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by: Noemie O'Hara


Noemie O'Hara
GPA 3.72


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Class Notes
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This 78 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie O'Hara on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 12 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/226992/geog-12-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Geography at University of California Santa Barbara.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
Geog 12 Maps and Mapping Lecture 7 Land Partitioning Systems and Parcels Grid systems can describe areas as well as points Zip codes Police Districts Census enumeration districts and tracts Land ownership parcels Cadastre Cities Counties Minor Civil Divisions etc Neighborhood and districts National grids For example Early US land partitioning mates and bounds DJIAGRAM 1 Eva mer Mlnl rnuom 1 any lawmanquot quot quot not Written example M er County Kentucky Deed Book 7 13 Februargv 1810 che acres and 6 John CRAiN Land bounded as foiiows Begrnnrng at me mouth or a orancn at an asn Stump thence up me creek 5 2o ooies to 2 oeac e e551 4 ooies to a srnaii Wainut rn Arnen s irne thence north 50 east 80 ooies to a Win hickory dogwood rn sard irne thence norm 38 ooies to an asn mence We51296 ooies with Potts s irne nu it intersects with Toiiy s rne thence South 30 West 80 ooies to a Whiteoak and sugarmence east 223 ooies to beginning 1 BEADLES or Lincoin Co r Ky seiis 140 Poies or iand rn Mercer County on Doctors Forkto or 200 pounds 3 More recent example Route 66 in Virginia 7 iii G 747 mm mm 39quot Av aim i mar mer J 39 Availuhk V x H The United States Public Land Survey System USPLSS z i39 i 2 Geographers line Illinois 3rd Princlple Meridian Centralia Ohio A mess Ohio Co Purchase Symmes Purchase Virginia Military Survey o OhioWest Virginia Border Bumvmuwwvw39w E m U manma u enoughhuhquot mam umwm mmurmquot A m a n w Map imam i New m m N Mnuu u mw Sumo w s Ilium Inmun mm um I c California Humboldt Mt Diabln quotlemmaquot meridian Remnants Laying out the grid Range Llne TZN TZN 1392quot R1W R1E R25 Township Lino T1N TIN T1N Tm RZW R1W R1E RZE Base Llne s s a z 1 T15 T15 T15 1 u 1 mm sz R1W ma 313322 6 Miles wanna 1 33 34 3530 Prlnclpal Merldan Townships are 36 Sections Boustrophedonic Section Numbers 363132333435363l I65432l6 l27890ll27 la 18 I7 6 15 I4 I3 5 2419 20 2 2 35 3 32 33 34 23 33029252726530 55 2 15543 Section Subdivision A parcel reference a 39 17 rr f k c 79W F M Section corner corrections Frankenmuth MI urea 1 sum California and the USPLS L95AUS P J TR and Sections but Mexico and the US After the any Burbank 1911 French tradition Rivers and long lots V x 7 Colorado Santa Barbara Co Assessors Office Land Parcels Other regionbased land partitions LAFCO STAFF RECOMMENDED GOLETA INCORPORATION BOUNDARV Census Tracts Population density in Goleta and Isla Vista hum d n a S p m 2 1 y 1m a r g 0 e G Mapping Lecture 8 Navigation 2 Location Lecture Outline vE Classic Navigation Skills 0 Orienting a map 0 Locating your position resection 0 Route selection 0 Dead Reckoning 5 lobal Positioning System GPS 0 How it Works 0 Sources of Error 0 Accuracy 0 Correction Methods 0 Uses Announcements 4 Midterm Monday Bring a halfpage scantron 1 Mixed Multiple Choice Short Answer and 1 Practical Orientation by inspection 139 Select prominent landmarks in Rotate map until feature is aligned It Easy but not very exact Orienting the Map by Compass 5 Rotate the map until Magnetic North lines up With compass JESEEEW TTW needle j 5 i it Easy and exact 33 Must make sure noted declination is accurate Locating Your Position 4 Once the map is oriented properly you can locate your position Easiest method is again With landmarks But this only works if you are at or very near a landmark 5 More commonly you use resection Resection a a a a a a 1 1 1 1 1 v 1 1 1 1 Resection it Doing a resection OTake a magyetic azimuth with compass on a distant landmark you can see and recognize on the map OCalculate backazimuth and draw this line through landmark ORepeat three times 0 Trigggle ofError Activity Calculate Back Azimuths You are somewhere on the Goleta quad You take a compass bearing to the following locations v39 Cathedral Oaks School 7 104 5 Goleta Valley Hospital 7 193 3 Goleta Valley Jr High School 7 255 2 First Calculate the backazimuths Activity Align the map 4 Set compass to zero 5 Place compass edge on magnetic notth line it Rotate map and compass together until the needle is boxed Activity Resection gt39 Use the backazimuths you calculated a moment ago 5quot Set compass to backazimuth Place compass on map so that O a needle is boxed AND 0 b edge of compass passes through the landmark Mark the edge of the compass with a pencil 5 1 Repeat for other points i Extend those lines with your ruler to where they look like they will meet Choosing a Destination Intersection 5 Intersection is the use of two sightings to locate an object or place on the map 5 Unnecessary if the object is marked clearly on the map 1s u Mnnsllc quot1th mm mm a 3539 45 w u Getting to a Destination Dead Reckoning gt39 Dead Reckoning is keeping track of position while moving by knowing direction and distance traveled or speed amp time 5 Requires 0 Sure knowledge of starting position 0 Careful record of movement time direction Accurate over short distances amp easy to learn But errors accumulate so not good over long distances Plot mg Dead Reckon Getting to a Destination Terrain Association i i i i i i J r DESTINATON D1V1de tr1p 1nto K segments called leg 1 i 39r I 7 J 39 I 39 H i inquot V WHECKPOINT5 3 I Ease of travel 1 39 139 quot 2 Move from one recognizable feature I to another m EQKF939SI 3 Can Combine with Dead Reckoning Global Positioning Systems GPS i GPS is a satellitebased navigation system O 24 Satellites form the GPS Constellation N31 now operational O Operated by the Department of Defen 39 Costs about 400 million per year 39 Free to use just buy a receiver 0 Works in all types of Weather but doesn t Work Well indoors 0 First launch 1972 Declared Operational in 1994 Other Global Positioning Systems GPS is in common usage to describe the US System 5quot Full US Name is NAVSTAR GPS OMigational lime And Ranging Other systems 0 GLONASS 7 Russia 0 Galileo 7 EU 0 COMPASS 7 China 0 IRNSS India Three Elements of GPS 2 1 Space 24 31 currently operating orbiting satellites plus more parked in space oSatellites 20200 km above ground way out there 0510 satellites Visible from any point oAtomic clocks on board OTransmit precise time later used to calculate distance between observer and satellite Three Elements of GPS 2 Control 0 Ground stations observe orbits transmit corrections synchronizing clocks 0 Master control station located at Schriever AFB in Colorado W 3quot w M Rquot Falcon 5513M 9 I uxs I I I Colorado Splin4 0 Master Congo H tva M ouitor Samp on 9 x 395 Monitor Station 39 3939 K Yajalei 39 ii Ascension Islam 11 Djego Garcia 39Mumtozys a on Monitor Station Monitor Station aquot Three Elements of GPS lt 39 39 39 39 39 3 User 0 GPS Receivers O Decode time 0 Compare to local to determine timedelay phase 0 This gives distance from each satellite Using Time u n Just like Harrison s Chronometer for determination of longitude GPS uses time to calculate direction Delay X Speed of Light Distance EH Since Distance is used the method is trilateration Four Satellites Needed r II v 313 Two satellites provide a plane Three satellites narrow it down to two points 5 Four points give latitude longitude and elevation 3 If you know elevation you can get by on three Accuracy in GPS it Depends on quality of signal of satellites Likely error is calculated and presented OArea instead of point g Generally better than 10 meters 5 On campus 25m accuracy is common Error in GPS There are many reasons why more than four satellites are preferable ORemember triangle of error OImprecise local clocks no atomic clock in your 100 receiver oSlowing of signal in the ionosphere ORe ected multipath signals Selective Availability E Selective Availabili 7 Intentional error introduced in signal to degrade civilian signal for public safety OSA turned off in 2000 oDegraded accuracy to about 100m Improving GPS Accuracy 1 Differential GPS OWas most effective during SA OUsed ground stations at known locations that transmitted corrections OMore expensive but improved accuracy from 100m to 10m during SA ODependant on nearby local differential transmissions Improvrn g GP S Accuracy i i i i i 5 WAAS Near RealTimeVevlical Navion Se hot y Em WAAS 39 quot WW 0 Ground stations transmit 7 corrections to satellite 0 Improve accuracy to 12 horizontal 23m vertical 50 o Developed for civilian a a aviation instrument approach 2233me 0 Available over United waxerazmzzam States color Sal is Vu ml Prvloclion LlVIl VPL A o AKA Satellite Based f aw Augmentation System w SBAS Visualizing GPS accuracy Random Walks Randnm Waik in GPS 2 i a 4 2 a A 5 In 392 13011 GPS compar Easung vanatmn Ema Nunmng vananun GPS Applications Too many to list in full 539 Human Navigation oFoot Auto Sea Air Missile Guidance 3 Precision Agriculture 1 Geocaching Personal GPS Units 2 Many different manufacturers Garmin Trimble Magellan quite common Cost gt100 i Applications for auto boats personal navigation 5 Include a small screen for map display OMany many base maps available OInteract with computer with cable Lecture 11 The Peters Projection Controversy Mapping m a m m 2 1 y 1m a r g 0 e G Outline 4 Review of Projections so far 5 The Peters Projection Controversy OShort discussion of article OWatch a short lm ODiscuss the lm Announcements More extra credit available ONew study posted for Wed and Thursday afternoon 0 Takes about half an hour if you ve done first study about an hour if you haven t Involves walking around campus I Monmonier reading for this week How to Lie With Maps ORead ch 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 OPaIticularly 13 before lab section Review What do we call the pattern of lines of latitude and longitude on the map E What is the GlobeandShadow analogy of map projections 5 What is the difference between normalregular transverse and oblique projections 1 What are the the 2 main properties we are interested in preserving Discussion of the Article 539 You read an excerpt from Drawing the m by Mark Monmonier called the Peters Projection Controversy v39vi What is a Mercator projection OWhat is its intended purpose What is the Peters projection OWhat is its intended purpose Theme 4 What makes one map projection better than another for the purpose of a general reference world map Advocates of the Peters Projection 4 On what basis did individuals and groups advocate the use of the Peters Projection as a world map oWhat was the iyranny at once graphic ideological and economic page 34 4quot What was the response of many professional cartographers The Film Many Ways to See the World gt39 Produced by ODT Inc 0 A source of alternative information on Maps 0 Offering fascinating and thoughtprovoking resources to expand your view of the wor d 0 In this complex and interdependent world in which the nations now live the peoples of the world deserve the most accurate possible portrayal of the actual sizes of their countries 0 While the Peters Map is superior in its portrayal of proportions and sizes is importance goes far beyond questions of cartographic accuracy Nothing less than our world view is at stake Specific Projections Don t try to take notes on these just follow along 5 Lecture will be posted 1 Avery good source for these other than your textbook and Monmonier reading it Google usgs projection poster 5 Or 3 hnp er A few speci c projections to know u Conformal Mercator 0 Transverse Mercator O Lambert Conformal Conic 3 Equivalent O Sinusoidal o Peters 0 Albers O Mollweide o Goode an n Azimuthal O Azimuthal equidistant O Gnomonic 2 Compromise Miller 0 Robinson 0 Winkel Tripel Different Perspective 0 McArthnr s Conformal Mercator Cylindrical Projection s5 Used for Navigation due to preservation of rhumb lines s Rhumb line 7 Line of constant direction H Directions along a rhumb line are true between any two points on map 5a Increasingly distorts area and shape away from equator cum mm W51 mmwl Emmam n WWW munnirvana um mm in mm 1vale Eamm immuylnav lam lit t Rambom M m mm w w 51 um Conformal Transverse Mercator 1 Used by the USGS on most digital products Mathematically projected on cylinder tangent to a meri ian a Same drawbacks as Regular Mercator but areashape distorted away from central meridian instead of equator Grumman when mum mq39mamreubuwm m sum 00 drum Ma mumum mnaoanncmmovwwmn 5 c mo mm mm M m mm lens Conformal Lambert Conformal Conic 3 Used by USGS for 75 and 15 minute topographic maps Not equal area or equidistant 3 Cone is secant at two standard Earallels 5 Used on aeronautical charts because straight line W a great circle line amp WNW Mwnmum mwwm Equivalent Sinusoidal Equal Area May have one central meridian or several 1 Distances correct along parallels and central meridians 4 Shapes distorted away from central meridians and poles Tn wandmmmrwsnmxm W whar r uemmwmm mum mm quotWm II 1 FM Ummd Slims Annaleeun gamma mama m is mm M WW5 cm 5 An interesting history Equivalent Peters Distorted Equal Area 5 Shapes 5 Equivalent Albers Conic fa Secant Conic Very similar to Lambert ii Graticule spacing different El Not conformal 4 Distances correct along central parallels humpma Lambert Conformal Conic I Albgrs Equal Area Conic 39 i Albers Equal Area Conic Ma iw w n O m a x a m r 0 Wu f n yr V a x t a b m a L Equivalent Molleweide Equivalent Goode Interrupted Homolosine 1 Combination of Molleweide and Sinusoidal 3 Uses Sinusoidal between 41 degrees N S 1 Uses Molleweide beyond that range Azimuthal Azimuthal Equidistant fa Constructed by placing a plane tangent to a point on the globe 19 Distances and directions correct but only from central oint Used for showing airline distances radio work and UN Emblem 5 Distance from a single point preserved Azimuthal Equidistant i i United Nations Emblem Azimuthal Gnomonic m straight line drawn is a great circle route Direction only true from center Scale increases rapidly away from center Area and shape distorted away from center Sometimes used for navigation in concert with Mercator mph Mamm mm Norm or sauqu Pam PM ur muclbn EC v mm mm mm mus mm Azimuthal Azimuthal Orthographic 3 Like other azimuthal projected on to a plane 51 Orthographic 0 Light source infinitely far away 0 Directly overhead at all poinm 92 Approximates a persons View of the globe C0mpr0m1se M1ller 139quot Looks like Mercator but distorts area less 55 But also doesn t preserve rhumb lines so not as useful for navigation Compromlse Robinson 1 Minimizes distortions Built on trialanderror with the goal of being Visually appealing to the eye for a variety of qualities But like other compromise projections has some error for all qualities Compromise Winkel Tripel t This is the official world map projection for the National Geographic Society Geography 12 Maps and Mapping Lecture 3 Cognitive Maps Review Questions What do UTM and SPCS stand for a How are these reference systems similar What is the difference between ap sca scale as commonly used and m le What are the three main types of map scale y are vertical scales often exaggerated Representative Fraetaun Map Distance Gruund Distance Mental Maps Mental maps o en reveal gaps in knowledge Comparing to objective realityis not necessarily the go Captured by sketch maps directions preferences s Information comes from direct experience but also education media exposure cultural background Today s fun map Quick Activity 7 2 minutes sketch amap centered on the Atlantic Ocean and including outlines ofNonh America South America Europe and Africa J Li 215 w JI Hfj39ln Flyr Orig39 of concept in Tolman Tolman 1948 uses the concept to explain shortcutting behavior ofrats in maze Rats were trained on amaze for several days then run on a different radial maze in which the food was left at the same relative position Intere sting Aspects 9 Alignment errors Ne sting errors 1 Other types of generalization errors Stxaightening oads amprivers U Typical building pro les Distance errors Alignm ent Errors u uth America are typically Viewed as magnum suuth man the y actually are Nesting Errors Nesting Errors Nesting Errors Clustering E Friedman and Brown 2000 asked students to estimate latitudes of North American and European cities Knowledge imperfect but evidence of clustering Sketch Maps Activity ons ofcognitive ma s e Activity Take 5 minutes to sketch Goleta and Santa Barbara including the universi on the hack write your year in school just completed Cognitive Slope 73977397quot E mf aai a7 Judgnd Angle in Dagmas a a a 5 s n m a a m Yul Angle in Dames Lynch 7 Image of the City r Analyzed sketch maps Five Categ 39 or o s odes 7 spots ofpamcular focus intersection Landmar s 7 important physical features storke Tower Cognitive Distance Systematae disturtiuns m distanee estimates a Objects that are aetually near are pereeived as further away abjects very far away are pereeived nearer than they ally are mama mum Landmark Route amp Survey Knowledge Landmarks e knowing important points as Routes 7 knowing specific my to get toi rom landmarks Topological as Survey 7 Knowing metric information about layout 1 Arguments ofaprogression from LgtRgtS with ageexposure Sketch Maps Break into 4 groups they ll be large e Analyze these cognitive maps in terms of Lynch s categories Anchorpoint Theory Anchorpoint Theory 1 First leam speci c points Leam pathways and information near those points a First order Second order Third order Anchorpoints 5 Errors in knowledge of anchorpoints distorts other points attached to them Rubbersheeting Preference Maps z Gould and White 1974 l Cognitive maps don tjust store locations of objects is Example Rank your feeling about these states in the co t oVeimom Ma Florida 11139quot of favorability 39 S ssachusetts Virginia Georgia ois NLisso 39 Mmesota Colorado Frum Gulledge and Stimsun Sgahal Behaviur un Arkanasas Texas Washingon Califomi New Mexico Montana a Preference Maps W coiaiaenia an Minoaeaia


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