POL S 1
POL S 1 POL S 1
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnathan McKenzie on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/226997/pol-s-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Political Science at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
OUTLINE Vertical Migration 1 Patterns of Vertical Migration 1 Patterns of Vertical Migration surface 1 l NocturnalSmface at night A39 Examp es deeper during the day 11 Variables affecting extent of migration 111 What regulates vertical migration 2 Reverse Surface 1n the day IV What is the adaptive value of vertical migration deeper during the night A Predator Avoidance Hypothesis B HardyIsaacs Patch Selection Hypothesis 3 Twin h Surface at dusk C McLaren Metabolic Hypothesis deeper 111an the mghtgt surface at dawn deeper V Vertical paititioning of the environment during the day bimodal Surface Exam 0 les 1 Calanus nmarchicus dominant copepod in N Atlantic Daytime depth 4 70 m Nighttime depth 4 20 m Swimming speed 15 mhr Most common migration pattern Occurs in at least some species of all major ZOOPIankton groups 2 Euphausia hemigibba dominant euphausiid in CA Current Nighttime biomass generally exceeds daytime Daytime depth 4 400800 m biomass in surface waters by 25 fold Nighttime depth 4 0100 m Animals may migrate through strong temperature pressure oxygen gradients 39 swlmmmg Speed 93 m Swim on ascent and descent II Variables affecting extent of migration E C nmarchicus females migrate deeper AgeSize Adults migrate deeper Environmental Water turbidity cloud cover moon phase season III What regulates vertical migration A TAXIS PhototaXis 4 Negative phototaxis repelled by strong light 4 Some follow isolumes GeotaXis 4 Negative geotaxis moving away from the pull of gravity gt Negative phototaxis is the stronger of the two responses B HUNGER Going up to the surface to feed descend when satiated III What regulates vertical migration con t C PHYSIOLOGICAL RHYTHM Internal clock Light may synchronize intemal rhythm Emight amp Hamner Experiment surface light uonrsod 201119 A dark continuous dark IV What is the adaptive value of vertical migration Inate clock n Sync Only in response to A Predator Avoidance Hypothesis Selective pressure resulting in the evolution of migration Experiment Lakes Study Dini amp Carpenter 1991 No shmigration variable Add sh backmigration resumes Smaller animals migrate sooner than large animals as they are less visible supported by sonar data Problems with the Predator Avoidance Hypothesis Some animals migrate to the surface during the day 0 Some animals don t migrate Why would animals migrate so shallow or so deep IV What is the adaptive value of vertical migration B Hardy Isaacs Patch Selection Hypothesis 4 Organisms migrate deeper in clear less productive water than in turbid more productive water 4 Deeper migration facilitates horizontal transport to potentially more productive waters 1 t quot2239 I O Supported by data collected in California Current correlating migration extent with turbidity Problems with the Hardy Isaacs Patch Selection Hypothesis Does not eXplain day night periodicity Why would animals migrate at all in turbid water Assumptions Currents move faster and farther at depth There is more food available in turbid water IV What is the adaptive value of vertical migration C McLaren Metabolic H othesis Animals migrate to decrease their metabolism and increase their fecundity by spending time in colder waters Evidence from Emight modeling study Development time of copepods is longer at lower temps Animals grow larger at lower temperatures Fecundity is higher for larger animals They found a mild selection for migratory behavior Problems with the McLaren Metabolic Hypothesis Vertical migration occurs in nonstratified lakes Does not explain daynight periodicity Model did not account for energy required for migration Model gave migrants and nonmigrants the same survivorship and generation times Physical Discontinuities Temperature I I I I I I Ii I I I l l39 I7 I I I 12 14 16 O 04 08 0 50 39 100 Temperature CC Particle load Dinoflag dominance Fig 3 Vertical pro les of La Rochelle France with an in situ particle size profiler a er Gentien er a 1995 showing temperature particle load and percentage of a39mo agellaies total phytoplankton The closed and open circles are the locations of water samples From Osborne 1998 based on Gentien et a1 1995 Physical Discontinuities Density Phytoplankton East Sound WA 1995 Fiuoraaaeme units 0 5m wee i560 2008 250 Cowles et al 1998 Physical Discontinuities Density phytoplankton East Sound WA May1996 2 a m 4 Aggregates 4 Aeserptmn Aggregates Dewy 4 3m 5 2 m n man man annn mun anon anon Total Volume arAggregates Own 7 5 m 2 0 269m n 5 n Particulate A prion p D om 19 2n 21 22 Density a seawater Alldredge et a1 2002 Congjun Wu Kain Institute for Theoretical Physics UCSB C Wu and S C Zhang PRL 93 36403 2004 C Wu K Sun E Fradkin and S C Zhang PRB 75 115103 2007 KlTP 05 162007 1 Collaborators o E Fradkin UIUC 0 K Sun UIUC S C Zhang Stanford Many thanks to L Balents M Beasley S Das Sarma A L Fetter T L Ho A Ludwig Y B Kim S Kivelson A J Leggett and J Zaanen for very helpful discussions 0 Introduction What is unconventional magnetism Its deep connections to several important research directions in condensed matter physics 0 Mechanism for unconventional magnetic phase transitions 0 Low energy collective modes 0 Possible experimental realization and detection methods unconven ona39 superconductivity symmetry properties under orbital rotations anisotropic spinorbit electron liqUId 39 coupHng The early age of ferromagnetism Thales 624546 BC says that a stone Iodestone has a soul because it causes movement to iron De Anma Aristotle 384322 BC The Iodestone attracts iron Guguzj g 4th century BC World s first compass south pointer Ferromagnetism manybody collective effect 0 Driving force exchange interaction among electrons Ell lt EN 0 Stoner criterion UN gt1 E C Stoner 0 E n U average interaction strength N0 density of T l states at the Fermi level gt Ferromagnetism s wave magnetism 0 Spin rotational symmetry is broken o i giibaii tignali o itggn pciiia a Ji a 0 Cf conventional superconductivity Cooper pairing between electrons with opposite momenta 5wave pairing amplitude does not change over the Fermi surface c Unconventional superconductivity 0 High o aLwave high TC cuprates Paring amplitude changes sign in the Fermi surface j W quotgt if 0 5 I dx2y2 o p wave SrZRuO4 3HeA and B D J Van Harlingen Rev Mod Phys 67 515 1995 C C Tsuei et al Rev Mod 8 Phys 72 969 2000 New states of matter unconventional magnetism Wi Wi isotropic pwave magnetic state anisotropic pwave magnetic state spin flips the sign as I gt 4 9 Introduction dynamic generation of spinorbit coupling unconventional superconductivity anisotropic electron liquid 10 Spintronics controlling spin degree of freedom 0 Electric fields manipulation rather than magnetic fields 0 Spin Hall effect electric fields induced transverse spin accumulations due to spinorbit coupling D rdinary Hall effect with magnetic field H Hall voltage but no spin accumulation Pure spin Hall effect no magnetic eld necessary New Hall voltage but spin accumulation Science 309 2004 2005 Theory S Murakami et al Science 301 1348 2003 J Sinova eta PRL 92 126603 2004 J Hirsch PRL 83 1834 1999 Experiment Y K Kato et al Science 306 2004 J Wunderlich et al PRL 94 047204 2005 N P Stern et al PRL 97 126603 2006 11 MicroscoDic oriqin of Spinorbit couplinCI o Spinorbit coupling originates from relativity o Anqelectron moving in an 17 field In the comoving frame the E field is moving 0 Due to relativity an internal effectiveI field is induced and couples to electron spin 2 3a E J HMOC S39 Unconventional magnetism dvnamic deneration of spinorbit SO coupling without relativity 0 Conventional mechanism A singlebody effect not directly related to manybody interactions 0 New mechanism manybody collective effect r 0 Advantages tunable SO coupling by varying temperatures new types of SO coupling The isotropic nwave maqnetic phase V C Wu et al PRL 93 36403 2004 C Wu et al condmat0610326 0 Spin is not conserved helicity ii is a good quantum number no net spinmoment 0 Order parameter spin dipole moment in momentum space not in the coordinate space Isotropic phase with spinorbit coupHng The subtle svmmetrv breakind Dattern 0 7 is conserved but i 0 Independent orbital and are not separately conserved spin rotational symmetries JE Leggett Rev Mod Phys 47 331 1975 0 Relative spinorbit symmetry breaking 15 Introduction electron Iiuid crystal phase with spin unconventional superconductivity Ar k1 V Spinorbit anisotropic coupling electron CUd Anisotroov liquid crvstalline order 0 Classic liquid crystal LCD Nematic phase rotational anisotropic but translational invariant Ul 9 I I isotropic 52 quothuh nematic phase I39 I ll l W l I phase lelilb Mi Hi 0 lliquiiol Fermi surface gt anisotropic distortions S Kivelson et al Nature 393 550 1998 V Oganesyan et al PRB 64195109 2001 17 Nematic electron liquid in SrgRugglat high B fields o Quasi2D system resistivity anisotropy at 78 Tesla o Fermi surface nematic distortions 30 15 I 720 715 30 35 unH T S A Grigera et al Science 306 1154 2004 R A Borzi et al Science express 200618 Nematic electron liquid in 2D GaAsAIGaAs at hiqh B fields 2 32 1000 JmK f 9 a I u 1 750 a l 39 ll ll Q Maquot 2 M P Lillyeta PRL82 2500quot 1W 4 I 394 1999 a 1 I 39139 139 7139 51 ll 1 391 II II I n a 0 31 3 541 U 1 5 2 3 B Tesla M M Fogler et al PRL 76499 1996 PRB 54 1853 1996 E Fradkin et al PRB 59 8065 1999 PRL 84 1982 2000 L Radzihovsky et al PRL 88 216802 2002 19 Unconventional magnetism electron liquid crystal phases with Spin anisotropic pwave magnetic phase spinsplit state by J E Hirsch PRB 41 6820 1990 PRB 41 6828 1990 o pwave distortion of the Fermi surface 0 No net spinmoment 0 1 0 Spin dipole moment in momentum space not in coordinate space 1312 Ekoosak 720 I 0 Both orbital and spin rotational symmetries are broken V Oganesyan et aI PRB 64195109 2001 C Wu et aI PRL 93 36403 2004 Varma et 20 al Phys Rev Lett 96 036405 2006 Summary of the introduction part unconventional superconductivity spinorbit electron liquid coupling crystal with spin 2 Du itiii 0 Introduction 0 Mechanism for unconventional magnetic phase transitions Fermi surface instability of the Pomeranchuk type Mean field phase structures 0 Low energy collective modes 0 Possible directions of experimental realization and detection methods 22 Landau Fermi liquid FL theorv o The existence of Fermi surface Electrons close to Fermi surface are important 0 Interaction functions no SO coupling Z 39Ffm pjg 5iw iav 5p 1 LLandau Landau parameter in the th partial wave channel 23 Pomeranchuk instabilitv criterion 0 Fermi surface elastic membrane AE 0C 5 sa 2 sa l 5S612 211lt quot1 AEjint 0C 0 Surface tension vanishes at o Ferromagnetism the FD channel o Nematic electron liquid the F channel 24 Unconventional maqnetism Pomeranchuk instability in the spin channel phase 06 phase 0 An analogy to superfluid 3HeB isotropic and A anisotropic phases 25 c Superfluid 3HeB A phases o pwave triplet Cooper pairing I ME ACME A12 AI Ac 1 17 o 3HeB isotropic phase 0 3HeA anisotropic phase A J Leggett Rev Mod Phys 47 331 1975 26 The order parameters the 2D pwave channel o Ea Spin currents flowing along x and ydirections or spindipole moments in momentum space 0 cf Ferromagnetic order swave E Z mam z o Arbitrary partial wave channels spinmultipole moments a Fl cos lk gtcosl k sm lk gts1n16lk 27 Mean field theory and GinzburqLandau free enerCIv o The simplest nons wave exchange interaction HMF 2 WV 8kV71 0086 WE 81119 tk 0 Symmetry constraints rotation spin orbital parity timereversal amp1F 2 F1 lt 2 2 F1ai a 28 B and ocDhases nwave v2 lt018phase v2 gtOa phase 131 J 132 and 1 2 132 1 2 2 I H131 I arbitary 29
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