhecines rhe mos r impressive la re Miocene ape in Asia was no r arboreal Giganfopifhecus Gigam oQfhecus rsl Fossils jaws leelh show up al the end oF lhe Miocene 5 6 MYA diel was similar lo loday39s panda bamboo leaves discovered by a German paleonlologisl named Ralph von Koenigswald in a Chinese apolhecary in lhe 1930s hllp gnliloxnldosNedaFossinngBSFossilsj uAimngesp sum Gigan ropi rhecus would have been 10 Fee r fall if if was uprigh r and weighed 6001300 pounds by Far rhe larges r prima re on ear rh Gigan ropi rhecus probably wen r ex rinc r 200000 years ago concordan r wi rh The near ex rinc rion 0F gian r pandas early hominids like H erec rus may have con rribu red ro Gigan ropi rhecus ex rinc rion h r rpwwwuiowaedu na rhis rSi reimgesnewgan romee rsmanjpg Is Gigan ropifhecus really exfincf A I I 3 z f 4e Gigan ropi rhecus s rory edubioanthgigantohtml Back ro o rher prima res in rhe la re Miocene roughly 105 MYA recall rha r apes were widespread abundan r and very diverse in Eurasia and Africa rhroughou r rhe Miocene in The la re Miocene many of These apelike prima res suFFered severe declines and ex rinc rions one possible reason is increasing compe ri rion From monkeys and preda rion pressure From new ca r carnivores ano rher reason was global clima re change ear rh became cooler and especially drier and CO2 levels dropped below 01 1000 ppm how do we know abou r The E 8 8r 9 00 o 1 clima re a 0 quot 51 D Change 2 039 I 0 n 14 o g o 0 O 36quot O O 0 1H7 391 O a c 1 1 Quade and Cerling quot 1a Palaeo3 1995 o Poelcarbonm The world changed considerably in The la re Miocene quot105 MYA ear rh became cooler and especially drier and C02 levels dropped below 01 For The rs r lime in lens of millions oF years These changes Favored rhe replacemen r oF Fores rs wi rh savannas and grasslands rhe vege ra rion changes severely aFFec red The numerous arboreal apelike prima res rha r were Formerly widespread 20 30 40 50 60 7O fliucene Oligocene Eorte ne I Lu staaqsraal aiaqui E Partial or Ephemeral I Full Scale and Permanent Paleocene ll39 Climatic Tectonic Biotie 0 Events Events Events l 0 I I I 39 I I I Large mammal extinctions I I I panama Great American Interchangequot W Antarctic ice sheet Seaway closes Asian monsoons intensify I E Antaren39c icesheet MidMiocene Colnmbia River I lCliniatic Optimum Volcamsm I I a I Tibetan Plateau upl t i 339 I accelerates 4 in1 Giam m ion Red Sea Rifting i Plate reorganization Latevg ll fj336ne amp Andean uplift 3 I Drake Passage opens I TasmaniaAntarch 39 1 i 01 in ation passage opens SHED S 3 C HQ Small ephemeral Ice sheets appear plate reorganization amp I reduction in sea oor spreading rates quots 1 E Eocene C ii39mcrtic Optimum N Atlantic Rifn39ng Vole anism India Asia contact Late Paleocene zer mal Marimmri Meteor Impact C4 grasses expand seals amp sea lions appear Coral Extinction other mammals diversify Hounni39ds appear Horses diversify large carnivores amp archaic mammals Aquot I broad leaf forests decline baleen whales appear Ungulates diversify primates decline Archaic whales Mammals disperse Benthie extinction KT Mass Extinctions quot W N ft 1 039 IIIIIIIIII lll 4 3 Temperature 39339 8 r C I 1 2 in The rise of savannas and grasslands C4 plan rs also expanded rapidly spheric 202 ppm39jc I Atrn I330 930 400 330 330 C3 grasses fawured C4 grasses favoured l 1 l l I I l 10 20 30 40 Daytime growing393mm temperature quot0 Cerling e r al Na rure 1997 Modem gmssea 0 gmsw m 23 we WC composition of C3 left and CA grasses right Carling ef AIL anure 1997 4 grasses 11 1 Asa M l 8 S 6 n 9nquot 33 A E m g v E pedageniu E 39 cavbonale G 39a 6 a 72 you are what you eat plus a few parts per thousand in other words the isotopic composition of your food and water will be reflected in the isotopic composition of your teeth bones hair and tissues thus our hair sampling project from earlier in the quarter Modem grasses 04mm mac 425m Cigmsses we 7257 1 22 at same 7 mu Modern mammaiian gamma xo m enamei die in 309 cmmma 7 ma 5ch ms 1 a gt2 Myrmzmmaiian mom enamei I am Age Myr A99 MW Age Myr 20 15 1C 5 0 20 15 10 S O 2 15 1O 5 0 Pakistan East Africa o Equid SO39Jth 39 5 39 39 quot Nmoungulatas Amenca 39 39quot Probnstidean 393 2 03151153 I SALMA I o Equid 3amp5 Ekphanm an o 0 radinmetric A 0 E oECxuid 39 5 393 3 a u o So E L 4 I o 0D i u 3 m g 5 a u A g 9 9 u u I u 39 u 939 a B OE quot a A 5 3 a g 1 D 90 g in 393 52 2a 2 A Ah 1 quot 393 3v n a a a L quot L M 3915 IIIIllllll lllll I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 5 T North 1 Noah Western 5 America I America 3 Europe 39 lt 3 39N39 i D 00 I 2393 quotM quot Deinmhere n o o I DElephantid quot o oEquvj l 5 135 I i oEquld e e s 5 34 95 5 Q 0 90 9 lt quot o ow 3 o a n v 8 9 0 0 n u a o o a a 9 0 O o quotquot g as 0 3910 39 o quot 9 quot 0 q o o I 3 9 B a no 39 quot 45 1IIIIIIll 20 1E 10 5 0 20 15 1 3 5 393 20 15 1 5 Age Myr Age Myr Age Myr Carling at al Na rure 1997 8130 Pan 613C w Chapter 3 Physical Environment and Biogeography final 22 January 2009 Lecture 6 Useful website for term paper httpwwweolorqindex The Encyclopedia of Life Plant strategies for dealing with drought closetighten stomata to minimize water loss transpiration stomatap0 res on leafs used in gas exchange 1007 non vegetated e r U S O n Credit DeFries et al 2000 Plant strategies for dealing with drought let aboveground parts die N have waxy leaves small hard and waxy leaves are characteristic of the chaparral and are called sclerthzllous httpNwww2slacstanfordeduWcenvlronmentl Plant strategies for dealing with drought I store water in the trunk 20000 liters V have deep roots Larrea tridentata roots measured to 53 m safari tours compgbsli magesllodgesbaobabj Hydraulic Lift snil water palnntial MF n Hydraulic Lift evidence water potential is a way to express how much water is available to plants and how 5 easy it is for them to access in 5n m the soil the more negative the number the less water is available soil my patequot l 12 3 415 m u YE am July H466 a black plastic bags placed over shrubs to stop photosynthesis and transpiration b the lines are average water potential from 2035 cm depth and represent increasing distance from a large Maple tree in New England CAM Photosynthesis how does CAM conserve water humidity gradient much lower at night nKNAV I mmw Wuuml m Hziahve hummiiy at httpwwwhloumasseduhIologyconnrlvermlsclmagescam4pg nme oi day Animals and Moisture animals lose water through evaporation through panting and sweating excessive body water loss is dangerous The amazing kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis how much water can this rat get from oxidizing 5 g of dry matter DM guick estimate 5 g 02 moles DM 6 mol H20moi DM 5g DM I2 moles H20 4 ie 1 otog p v mg 5 1999 Caiiforma Academv OfScienceS I2 moles H20 22 g 6co2 12H20 C6H1206 6HZO 602 5g DM 22 mL H20 V9 An example of temperature and light interacting to determine the geographic distribution of plant types C3 Plants all trees most plants in CA first product of carboxylation has 3 carbon atoms evolved gt2oo MYA C4 Plants grasses sedges largely tropical and subtropical some C4 crops are sugar cane and sorghum first product of carboxylation has 4 carbon atoms evolved 2030 MYA INTERA39CYIMG PHYSICAL CGNYROLS 0M GEOGRAPHIC DISIHIBUTIDNB FIGURE 31 1 The rulativu auundarnw 01 C3 and C4 grass stimulus in the flora oi Australia laftur Hundursuri ul al 19933 The C aptmus urc must ubundam In the warm tropical and Subtropical zones of Eliu monument A similar situallun is found in thu North Airicriuan grussl u39n Lls C4 percentageK regional grass floras in North America 100 m an r972 2 u d a V 60 V U 40 N J O U D c 20 lt I I l I l l l I l T I I 40 48 56 72 Normal July Minimum Temperalure oF C Potentiai quot Production as 3 Percent of Total Potential Production u vac 100 a 7080 39 I 6070 7 5060 4050 3040 2030 1020 140 no data Tieszen et al 1997 Ecol Apps 539 1QQI 2 a raw 93723 f D K s 4 3 22 0 i 13 1 L 3739 3 130 so 190 00 mo 190 103 100 100103 10121 100 Sage et al 1999 C4 Plant Biplogy I IRIL 5 3 jazzwk 51 g v fWJ fzsai MGM m3 zg ca 3quot 6 r 33quot G x 7 a E 15 2 t 13 E 325 Eel 3515 40 38 34 54 34 52 40 so 46 50 61 51297 52 68 g 87 62 9 xix70 5 803 quot 4 95 51117 V m1 5 w EL quot5 39 quot54 431 100 178 afvf quot 79 a A J 1 3 1 gt1 9 I Ml em 59 x x r C4 percentage of regional grass floras worldwide 2 w v if firEm Q2 2 Eastern hemisphere s o xJ e quot j f4 mtr 5gt 39 T a Sage et al 1999 quot5 B C4 Plant Biology 96 C4 CO trIbutEon 10 The Biogeogmphy of C4 Photosyn 39 1 n 1 39 I I l r mo QM ZHK q Floristic n KK bOSiS 80 m I 39 quot K 60 0 I a 40 2 C K 2 0 C K K O I TOO Biomass 0r 80 cover burns 60 a 322 Roman F Sage David A Wadin am Meimng Li 4O 39 Pasadena CA Jacksonville FL 25 C4 Representation gt60 C4 Represento ion 20 BC ff39 l1T391 Tquoti39lTS fli l Elev 263 m B U 50 m m 1 60ng O K i LJ K K I I o 39v m A 39 H a Preslplmtlon 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 9 Z 3 quot39 l 39 I E 39 J Eaevatlon ms 5 r a 30 39 w E moisture Temperature I excess 1 3 20 E 04 favored r 2 10 j quot 3000 1323 mm 0 J1 L in 1 E J L l l U 2 4 6 8 ID 0 2 4 5 8 TO 12 Monih of 0 year Mean precipitation mm 3500 3 1500 4000 1 3500 3000 r 2500 2000 1 1000 500 this shows for the islands of Hawaii the number of C3 or C4 plants collected by botanists as a function of elevation notice the sharp crossover with elevation C4 plants are found mostly below IOOO m whereas C3 plants are found mostly above IOOO m why Physiological differences between C3 and C4 plants what explains the differences Net photosynthetic rate Light flux CA Physiology Carbon concentrating mechanism minimizes photorespiration by lowering 02C02 in cells A Schematic of C4 Photosynthesis Bundle Sheath Tissue Mesophyll Tissue Pcozv l 50 phat Pcoz 1 500 u be r RUBISCO RUBISCO y 1 Export quot gt sugars 1quot RUBISCO Bundle sheath Sage 2004 New Phytologist 100 I I w Rubisco is the Rumsmawm a b prImaw m 02COZ photosynthetic 50 39 co quot 9 8 enzyme it can a o c I I I I n react with 02 V0 oxygenation rather Atmospheric partial pressure 200 mbar 7 mbar 2 I than 002 Vc carboxylation in a quot79 wasteful E in temperature gt 3 dependent side 1 I 0 reaction called 4 a 1 06 02 00 39 photorespiration Sage 2004 Time before present billion vears 05W W BEEWWIZUUE mesuphyll cell bundle sheth cell C4 evolved as an add on to royApHuowa Rubi C3 photosynthesis multiple PFPC mm times in many lineages 4 requires extra energy Aquot pmol m 2 5 1 C3 and C4 plants exhibit physiological differences in response to light C02 temperature 60 F 50 1o 39 IV a Y 40 5 E D son 1000 1500 2000 30 Quantum Flux Densitypmol m 2 s391 2 9 0 o 20 60 v u u x w E D 1 1o 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Internal 002 concentration ppm C i 677f1pem llrthDC Collatz et al 1992 AJPP Photorespirationoxidation increases with light temperature occurs in C3 plants 05 02 20 02 40 Photosynthesis rate 39 Mt wwwmarie H r r P iLnght fun p madmpmm bioilO3phutoiab Reaction catalyzed pruzevuigif U SCD by r b Plasma membrane c0Z co 1 x7 2 1 G 02 i m 4 4 Y 5 h gyg cea httpwwwemcmaricupaedufzcu a 39 i J tyfarabeeBIOBKphutrespgif RuBifrom away ije Ca vmBensor ycle 77 GI f ymlate Chioruplast Microbody Net Photosynthesis urnol rn 2 squot C3 versus C4 photosynthetic rates lightlimiting conditions lightsaturating conditions C3 photosynthesis C4 photosynth Net Photosynthesis umoi m 2 s o o Leaf Temperature quot0 Leaf Temperature 3 C4 plants should grow faster in both low and high light environments when the temperature is gt 2 C lbIITI IDE Climates where C4gtC3 in red I l quot 39 H anyquot g g a V in Ef e I I fr x t w x i r 39 w39 Rail v S 3 5 I j 7 W51 1 40quot I 3 6 d MM llAur rr l u I ddmjp anvs 95d N w I I I I I I I 1 new UquotE 1 0m LOIIGITUDE climatic criteria at least I month gt 22 C and at least 25 mm concurrent rainfall C4 Climate Index Climate Normals 1971 2000 fr Months of Suitable Climate gt21C amp gt25mm Precip Clo6 17 28 39 21 PRISM climate data Kilometers 0 750 1 500 3000 l I I l I I I of months that meet the climatic criteria gt 22C and at least 25 mm concurrent rainfall C4 climate Value I 1392 mcmns I 2 rrxcrtl39rs J however not all of these areas are covered by C4 plantsll Actual c4 Species C r 972 regional g 4 percentage 0le 1 my rass 15 Teeri and Stowe 19761 2 T Normal July Minimum Yemperaiure F due to the complexity of temperature effects on physiology it must be determined whether the low temperature response is a result of the presence of the C4 photosynthetic pathway or if it is due to other factors related to the apparent tropical origin of these taxa Teeri and Stowe Oecologia 1976 Put another way is the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature gradients due primarily to physiological differences related to the pathways or is it due to ecological characters related to tropical origins compared to the temperate origins of most C3 grasses Testing this requires a phylogenetic framework to compare C3 and C4 sister taxa 4500 grass species use the C4 pathway roughly half of allquot at me all grass species bold m lines in phylogeny all fall within the PACCMAD clade C3 species are largely found in the BEP clade last common anceslur cl malze and vice E Kellogg Plant Phys 2001 gamma Anhmnchlwidnnu lap P u t hmlaas I Pualmideze m Eamhusnldeaa 97o El39mavloidue ims realm ma Chlmidnldele 1 50 FACE clade hmcaidm mm Sister taxa closely related species in this example sorghum and maize are sister taxa as are barley and wheat with each pair separated by one node or branch point sorghum maize barley wheat rice E Kellogg Plant Phys 2001


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.