POL S 1
POL S 1 POL S 1
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnathan McKenzie on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/226997/pol-s-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Political Science at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 5 Gases Chem 1A van Koppen Consider the three physical states of substances solid liquid and gas Gases occupy the full volume of their containers Gases are generally highly compressible When a gas is subjected to pressure its volume decreases Gases form homogeneous mixtures with other gases Chemical properties vary significantly for gases Physical properties are simpler to understand The most useful physical properties for describing gases are volume V pressure P and temperature T By studying these properties we can understand the behavior of gases Pressure is the force acting on an object per unit area P FA Gravity exerts a force on the earth39s atmosphere Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer If a tube completely filled with mercury Hg is inverted into a dish of mercury mercury will flow out of the tube until the pressure of the column of mercury equals the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the mercury in the dish The height of the mercury in the tube is 760 mm for 1 atm of pressure Units 1 atm 760 mm Hg 760 torr 1469 Dsi 1013251 x 105 Pa atm standard atmosphere psi pounds per square inch Pa pascal 1 kg m391 sec392 Gas Laws Boyle39s Law V on 1P fixed temperature and fixed amount of gas The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at a fixed temperature is inversely proportional to pressure that is an decrease in pressure causes the volume to increase Charles39 Law V on T fixed pressure and fixed amount of gas The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure increases as the temperature increases A plot of V versus T is a straight line and the intercept of this plot when T is measured in C is 7 27315 C The absolute zero of temperature is defined as 0 K 7 27315 C Tin Kelvin Tin C 27315 Avogadro39s Law V on 11 fixed pressure and fixed temperature For a gas at constant temperature and pressure the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas 11 Ideal Gas Law PV nRT Where T is the absolute in Kelvin K The ideal gas law holds for gases at P S 1 atm and is more accurate as pressure decreases the gas must be far from its liquification point Real gases behave quotideallyquot at low pressure R Universal Gas Constant R 008206L atm R 1987 10m STP standard temperature and pressure molK T0C and P1atm Z R 8314 1 8314kgm H101 K sec2 mol K The state of a gas is defined by P V T n For a change in state P1 V1 T1 n1 igt P2 V2 T2 112 m w anr nsz Pr V1 P2V2 T1 T2 at constant n P1V1 Psz at constant n and T k amp at constant n and P T1 T2 How about when T and P are constant The variables that remain constant cancel out Gas Mixtures Partial Pressures and Mole Fraction Suppose a mixture of gases occupies a container at a certain temperature Each gas in the mixture exerts a pressure called the partial pressure of that gas At low pressures each gas independently obeys the ideal gas law so that PlV anT PZV anT P3V n3RT etc Dalton39s law states that the total pressure Ptot is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases Ptot P1 P2 P3 n1 n2 n3 ntot Where ntot total number ofmoles in the gas mixture V V The mole fraction of a given component in a gas mixture is the number of moles of that component divided by the total number ofmoles in the gas mixture IP1X1Ptot X nr n1 1 ntot n1n2n3m 1902 Flywheel Generators 1905 Transmission Switches 1912 Steam Turbine 1920 Westinghouse Generator 1936 Cold Guy Fixing Power Pole 1942 2500 KW Generator i 1964 7 World s Fair Fuel Cell amp Gas Turbine 1964 7 World s Fair Fuel Cell amp Gas Turbine 1964 7 World s Fair Fuel Cell amp Gas Turbine 1964 7 World s Fair Fuel Cell amp Gas Turbine 1964 7 World s Fair Fuel Cell amp Gas Turbine Histery of FIRE eil Technology Fll attunpts more Illan 150 7 William Ronat vaeimn 1333 Invenuiweiceilnamely411 me callquot Friedrich Wilhelm Osmaiii 1353 4932 Prwlileil hemawal iuuiersiamimg urine eels alum mum mmquot mmquot m Fran mamas Baum L wmmw n ilevelnlm EC in Ruya navy saunanus Iln mainniummacm Comparison of Power Plant Emissions Pounds of Particlulates per MWh gaslred milled maimed EPAlimils Type ofPower Plant Fuel Cell Air Emissions PC25 Emissions From One Year of Operation sof Pounds cf missians Pound ca dioxide emissions mum muns mm 12 Avenue Fuel cell us fossil fulld pram fude plum Additional Benefits Evolution of Fuel Cell Teclmology 39 Alkali Fuel Cells 39 Molten Carbonate Phosphoric FEM Proton Exchange Membrane Solid Oxide SOFC E GIMME of Fuel Cell Techlwlugy idem p in mm mhm a co pnisuning h nfpla num expats 390 change Memlil lei Solid Oxide SOFC E lution of Fuel Cell Techlmtogy Alkali Fuel Cells Moll en Carluonate bla tn us iy or qulS not prone m C 0 to oison l hose II II g39 a or pizo39hhm cheaper in i 5 mm use a liquid electi nl1epruhlen am needs 0 iniat tinns m rEplenisll Carbunale ions Phosphoric FEM noion Exchange Memhrane Solid Oxide SOFC Evolution o F wel C e Technology Alkali Riel Cells C39 bollale plloric acid as electrolyte seam nponentx muse I resi me to acid conosiul Less suscqnihmo coz 39poixoning r e icienq approximately 4050 PEM Pr at n Exchange Membrane Solid Oxide SOFC Evolwtion ofFuel Ce Technoliob Alkali Fuel Cells Molten banale Phosphoric Proton Exchange Memhrane SOFCS 9 Evolumion of Fuel Cell Technology Alkali Fuel Cells Biol 11 Carbonate Phosphor I PEM P olon Exchange Niemhrane 7 V In amp 2 N alll e to one ae at 10 v e iciency appro 39 I ll Ballard mug eratllres ml 150 nversion real 39u l 39 Solid Oxide SOFC Hydrogen ml in Industry Leaders Ballard Power Systems PEM CELLSiS recently acquired lyy Ballard Siemei tinglwuse SOFC Plug Power PEM UTC formally Internatinnal Fuel Cells39 PEM HiPower manufactured lyy CeSpol PEM r 1 major commercial distribution Ballard Power Systems FEM Stationary Power Generators 250kW Stationary Generator t eldtrials are underway y Ballard Power Systems PEM 0 Bus and Automotive Propulm Ford Daimler Chrysler M n agen Chicago Transit Authority TransLink NexaTM Power Module 7 portable fuel cell module Weight 12 kg 27m Size56x25x33 cm Rated Net output 1200 watts DC Voltage 26 Volts at rated net output Lifetime 1500 hours Fuel Cell Transportation Fuel Cell Transpo DaimlerBenz operating range up to 250 km fuel cell consists of ten stacks of 25 kW each i g 7 NECAR 5 New Electric CAR Top speed 90 mph Range 280 miles NEBUSNewEectricBUS 39 gures from NECAR A NECAR 5 info not avail XterraFCV unchallenged in category eet testing began 2001 tn minimin mmpmm nnisel 7 my speed nf 95 mph and zrange nf 15 miles Fuel Cell Autc Ford Ford Focus FCV 7 srhm lnled fur market in 2004 7 rangE nf ab mu 100 miles Blomz 9 Energy Energ generated by buming pm ma er F p Biomass Energy 39 California leads nation ill use of biom em w more than 14 trillion pounds each year 23 1 of all of Califom r electricin
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