ANTH 320 Notes 3/22/16-3/24/16
ANTH 320 Notes 3/22/16-3/24/16 ANTH 320
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
ANTH 320 Notes 3/22/16-3/24/16 3/22/16 - Development critiques o History critique (evolution): development is not linear, Frank o Progress critique (enlightenment): development projects may not work in all contexts, failure inevitable usually Creates unintended outcomes Ferguson o Action critique (expertise): science isn’t always the answer, sometimes traditional methods are better in specific contexts Scott Science only good when effectively researched and combined with tradition o Goal critique (economy): living systems, everything works together to create progress, must account for environment Shiva - Shiva has most intense criticism of development o If development succeeds, human race is doomed - Anthropocene: new epoch in which humanity controls/dominates earth o Large environmental changes and consequences - Sustainable development goals: replaced Millennium Development Goals, focus on environmental protection and sustainability o Poverty reduction o Hunger reduction o Good health/well-being o Education o Gender equality o Clean water o Clean energy o Economic growth o Industries and infrastructure o Reduce inequalities o Sustainable communities o Responsible consumption o Climate action o Aquatic life preservation o Land life preservation o Peace, justice o Partnerships globally - Vandana Shiva: environmental activist o Speaks against GMO’s and industrial agriculture o Biologically living system: produce soil, plants, humans, animals, water, and air as single community - Shiva’s criticisms: triple crises (energy, farming, climate) o Peak oil: new sources of oil will exceed production cost of previous Caused by shrinking oil supply o Climate: increased temperature, intensified weather/natural disasters Ex. El Niño from this year More extreme weather events o Farming: scientific advancements hurt environment GMO’s and patents cause local farmers to lose livelihoods Monoculture leads to sterile landscapes - Unprecedented consequences of crises: o Stakes: survival of human race o Scope: affects world as whole, individual nations not responsible o Comprehensive: how people work o Land: main object of harm o Disproportion: those who gain from advancements largely removed from those negatively affected - Problems with using causes to create solutions: o Carbon trading: ability to buy and sell pollution rights Privatization of atmosphere- benefits those with capital Corporations over people Concentration of pollution, increased vulnerability Cost/consequences put on those far removed from benefits - Lawrence Summers’ Memo about polluting LDC’s o Costs less to pollute an LDC because have lower wages o America is more polluted than LDC’s, poor countries can hold more pollution o LDC’s already have so many other problems that pollution will be pushed on the back burner 3/24/16 - Why should dirty industries not be shifted to LDC’s? o Costs and expenses not appropriate measures to justify suffering Everyone has right to sell-being Low wage earners have greater suffering already o Idea of underpollution illustrates shifting baseline syndrome World so destroyed, impossible to imagine life without pollution Sometimes pollution-free environment is only claim to well-being of LDC’s o True that pollution is lower priority for poor, but doesn’t justify added problems Would widen gap between those benefitted and those with consequence - Memo illustrates World Bank failure to account for history o Says exportation of dirty industries is thing of future BUT has already happened (ex. in Ecuador) Chevron drilled oil in Ecuador and dumped waste in water supply- hurt people and diverse environment - Economic thinking leads to destruction: o Replaces living things with prices and markets Favors high priced commodities Economic globalization increases damage - Shiva’s solutions: o “hand-me-down” information Grandmothers University share old techniques and knowledge o Importance of idea of sacred cows: Sources of products necessary for Hindu rituals Symbol for life because provide life-giving products o Sacred fig trees (ficus) Provides necessary shade for living things Appears in ancient Indian art Medicinal qualities - Machine space: idea developed by Horvath (1974, UCLA) o Shows reach/power through technology o Must remake the world to be able to accommodate machines and exercise power o Shrink safe spaces for humans to make room for machines o Machines have priority over humans - Machines in India: o Most people are not car owners 67% rural population, low literacy rates Cars should not be center of development o Use of farm animals (large amount draft animals) Shouldn’t replace animals with machines, cost to replace is very high o Space should be determined by people, plants, and animals Use of biodiverse roads (many different living things and modes of transport) - Soil illustrates life-centered development: o Plants and other living things sufficient fertilizers, promote growth of other plants o “soil not oil” means small-scale farming, not cars o Management practices (organic vs. non-organic) create biggest change in microbial content of soil Organic farming gives more living qualities to soil
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