New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Johnathan McKenzie
Johnathan McKenzie
GPA 3.65


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Political Science

This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnathan McKenzie on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 7 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/227001/pol-s-7-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Political Science at University of California Santa Barbara.

Popular in Political Science


Reviews for INTRO TO IR


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
Poli Sci AHow 0 0 0 BWho C Key IR Phrases 7 Lecture Tuesday 28 9282010 42600 PM does international relations effect us on a daily basis Budget cuts Outsourcing ofjobs War gas prices Food clothes products are the key actors Political leadersofficials Consumers Growers organized Multi national corporations MNC Political statesprimary actorsresources they have at their disposal budgets weaponry Intergovernmental organizations Non governmental organizations private individuals can be members red cross Media neglect of global politics how we perceive different actorspolitical leaders group of people political goal in their own territory community political goal to live unified together nations share a common ancestry and culture shared identity a community distinct from other communities most nations share a common religion dress foods music storytelling languagee distinct ethni groups C we are a nation of ideas separation of church and state freedom that is what binds us Organized body that has a government organization that controls a speci c territory and they have a monopoly on the legitimate use of force often use gov t to carry out policies states can chose to have whatever political system they want Legitimize by having other states recognize you you can have nations in states amp multinational states ability or potential to influence what others do to influence the behavior of others you have power when you get actors to do things they did not want to do conversely stop them from doing something they want to do Power resources have different power characteristics 0 Hard power asset resource comprised of those resources that are tangible includes national geography your territory your people size of the military natural resources gold copper in IR we access hard power to determine their power 0 Economic Power wealth alone is not a power asset it s the ability to convert that wealth into an instrument of influence when an actor uses their wealth as a form of leverage then they have power investment decisions deciding who to trade with Decisions key economic institutions IMF amp World Bank weighted voting system each state becomes a shareholder biggest shareholderbigger vote 0 Soft powe the ability to convince others to do something they did not want to originally want to do get others to change their mindset change how they feelthinkvalue Spread ideas thru creation of international institution based on our preferences and modes of interaction Soft power is the ability to kind of clone others to be like you 0 Don coreloni power of reputation godfather didn t always have to use direct violence but threat that is credible your reputation is based on credibility of having power being somebody who would back up what they say Thursday 30th 9282010 42600 PM differences in preferred outcomes a part of our lives conflict will simply exist because we are different people with different preferences the use of violence as a means of gaining leverage in a conflict scenario conditions according to scholarsneed to have 1000 combat deaths sustained violence organized violence carried out by political units when international at least one actor has to be a state when all conditions are meant then it defined as war 0 Caused by intangible and tangible sources Tangible territorial disputes who controls the government economic disputes natural resources trade dispute nationalization of corporation when state takes control of a corporation drug trafficking Intangible more difficult to resolve issue because you are talking about ideas and identities where you cant really find an easy compromise ethnic conflictone group against another religious conflict core values beliefsdifficult to change because these conflicts constitute moral behavior both sides are fighting for their God ideological conflict govern mankind Hegemonic wars refer to wars over the entire world order essentially these are wars to decide who gets to govern international systems WW1 amp WW2 Total war one state to concur or occupy another reach the capital of another country and force their country to surrender Iraq Vietnam Korea Limited war Military actions are carried out to gain an objective just short of surrender not see the occupation ie first gulf war Raids subcategory of limited war consists of single action like bombing or a very quick land incursion with very narrow objectives low intensity raids are common in global politics used by states to remind other states I have power O O O O O 0 Film notes Civil war war between factions within a state internal actors fighting but usually they are fighting to create a new government for the entire state or part of it Guerilla warfare without frontlines irregular forces not going to be what we think of as a single military unitforces that operate in disguise citizens sometimes give protection to guerillas often when you see a guerilla goal is not to directly attack military no direct confrontation gradually weaken attack infrastructure get control of supply lines create a crisis of legitimacy put pressure on state goal is to liberate an area do not operate on global level Terrorism strategic utilitarian act so many people use different names freedom fighters patriots etc Threat or use of violence conducted by nonuniformed personnel against civilians terrorists do not represent state military private in scope don t attack military but target civilians Goal terrorize general populace populace puts pressure on government to give In 20th century almost 200 wars Tuesday Oct 5th Examining competing theoretical explanations for international relations Realism I Why is the utility of theory anyway 11 Understanding the theory A Realism s Elli A exactly what do theories of IR attempt to do 0 Not jus war but other phenomenon 0 Explain relationship of states in hope that good explanation it will also provide good model to predict if we could figure out why war occurs we can create model to predict when it will happen and intervene and stop it of Realism school of thought a l ll 39 people who made it thought they were being realistic the ideal state a world where there was no war but cooperation these idealists were providing normative analysis of IR how it should and ought to be realists don t have head in clouds analyze based on record what occurred what will occur all political leaders use that state of behavior conforms to realist ideas policy makers political leaders B The Intellectual roots of Realist thought 0 Thucydides History of Peloponnesian war ATHENS VS SPARTA in the work he pays attention how Athenian power economic weaponry growth started to cause fear in Sparta Lead Sparta to have security dilemma so it started to engage in arms growth 9 bigger army Athens did same thing Drive to increase army size was rooted in insecurity and fear ultimately it lead to war Shifting balances of power between actors can lead to war 0 Machiavelli early 16th century The Prince advice howto rule in a way that gives you power and keep it writing during war lots of attempt of Princes to overthrow each other 1Tells the Prince he must be as cunning as a fox but as strong as a lion Be deceptive and clever but that s not enough must also have strength and use it 2 Differential moral code for political leaders Moral code of average person is different from moral code of political leaders like the prince 2 standards of morality 9282010 42600 PM addressing Christian princes but telling them not to bind themselves down to moral code that average Christian has to abide by Utilitarian argument for moral leader your ultimate goal and objective is to protect people You put yourself responsible for others their welfare and security becomes your priority 0 Hobbes Englishmen The Leviathan argument creating a sovereign Human nature is competitive in a world of scarce resources we have to be competitive State of nature is an ugly place its filled with competitive amp selfish people Escape nature a leviathan must be createdleviathan is created by people but they create a centralized over arching authority escape state of war All individuals who agree to belong to leviathan they want to escape the state of nature short and evil D Talks about domestic politics the realists like to look at Hobbes and they externalize it and apply to global arena Global arena global leviathan there is no over arching authority you have powerful states but no singular global leviathan government that everyone has ceded their power to Wo IR filled with war conflict distrust and competition C Two stages of Realist though o 1 Classical Realism Hans Moregenthau s Politics Among Nations 1948 0 Each state s primary obligation is to promote national interest everything else secondary and follows it National interest definition acquisition of power but power to deter and overcome attacks in hostile global environment Every other goal subservient if you don t than you create an environment of weakness If you can t provide protection than you can t do anything else because you might not exist soon 0 Competition is going to exist among states in an environment with no central power 0 Applies some principles realist that gives us better understanding 1 Political relationships are governed by human nature don t forget its humans who make the political decisions 2 Political leaders think and act in terms of interests defined as power political leaders are going to prioritize power 3 Survival is the minimum core goal of foreign policy if you don t prioritize survival you can do very little when your dead 4 Morality of nation statestate is different from the morality of individuals argues we should judge morality of state behavior based on consequences if what state leaders do ensures that state than what they are doing is moral and should not be criticized 5 Moral aspirations of states are not moral laws one state shouldn t claim to be more moral than another moral codes of each state are unique to each state idea that all states are equal units with same goals of survival moral codes are individual 6 There should be an autonomy for the political sphere political actions should be judged by political criteria not moralsPolitian s who say they are fighting against evil any moral vocabulary Morgenthau would say you are wrong states acts as offensive officialists o 3 Foreign Policies states engage inPredictions 1 States engage in policies to increase power 2 If not increase then keep power 3 Not either they want to demonstrate power demonstration is done to deter others dangerous because someone might call your bluff o 11 Structural Realism Kenneth Wat z Theories ofInternatona Politics 1979 o Neorealism o Statesoffensive positionalists always trying to gain power Why haven t there been wars over borders 0 Did not like it that Morgenthau defined national interest in terms of power Waltznational interest is not acquisition of power its securitychanges state behavior implies states are defensive all states are similar units they may vary in capability so they all share the same goal of national security but like people states live in a state of nature there is a global environment of insecurity according to Waltz we must all get in our brains we must recognize of global politics international systems is anarchic no over arching authority key variable explains IR Anarchy leads to a self help system rely on yourself for national security 1 System is anarchic 2 All units share the same goal of survival 3 Distribution of capabilities can vary dist of power varies amongst states unipolor one power hegemony not enough power to tell everyone what to do Bipola two main poles of power US amp USSR cold war time Multipola have more than 3 major powers in the world power is still important but it s a means to an end states acquire power not because they love power but Summary because Inter System characterized by anarchy relationships amongst states are always uncertain therefore balance of power described how states are positioned relative to one another and each state must rely on self help to protect its security rely on self help power is means of survival a Review of Central Realist Assumptions 0 Central Assumption global anarchy characterizes international systems amp it creates self help system O O O O 0 Human natureselfish and competitive nothing enforcing trust scarce resourcesdifficult to punish them Actors primary are states because they are the most powerful average more wealth power assets 2 qualifications unitary act as one single units one brain one voice and rational engage in costbenefit analysis before they act assume states gather info and go thru pro and con list Interests hierarchy of interests things at top are prioritized TOP is called vital interest and for realism there is only one vital interest NATIONAL SECURITY underneath that vital are major interests that a state might chose war to achieve below major is minor interests war is not an option not use war to secure not worth it ie environmental protection Means to achieve interests how to achieve your goals you balance power you don t have to use war you just balance it look at other states and assess how much power they have and be ready to balance against a potential threat i 39 quot r quotum i ll quot Lllquotll lil pm l lllr Implications for state behavior 3 ways to balance power a 1 Internally balance you make yourself stronger you internally enhance your power capabilities chose to develop nuclear weaponry as well as economically start to balance become and use wealth n 2Externally balance to join with other states to ally with other states to balance against a perceived threat a 3 bandwagon you join with the perceived threat you realize you are not strong enough there are no other countries that you can make an alliance with if your ultimate goal is survival you may simply chose to ally with your threat o Strengths and weaknesses prioritizing dominance its hard to be hegemon and stay there because other states want it and start to acquire power assumption of unitary states 9282010 42600 PM f3 Cognitive Liberalism Inspired by kant some may say the Greeks o Human cognitive o The way to acquire peace is thru reason and rationality o Education takes a long time particular typewesternnot only would it take a long time but cultural variations o Spreading idea of education and knowledge western highlights rationality o Believe this kind of liberal is way to naive and optimistic 4 Sociological liberals o nongovernmental relations focuses on societyit is society that can help create a barrier to war if we can create an international society than we can create a new society that identifies not with their state but instead identifies with every other member of the world c we can change our identities citizens of the Earth common in fears and goals o create dense network of transnational linkages relationships based on small groups 5 Institutional Liberalism o international institutions creations and use of institutions are the best way to create cooperation and maintain it o regime o rules for their members making promises for how they are going to behave o create punishments for inappropriate behavior serve at deterrent for states because they will lose the benefits of membership o improve transparency as states become members they have to reveal information about themselves we fear the enemy we don t know than the enemy that you knew evaluation of how strong these states are c institutions can verify your information that you give o reduce transaction costspull resources of their members and engage in behavior Costcobuy in bulk the more they learn to cooperate together benefits to cooperation trust each other serve as arenas for conflict resolution World Courtstates conflicts arena for voice opportunities conflict resolution mechanisms Progress is possible shadow of the future involvement means that they have regular meetings guarantees states are going to see each other over and over again III Review of central liberal assumptions A central assumptionglobal anarchy exists but it can be litigated you can create order within anarchy B Human nature progress is possible C actorsmultiple actors in IR look at individuals D Interests focus attention on other states and groups can be multiple interests can change over time Actors shape interests multiple actors multiple interests most important is not national security Improving a states welfare if states focused on maximizing welfare of their people above security than security will come from that E Means to achieve interests depends on what kind of liberal you are they all believe in cooperative behavior states will recognize shared interests shared goals work together and improve everyone s welfare They measure gains F implications for state behavioreach variant recommends different policy G Strengths and weaknessesliberalism had done the best job of examples of period of cooperation incorporating new actors in IR freerider acknowledge and address the problem weakness normative model of global politics not objective what should happen not what does happen realist provide you with objective theory they tell you what is happening harder time explaining war Terrorism 9282010 42600 PM 1988 Al Quada forms 1993 the WTC is first bombed something unique about al quada they don t give up they have a pattern of when they have a failed attack they repeat it until they are successful 19956 US militants in Saudi Arabia were attacked 1998 Kenya and Tanzania us embassies attacked 1998 creation of the World Islamic Front for Fighting Crusaders and Jews that is how they define themselves 2000 bombing of USS COAL million dollar ship 2001 September 11 WTC bombing and the Pentagon underestimated the enemy we relied too much on realist even for liberals there was too much of a sense of optimism So how do we stop terrorism they have no constituent populations they don t have any its harder to attack their assets because they are not fixed their assets are mobile they exist everywhere in different forms its hard to threaten a population that made no promises to protect any one group they have not signed on to any international treaties Global they do not operate with a single leadership leadership is spread out they have NO problem with death you can t threaten them with death because they don t mind dying hard war to fight A counterterrorism methods currently employed by The united nations New agencies to study terrorism Created a new body of anti terrorism international law By the US developed an international alliance external balancing 170 countries involved 2our policy to make no concessions to terrorist 3Dept of homeland security 4 New legislation the Patriot Act 5 Redirected government agencies and reprioritized set up Guantanamo has camp new category of enemy combatants taken into custody military action against Taliban and Hussein attacked safe haven attack weapon facilities training camps attack its leadership increased surveillance web activity policies of economic development education opportunities give financial aid to countries that support our antiterrorism advocate self promotion 9282010 42600 PM Paper it is not a policy paper first page provide a historical description packed full of details but clarifying the issue use at least 2 or 3 sources because it could be biased use subheadings how 3 distinct theories would explain that issue three different interpretations of the event faI What exactly is international Law II What One of the biggest sources of why there is stability Not only as a view but a solution to many IR s problems like war and terrorism We are not talking about actions born from a legislative branch IR law is different in national law laws in nation are created by legislative branch house of reps and senate their primary responsibility No global legislative branch doesn t come from central authority either International law is product of tradition and agreements 4 sources are the sources of international Law and other conventions that are signed by states are the most important source of international law they represent states coming together and formalizing a code of conduct this is a behavior we want and shows a general acceptance of that idea a shared interest of that idea some things that some norms of behavior that have become so engrained existed so long historically they are shared so widely globally universally a custom we see in Asia Africa Middle East if a custom is that old and universal it becomes a body of international law it becomes a norm everyone takes for granted if it is violated it seems odd goes against accepted norms of behavior example you come and sit in a seat there is no law but its just what we do 3 quot of some principles of law that are generally accepted even in different legal systems what is codified as law in different countries same law on a country basis globally why not make it international law ex Murder is illegal in many countries lr ilici39 l39l il lu mail quotLiquot f H EJEQW i l1lir w lllv2 murder as a crime international arena murder is also deemed as illegal imp lluiilltiii l il g when you get lawyers and judges and they write studies advice conduct studies in what they believe should be international law genocide did not exist 60 yrs ago III Examples of global issues that international law attempts at addressing o 1 Diplomacy one arena of IR that is best developed largely because of custom because there is long history of how diplomats should be treated o Diplomatic recognition there is actually a standard mode of behavior once a country designated who their diplomat is they have to go to that country and they present hisher papers the person in power has the power to deny once diplomat is recognized diplomatic immunity immune to prosecution of criminal infractions civil violations in the country that is their host country cant get parking tickets park cars everywhere Right for diplomat to occupy embassy in host country extension of home states territory Home country land Diplomatic pouchessend info via mail old times diplomats can have packages sent between embassy and home country but these packages are secret the information they contain and secret and privileged host country is not supposed to open and read they are not supposed to confiscate o 2 War 0 Just War differentiate wars of aggression or just war 0 War crimessome actions that occur during periods of war that are deemed illegal Large scale abuses of human rights Forces deportation Using rape as a strategy of warfare Attack someone of the international red cross red crescent recognized by UN to be nonmember O O observer because they provide direct relief they are given a shield it is violation Soldiers or civilians who raise white flag are not supposed to get shot to target someone who has raised a flag is a violation IV Do any international courts exist Examining the who what wand how of international courts 1The World Court a court that is part of the UN the court where states go to sue other states Him 39 39 39 5 official name Only states can be litigants composed of panel of 15 judges judges are elected for 9 year terms by both security council and general assembly Tradition has it that permanent 5 members of security council will have one of their own a national from their country on the panel at all times so you rarely see a case go against their nationality because they always have a judge their You can sign on but there is a clause that only 40 signed that they will only let WC listen to some cases Purpose to create a court to decide what happens to conflicts so war is not necessary Reality were some countries always have a judge and there is a clause saying you cant listen to my case court becomes week hears issues of secondary importance They have a problem of enforcement l 2 The International Criminal Court where private individuals can be litigants we can be taken to the ICC 0 History permanent court to prosecute war crimes and crimes against humanity created because we as humans were optimistic but what global community has relied on what temporary tribunals but it happens after it happens Crimes against humanity happen so frequently so they acknowledged they need a permanent court to try these cases Signed by most countries goes into effect in 1998 took 23 years to ratify treaty for ICC to get established Opens in 2003 we are not an official member of the ICC both parties are reluctant to sign on because we fear the use of the ICC against our military or for our presidents we want the autonomy 0 Really powerful states are finding ways to not get charged they don t have their own police Relies on host country of where that litigant resides to voluntary turn over that person 0 New institution way to prosecute 0 So what do they do V How is international law enforced o 1 Agents and means of enforcement o reciprocity idea that if a country violates internal law serve as mechanism to stop it is not in their long term interest to have other countries behave badly towards them If you violate others will reciprocate against you 0 Collective action deemed to be another way There are times when states decide they are going to violate violation of International Law collective action response alliance got together and used joint military force military force when Saddam went to Kuwait countries get together and punish Saddam and Iraq 0 Take and try at national court When Saddam was prosecuted he wasn t prosecuted at ICC and Iraq wasn t taken to world court but he was prosecuted by Iraqi courts o 2 Weaknesses to enforcements o Reciprocity has limited utility aggressors don t give a crap they don t care how other states will respond Short term gainsgt long term consequences Also collective actionse totally dependent on willingness of countries to chose to respond states can always say yes or no cant get predicable or reliable response some countries can deter collective response so no one wants to go to USA we got nuclear the strength relies on the membership alliances are fragile and often break apart There isn t uniformity VI Assessing the utility of international law o Has utility provides common ground for countries to say we agree on stuff Shows that there are shared interests by states and they can work on things and cooperate International law prosecuting Nazis Not 100 effective 9282010 42600 PM 1Understanding how cooperation occurs in international law I Means for promoting international cooperation o A Global Governance when people talk about IO they often say facilitate global governance promote and realize it Therefore if they make us realize it we have to know what they are talking about Ms fi tl iir w or act 39 2 am inEiiiittivmiii i in iii39vjl39 i39 ile agement Fluid you can chose to participate and back out o B Supranational integration the current trend of subsuming a number of states into a larger entity joining together relinquishing power to this entity EU this entity is larger and not confer authority but confer identity greater cooperation greater resources This is rare because it requires sovereignty and authority There are a lot of problems commitment harder to back out o C How do they contribute to cooperation by facilitating tradeoffs creating arenas for conflict resolution mechanism for research analyze this research distribute reports coordinate action and behavior help fund to address these problems pull these resources while reducing transaction costs Bring in experts liberal intuitionalism II Taking a look at one important example of supranational institutions The United Nations o A History of the UN before the birth of UN look at predecessor League of Nations one time you have political scientist lead United States ideas and academia into something He creates the League of Nations Wilson promote peace prosperity and cooperation Mistakes did not have the means to stop countries from invading countries did not guarantee national sovereignty did not have enough of either policing power to stop states from engaging in territorial expansion couldn t stop or punish It would issue threats but it did not deter or follow thru you cant issue a threat and not follow thru Once a member was going to be punished the members left so over time they became smaller lacked incentive structure to keep members lacked resources money and funding others would say biggest weakness was lack the emerging global power Germany and US Europe was just in war US is emerging our president creates League of Nations To join organization you have to sign a treaty then ratified by congress in United States didn t want European entanglements instead focus on rebuilding America we turned inwards Senate and congress said no we never became a member failed to have as its member one of the most important new power in the world 19305 and 1940s falls apart B Purposes of the UN 1942 FDR Building a postwar world 1945 o The UN charter and its guiding principles San Francisco final signing by over 50 countries creates the UN Principles rules they are going to play by attract members 4 guiding principlesbring states in n 1 All states are equal under international law let states large or small that they will be viewed as being equal actorspartners 2 States have full sovereignty telling states do not fear us we recognize state sovereignty 3 States have full independence and territorial integrity another way of telling states we will not try to confine or constrain your ability to independently develop policy recognition that states can do what they want in their own country policies at the same time it recognizes territorial integrity the territory you possess is yours and should not be violated and it should not be attacked or taken by someone else way to attract states 4 States should carry out its international obligations starts to bring obligation cost to membership if you sign a treaty you are supposed to fulfill it o PurposesGoals of the UN Fundamental goal states can settle conflict through global institutional structure without resorting to violent force Preamble n 1UN wants to avoid war a 2 Reaffirming human rights a 3 Creating condition forjustice and global arena characterized byjustice Its respected and used a 4 Promotion of social progress promotion of better standards of life ideas of political and civil liberties are also implicit no explicit mention of democracy n promote peace tolerance states being good neighbors to one another promoting idea that states must unite to maintain international peace a does not outlaw the use of force just other methods should be used first and if force is used it should be used in common interest and it should be done multilaterally not unilaterally multiple states acting together o C Membership and Organization 0 i Who are its members the cost and benefit of membership states first over 50 now 192 membership voted by general assembly universally recognized state you get a seat general assembly and you can participate in other organs of UN but you can also get a seat on other UN affiliated agencies partner and benefits of UN programs observers not a state you can be a state that lacks full membership but you are given observer status you lack the ability to vote participate in organs but you can sit in general assembly discussions and contribute to debate Vatican BENEFITS you will be given time to speak to others voice opportunities in safe environment Receive UN programs economic development build schools 0 hospitals provide immunization food to young kids maternal care Indirect leverage arena where lots of countries get together to vote on policies vote against states who have nuclear weaponry International stability and predictability benefit to ALL states they do not have to focus on the unnecessary COSTS financially you pay your dues vary according to members if you fail to pay you are not automatically kicked out Your sovereignty is slightly compromised promise to fulfill the treaty means the state has to act a particular way that does confine some of your autonomy and sovereignty ii How is the UN structured 6 organs n Secretariat executive branchtop manager primary responsibility is management of UN physical place organize who is going to pick up trash payroll Collecting data Competitive job well respected give up in theory adherence loyalty to your country and transfer it to the UN commitment to the goals of UN and global community Led by Secretary General depends on the man itself have he ability to set the agenda Mediators of conflict bring issues to security council to address B International court ofjustice world court a EcoSoc economic and social subset of countries of general assembly all programs and agencies dealing with economic and social development help the welfare of people address needs of people a General assembly all member states worlds public opinion forum not a legislative body because declarations of general assembly do not become international law they are like public poles tell the world what general consensus agenda isarena of what issues need to be addressed prioritize Trusteeship council hasn t done anything since 1994 created to help manage and coordinate the move towards independence of former colonies and trusteeships into sovereign states Advisors that helped countries that were not independent to become independent Security Council specially in powered to investigate threats to international peace stability people learn from past and woo other countries 15 members 5 permanent 10 rotating 5 permanent members were the 5 strongest states coming out of world 2 USlt UKlt FRANCElt CHINAlt RUSSIA They created a mechanism that privileged powerful states they gave them privilege that they would always have a say in international security not only are they given seat but a veto power in order for any resolution to pass it cant be vetoed by any permanent member Yes or abstain or veto kills resolution 9282010 42600 PM Final exampost midterm material Why poverty exists Use lecture guidelines to what we should pay attention on The econ chapters C What about monetary system and financehow are they important to IR o Global Economics ripe potential for war International trade Economic power is the power source of 21St century o How can states make sure they are winners o Interests of all states to ensure that finance and trade occur under harmony and stability most states want stable trade relationships countries make more money during years of stability than years of war o A lot of potential points of conflict II Examining the key actors and institutions that support economic globalization o A World Bank IMF and WTO 0 Each fulfills economic goals and have leverage 0 World Bank AKA INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT billions of dollars technology and information to give to states when somebody has something you want they can get something out of you bank for reconstruction and development initially it was meant to rebuild Europe after WW2 1944 now helps education government and economic develop good governing Governed by shareholders o IMF loanstates go to when they are broke most vulnerable in charge of international exchange rates paper gold guaranteed deposit in IMF states put money in savings account in IMF states can withdraw if they exceed the amount they put in then that is how the loan applies Shareholders vote and United States largest shareholder Governed by shareholders O WTO institutions when states join it they make a promise to liberalize their trade policies not discriminate among members reciprocate among members If one starts to liberalize trade than others reciprocate Goal free trade world Didn t anticipate that you would have intense competition amongst states and because of this states lower their environmental regulations labor safety minimum wages fall Engage in policy that adversely effects work force Stimulate trade Reciprocity and nondiscrimination are principles 1 state 1 vote all states make decisions was GA39IT General Agreement on Tariffs Trade tariff is a tax on an import lower tariffs and regulate trade intellectual property rightspharmaceuticals we make medicine research amp development they protect the rights of these pharmaceuticals poor people can t afford it o B Multinational corporations 0 O O O O O 0 have facilities in more than one country major supporters of economic globalization they have created global production factories throughout the world that all produce the same thing they are not vulnerable to any one state promoters of international trade ideology of free trade Consequence now you have nonstate actors who have the potential to challenge and bargain with states but MNC are by large privately owned they primary responsibilities are shareholders thus profit is main goal Act independently not loyal to states bargain with states concede to MNCs If you are as state you want to attract MNC s they provide investment and jobs states lose sovereignty Impact major nonstate actors world of global economics rise of nonstate actors with immense wealth power and demand and get respect to get concessions out of states III How has economics affected who is the most power actor in the 21St century global affairs o Conflictcompetition who can be more powerful will it remain state economic institutions economic IGO s or are they going to be corporations Examining Global Poverty I What is it o A Defining global poverty and intl development 0 Key characteristics not all of them have to be present Lack of industrialization Highly agricultural economy Lack diversification in economy in poor parts of the world the economy will rely on anywhere to 13 primary products dependent on 13 primary products as a source of income Most products have high elasticity a lot of suppliers demand is very flexible is price is too high you don t have to buy it anymore Population tends to lack educationlarge segments of population will probably live at or below poverty line Lack access to basic necessities regular access to clean water regular access to health facilities lack access to proper sewage infracture roads electricity 0 Commonly used labels lack of economic development Global south Third World Emerging economies Underdevelopedlow economies o B What does it mean The real costs 0 1 Estimated that a billion people live in abject poverty live on less than 150 a day no access to proper nutrition or healthcare most live in the continent of Africa 0 2 Every 6 seconds somewhere a child dies as a result of malnutrition o 5 million children die a year overall O 920 million people are chronically undernourished 18 people in world 16 people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water to water that does not give them diarrhea or other diseases 16 live in substandard housing or homeless 75 of world s population live in Global South yet only have 30 of world s doctors and nurses 20 of population of global north consume of 86 of the worlds goods III How is underdeveloped assessed o A Commonly used economic measures 0 1 Economic growth rates 0 2 Poverty rates 0 O O O o 3 per capita income per person gross income level low income975 lower middle 9753855 upper middle 385611905 highly income 11906 or more 0 4Income distribution A Gini Coefficient measure income distribution measure 01 the closer you get to 1 the worse Latin America is the most unequal according to gini coefficients B Human development index n Levels of education a of babies that survive a life expectancy u better assessment of welfare and standard of living IV Important issues for the global south o A How best to promote development 0 Not thinking about generating wealth but how can we industrialize expand medical coverage education food clean water o B problems if the rural and urban populations 0 Lots of policies that first were advocated to promote development were based on industrialization but that favors the city at the expense of the countryside so you have this tension because resentment of the city increases o C The status of women in the developing world 0 Discrimination legal discriminationwomen cant own inherit wealth Societal norms will define gender roles where women are seen as mothers and daughters family home rather than an equal Some cultures boy are favored you add to that that women to the larger share of work in the global south even in agricultural Economists now say educating females to promote economic growth longterm because they will delay marriage delay children primary agents of socialization when family budget is in women s hands they invest money on children s education because it has a ripple effect Status of women poorest a lot of work they were ignored o D Migration Populations 0 Internal people are moving from countryside to the cities resulting in growth of megacities growing at faster rates than government planned so they don t have adequate in fractures limited employment not enough housing sewage electricity lines 0 People build homes shanty towns increase and emerge 0 Walk long ways or use alternate means rapemurder cuidad de Juarez o Externalpeople leave country as people emigrate they hopefully get a job in another country Positive less pressure supply of labor is smaller benefit because they earn income they tend to send money back home remittance sending income back home States can only help so much o E Government o How to govern well For many years they were lead by governments who were corrupt or brutal military dictatorships repressive towards population and corrupt Much of global south before were colonies lack a long history of being a strong consolidated state F Security 0 Scarcity of resources in the global south there is an increase in competition we see failing states increase democracies that are fragile civil liberties are not protected or respected Lack of human security internal war genocide border wars security V Points of tension between south and north A tradeglobalization south is saying they are forces to free trade while global north is cheating south is forces to open up markets global north is forcing polices that we didn t follow when we became wealthy B Debtmassive global debt in global south they believe global north should help them because most is owed to private corporations that live in north C AidAssistance want more aid from former colonizers they manipulated in fracture used our resources 0 Aid often seen as western expansion D Environment 0 They say global north you polluted like crazy but now we tell global south they can t pollute global south is pissed E Security 0 i war terrorism refugees genocide global south has face their own type of terrorism coming form radical groups etc Refugees want more assistance Genocide happens in global south and we don t seem to care Genocide happens and global north ignores the only time we respond quickly when its close to global north or when they look like people form the north F Global power 0 Balance the new emerging powers are coming out of the global south Brazil India China We can no longer ignore global south because major states are emerging VI What is the impact of these global south issues and points of tension on international relations o More conflict more intensity relationships between north and south will not be easily harmonious globalizationforeign direct investment o look for a state you can do work with most cheaply o attract investment lower standards 9282010 42600 PM Read about contemporary slavery extra credit I What exactly is human rights In theory states want stability claim they promote support and care about Individuals become deeply committed There seems to be this disconnect between us and how states deal with human rights You become angry because human rights are being abused on a global level We do not see enough action behind the protection and advocacy of human rights o A The UN s definition universal rights of human beings against certain abuses by their own government 0 Word certain causes dilemma amongst its definition and who you ask 0 of their own governmentquot state as the perpetrators o B Other views on how human rights should be conceived 0 When the UN started their work 1948 major actor in UN is the USA and behind us are our European partners consequences of how human rights are defined we defined it based on out historical past based on individual liberty principle of generation of human rights civil political rights that individuals possess 0 First fifl ij l l39 lilli of mineral rlr really embodied negative freedomsrights that government can t violate it 0 But then in 19605 and 19705 you get new members in UN second conception and view of human rights Social Economic Rights 239 i socialist communist countries other rights that are important for dignity a Housing employment food medicine a Government should provide secure life a AKA Positive Rights 0 lTlaatllizln third world everyone else coming from Global south Arguing they have a different foundation many of their communities individual liberties are not that important a Community rightstribal rightsprioritize community over individual Promotion of some individual rights violated their community rights II How is this a global issue o A Understanding the international implications of hr protection 0 According to UN violations of hr undermine the principles necessary to ensure longterm stability and peace in the world Human rights are guiding principles 0 UN charter dignity and inalienable rights is foundation of freedom justice and peace 0 All 192 states that are members promising to abide by charter 0 According to us state dept the human rights is a major foundation stone to the United States so since its so important to us we claim that the protection of human rights is an important foreign policy we also say we agree with the 1948 declaration of human rights we will support and advocate with it o B Examininq the current state of human riqhts 0 Even 60 yrs of signing over 80 countries that routinely torture their people 0 Unfair trials occur in over 50 countries 0 Almost 80 countries people are not allowed to speak freely 0 Estimated over 1200 people were known to be executed by their own government in 2007 in over 24 countries including our own 111 What international laws were created to protect HR o A The UN convention on human riqhts 1848 set forth international norms regarding what constitutes to human rights and also set up an initial structure within the UN like agencies to promote human rights Fundamental voted on and passed in the general assembly new members can add their name to it does not have the force law o B other UN treaties and laws International Covenant on civil and political rights followed by International Covenant on economic social and cultural rightspassing of both you are appeasing first and second world O 1987 convention against torture 1969 international convention elimination of racial discrimination 1981 elimination discrimination of women 1990 rights of children 2003 protection of all migrants and their families What else has UN done Commissioner on human rights in UN serve as diplomat as human rights United Nations Human Rights Council 2006alliances states manipulate it and use it to protect themselves and their allies o 1995 UN declared decade of Human Rights education promoted definition of HR to get people excited about it IV But why is it so difficult to protect hr globally o A Debate regarding what constitutes a HR 0 Hard to enforce because there is still debate on what constitutes HR we believe in 1St generation others 2nd so its difficult to get things done o B The issue of sovereignty protection of HR requires something has to be done when a state violates HR 0 Publicly say shame on you most popular strategy 0 States twill argue that you cant tell them what to do they are autonomous o C The issue of geopolitics 0 You don t force or criticize states that are too important to your vital interests and national security o D The complicated role of power 0 How do you enforce HR do you really use power 0 If you tell a state to commit a militarygovernments are going to stop and be cautious because they have to ask if it is worth it its not a vital interest V So how does the international community try to protect HR o A The UN promotional campaigns limited utility because they suffer because they lack an enforcement mechanism o B EU European court of human rights regional develop their own courts 0 O O O O C The US we use diplomacy Trade sanctions we stop selling them stuff we engage in name and shame campaignspublicity and pressure turn attention to violators of human rights media international meetings so that way people know who the violators are 0 US State Dept annual human rights report before if your name was on the list you would have to pay more tariffs to get American goods 0 Allow for NGO s to lobby government D Private citizens most important amnesty international human rights watch best collectors of information annual reports special topics Contemporary Slavery 9282010 42600 PM I What is contemporary or neoslavery o Highly economic attribute it to rise of economic globalization international businessmen o How is it different from past slaverv o Coerced labor forced labor for economic benefit 27 million slaves today average price for a slave today is 90 slaves today are not viewed as assets but they are expendable if they get sick you don t treat them 0 Not it is based on deception people go to poor parts of world desperate people offer them a job but it s a lie as soon as they cross state borders paper taken away raped beat and forced into labor over 50 is sex industry domestic work gardeners nannies o States themselves are not actors in selling of the slaves but there are many individuals that know there is human trafficking going on but they don t do anything about it II Statistics to illustrate the extent of the problem


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.