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by: Kristoffer Nader
Kristoffer Nader
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P. Walker

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P. Walker
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This 153 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristoffer Nader on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 121 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by P. Walker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/227017/anth-121-university-of-california-santa-barbara in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Paleontological Methods Goals of Paleontological Research Chronology When did a fossil form live Phylogeny What is its relationship to modern primates Paleoecology What were the ecological relationships between earlier hominids and the environments they inhabited Not only do we want to reconstruct the branching structure of our family tree our phylogeny we also want to know when important adaptive shifts occurred chronological relationships Dating Techniques Relative dating techniques Allow you to say that one specimen is older than another but do not give a calendar date Examples 0 Stratigraphy Geomagnetic polarity Absolute dating techniques Allow you to assign a calendar x date to a specimen plus or minus a certain technical error 39 Examples 1 Dendrochronology Tree ring dating in Radiometric dating techniques Stratigraphy Based on the principle that geological deposits gradually from in a layercake fashion Lower Older A British geologist who rejected catastrophic explanations of geological deposits Developed the principal of uniformitarianism in which he suggested that quotthe present is the key to the pastquot Based on this argued that the earth had a long history His book Principals of Geology had an important in uence on Darwin Uniformitarianism It is parsimonious to 39 r r r assume that same 39 processes and laws operating today have operated throughout the history of Earth This idea can be applied to the rates at which geological deposits form It suggests that the Earth s history is much lon er that the short A Examp39e g d d b gtIf 0001 meter is observed being deposited Reno SuggeSte y each year deposit year 11teral 1nterpretatlons of gtThen one meter of deposit 1000 years the Bible gtThus a 400 meter deposit such as this is 400000 years old FaunalDa ng Species with well documented evolutionary histories can be used to date less well known co occuring species For example the teeth of elephants change in a systematic way and are often preserved in paleontological deposits The presence of elephant remains from a known period can thus be used to date the site lial Hillll lr mum manner He rlllochoerus camp us EBB Hammon Halridlchwrua Indruvai Mam mm mehr Ilotoclluru acolti quotLIVE PM Wham TIIJ39IU DD Malabar Notochoerun cmpenais MI mm mum r M as SHOWN MILHU39I39I at uni Irml WIan unwarocnmlus Mann s C INTERN CrossDating Concentrations of Chemicals on Bone The chemical composition of bones changes through time under the in uence of ground water and exposure to other aspects of the depositional environment Fluorine builds up in bone through time Nitrogen decreases in bone through time Nitrogen Dating of the Piltdown Remains Fran Ion helm Mm Flt111mm Use of Fluorine Dating in the Piltdown case The Piltdown jaw has 3 lower concentrations of uorine than the skull The skull fragments have concentrations that are similar to Pleistocene mammal bones from the site This suggests that they are actually of some antiquity Geomagnetic Dating Based on the fact that the earth s geomagnetic eld periodically reverses Geological deposits can be classi ed as either having normal ie modern polarity or reversed polarity Requires volcanic or sedimentary rocks Geomagnetic Dating of African Hominids Many African deposits Lfquoti i 3539lf132quot have been dated by quot correlating geomagnetic and radiometric data 70039c F1500 c F 25 c 0 i i u A 1000 31m w 1100 5 quot811 900 511472002 II III III 4 i 1 Biochemical Dating Techniques Based on comparisons of DNA and other biomolecules from living animals Similarities and differences are considered to re ect phylogenetic relationships Animals with more biochemical similarities are inferred to have a more recent common ancestor than animals lacking such W similarities Biochemical Phylogenies Biochemical Differences allow Family Trees to be Reconstructed y Cytochrome C an 3 17 enzyme used in energy H production differences f lt are shown at left 39 The greater the number 9 5 E a of differences the more hquot e quot f 7 remote the inferred 35 c f COIIll IlOIl ancestor Arr laLg39LWacn x cMmquot n 1quotle J lt va Are Pandas Bears ZED SPECTACLED mom PDCH mm WCW am am FLEISTOCENE 2 milieu your 099 NUCENE 5 milion yum p90 AILUiINE mm 39 24 Nllllm m q ya DlCOCB E Jc dl m39ymn ago me Wmmmgs m IllEX SEMI SUN AMERICAN ASIMC BEAR eucxnw From Bears39 Ma emit Creatures ofthe Wild Ian Stmlng ed Used W h permission Require a known date of W ii if divergence from a stern form t in i t lquot Assumptions i gtConstant rate of divergence 474x 14 4 gtNo natural selection XIX r Dquot m 3 5quot E 2quot L E quot as xquot E D D n D f E I E Mir 2 J r 39d I l l 100 200 300 400 500 Time Myr Varve Analysis Varves are annually laminated sediments This technique provides an opportunity to acquire detailed chronological information about the composition displacement and climate of that region at that time Patterns in the growth rings of trees allow pieces of wood in archaeological sites to be precisely dated Requires an existing treering chronology from an environment with considerable seasonality in growth Also a useful source of climatic information This limits its value for materials Limitations of Dendrochronology Based on the matching of patterns of seasonal growth Requires a library of growth rings that can be used to link modern trees to earlier trees older than a few thousand years BlJlllJING A frquot mi RI N n in on wont l lllllil llll ll DY 0n QYCIII is A a a a o a o sample learn lineg lure h J lllllllllltlllc Radiometric Dating Techniques Depends on the slow decay of one element into another Examples gtRadiocarbon 14C gtPotassiumargon 40K 40Ar 39Ar 30Ar gtUranium disequilibrium 230U 234U Ac m39ty diglm Each radioactive isotope radionuclide has a unique halflife time required for half the radionuclides to decay Half life of an isotope is calculated from its decay constant amountwhich decays per unit time HalfLife Amount m iarlloamive mamriai A mmmmn in the nnginai amount AJ Al or any quantity which IS uropurtiona GA A o 3 A 0T k A 113 l I l m 0 T 2T 3T 5T Time as a multiple of me haltlule T Daughter HalfLife Parent Isotope Isotope Years Carbon 14 Nitrogen 14 5730 Uranium235 Lead207 710000000 Potassium40 Argon40 1300000000 Uranium238 Lead206 4500000000 Thorium232 Lead208 15000000000 Rubidium87 Strontium87 47000000000 Radiocarbon Dating 0 14C formed in atmosphere and is incorporated into organisms in a xed ratio to stable carbon 1 Atomic muss F53 f 53 r x 341 i L 394 1 x L After death 14C be gms to decay to 14N W quot quot 6 quot quot 5 Cuba 11 E 2 Cuba n 13 Carbon14 Th1s ratlo changes at a constant rate 14 14 C N tl2 5730 years 0 Measure any carbon bearing material The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in an atom Atomic mass is a combination of the number of protons and Measure 14C12C ratio and compare to ratio in neutrons in the nucleus quotmodern materialsquot Good for ages younger than 7 0000 yrs Cosmic rays bombard upper atmosphere 39 producing fast moving neutrons Them neutrons 39 7 7 collide with x V ltmosp ieric nitrogen moms producing radioactive 5 3 carbon14 I C I I 42 5 l i i 2 Cu k iu mrnnrlhh tummlun G J Ci Radiocarbon Dating Nllmgvn L39nhlablv alm n L alum Oxygen C alum i39 O muleruh alum mulvuile 03 Oa Nvutrnn K 39mtun 39a n m 1 Nitrogen alum becumes l39 alum m the 1C and nxygen enter th39 Dr al l5m5 atmosphere 1n 1 Iwugrcnn mmplr 1 Lil dlh lhlrv am 25 dislnwgmhunh 39 C pvr mlnulv 0 o O O 393TquotlMLnrm39unr halt ImI s 39ll39r Lil39dlh I4 dlh39 Inkgmlmm pvr mmulr llJHl 51er tun hali liw d fll39l39 dl39 lh 7quot dih HL CIWI I I Intrgmltuns per mmule 3 C aroma disintegrate 4 C conunucs to disinlt39gmk39 at an orderly predictable rate Potassium Argon Dating The PotassiumArgon 40K 40Ar dating method is the measurement of the accumulation of argon in a mineral Requires volcanic minerals and rocks 40K 40Ar dating measures the accumulation of argon in a substance from the decomposition of potassium A very important dating method for PlioPleistocene hominid remains L ulmn lmmlmr39ilmcm ul39 mincrul Potassium quot rgun 4o Argon 39 l mu ik illll l Argon lg i39ll 3t 40 39 5 quot quot Mass spcclrumctcr Temporal Ranges for Dating Techniques Fauna Comparisons I Radiocarbon Fissiontwrack Potassiumargon I LlrarInm aerieg I Thermnlurmneeeenm Electron spin resonance I Ammo acuj H I I O 1 2 3 4 5 MMIiQH Years Ago Paleoecology The reconstruction of past environments and ecological relationships Key to understanding the selective pressures responsible for human evolution Geological Evidence The composition of geological deposits provide an enormous amount of information on the environmental conditions under which they were formed An example ne sediments indicate low velocity depositional environments Palynology The study of living or fossil spores and pollen Allows earlier plant communities to be u reconstructed 5 a I apth m 8 395 5 v Q 2 i k O a F E 3 amp W39W hn iminanvmesoilmph 8 aru vonlargad pollen grain 39 Faunal Analysis The types of animal remains in a site provide clues to paleoecological conditions Different species have different habitat requirements Analogies can thus be made with modern plant and animal communities The Aramis Faunal Assemblage Em quotm i biennium 1 HM 1395 ghting 1 3 Large Hmmm 3941 H h j 13133113 3 15 mammaas V V chtmumdldnu 29 Wmdm 3 A5 235 V Hlm gml r ii Mi El Muslnlldnn 3 NM 51 39IHH WillWill 1 N24 HISP Taphonomy The study of the history of death assemblages Concerns the transit of material from the 39 biosphere to the 41 it u g lithosphere I l h f 1 nVo yes a uge array 0 y biological and o in fl t geological processes my pl 3 affecting the post lquot g 7 mortem history of f 11 organisms Ice Cores N o n N u A m I 114 115 122 125 3a 134 139 Years before prawn x 1000 Isotopes and Glaciers Lighter isotopes 016 accumulate in glacial ice During evaporation lighter isotopes are concentrated in the water vapor in the air This moves through the hydrologic cycle and later falls as rain or snow that accumulates to form glaciers As a result 0 16 becomes trapped in glacial ice and excess 018 is left in the oceans did not evaporate Hence as temperatures drop air becomes drier evaporation increases and the percentage of 018 in seawater and in the shells of planktonic increases Shells rich in 018 COLD amp DRY Shells richer in 016 WARM amp WET quot 0 evaporates 1 quot0 0 rati uiizchdngieg 39 Interglacial Who were the Neanderthals Neanderthals lived during the Upper Pleistocene between about 150000 to 30000 years ago and belong to our species Homo sapiens They are sometimes given the subspecies designation Homo sapiens neanderthalensis The term Neanderthal has traditionally been used to refer to the specialized Upper Pleistocene population of Europe and the Middle East Discovery of the Neanderthals Discovered in 1856 by laborers working at Feldhofer grotto in the Neander Valley Neander T ha in German These were the first fossils recognized as being the remains of different kind of human Originally the Feldhofer remains were described as those of a member of a member of a barbarous and savage race the occupied Germany before the arrival of modern humans Early theories regarding the Neanderthals Valley remains were dismissed by some as those of some poor idiot of hermit Anther theory was that they were of a Cassock cavalryman who suffered from rickets Another idea is that they were the remains of someone with syphilis Others recognized them as the missing link between apes and humans Marcellin Boule depicted Neanderthals as stooped over based With legs not fully extended based on his analysis of remains from Old Man of La Chapelle auxSaints Emphasized similarities to apes in comparison to modern humans 0 Boule s reconstruction to some extent was a misinterpretation of degenerative changes in an elderly individual Chimpanzee H erectus Neanderthal Modern Interpretations of Neanderthals amp 39 Neanderthal Cranial Morphology Braincasc wider at middle or bottom Low forehead atter frontal bone Shorter flatter parietal hums Doublearched browri dge hluminous long x39idu lllgh rounded and low brainmw ol hlls Shorter bulging Chcek bones V L lplllll hunt mo caninc fossu Projection lligh idc Slope will and backward supnnmuc mlummous V 39 055a nose Large 39w prominent v 3 quotlquot d l L nose and 39 Lzll gm39 juxlunmsmid 54 f m1dfac1al Cmmcucc Smullcr umsmid process 39r 6 ll nl sell v r L 1 g Weak chm Rcmnnulur gap hchmd Ihu d molar Mental l39oramcn hulvl usuulh undm39 rst molar Cranial Vault Large brain with a cranial capacities sometimes as high as 1700 cc larger than the modern human average Forehead slopes rather than bulging forward as in modern humans Skull is long and narrow with a pronounced occipital bun with suprainiac fossa Small mastoid with large occipitomastoid Brow ridge is larger than in earlier H sapl ens but differs from that of H erectus by being curved over the eyes rather than straight across auulaloral sule Iambdordal flattening receding I Yrontal OOCIDNEI bun masluld crest or lubemsily suprainiac deprassiun iuxtamastold mastoid quot99 process La Ferrassie 1 Neanderthal occipital US The Occipital Bun A feature present in Neanderthals but not in modern Homo sapiens In Homo erectus the occipital region is thicker than in Neanderthals or modern humans Homo erectus also has a transverse ridge in the occipital area occipital torus and is characterized by a relatively acute angle formed by the intersection of the occipital and nuchal planes V rteSSIollos Sinaulhropus ll Biltingslsben Pilhccunthropus ll occipital Pilhecaulhropus V 1 am gt 0 uchal H If plane 5 Cl archaic Homn mpmrs H 1 mo mw us I j v I lirceo 1 LA P8116 La Fcrrassw a l H quotarchaicquot Home mpimx Str iuheim Sunnscmnbe Ehringsdorf Homo mpiem nm nderlhlllmszs Occipitomastoid Crest 0 This feature is much better developed relative to the mastoid process in Neanderthals than in modern humans More prognathism than in modern H sapiens Well developed nasal bones with high nasal bridge Nasal cavity is Wide and high It has been suggested that this is an adaptation for warming cold air Maxilla is enlarged and cheekbcnes have a swept back appearance The Neanderthal Nose The broad Neanderthal noses They also have oblong vertical swellings in the bone along the sides of the nasal aperture By contrast modern humans have smaller bumps that run at right angles These features have been interpreted as adaptations for warming cold air The Neanderthal Mandible The teeth positioned far forward in the jaws This produces a retromolar gap behind the 3rd molar The development of a quotmental eminencequot or chin is not as great as in later Homo sapiens Molars and premolars are not signi cantly larger than those of modern H sapiens Front teeth are somewhat larger than those of modern Neanderthal Tooth Wear Some Neanderthals have unusual wear of the the anterior teeth suggesting use of the teeth to hold objects It has been speculated based on this wear pattern that the teeth were used for holding objects or perhaps processing skins Taurodontism Neanderthal molars often have expanded pulp chamber and tendency toward fused root taurodontism This may be an adaptation for heavy wear Mud rants and Ivan Dw s nmnImrmlnm mill1 Munadmin lumh I llrnmluw Isthmmi39l Tunmien mm team from Era gum Neanderthal and Modern PostCranial Skeleton Distinctive Postcranial Features Short stocky build Robust bones with well developed muscle attachment areas Chest may have been more rounded or quotbarrel shapedquot than in modern humans The front part of the pelvis pubic bone is long and thin Neanderthal Modrn The Neanderthal Pelvis Some minor differences from modern humans The iliac blades are broader The Neanderthal the superior ramus of the pubic bone is signi cantly longer than that of modern humans The position of the hipjoint is more outward facing and the distance from the front of the hipjoint to the sacrum is less Explanations of the Neanderthal Pelvis Some people believe the distinctive pelvic features of the Neanderthals were an adaptation that facilitated giving birth to large headed infants by small Neanderthal women However males also have the feature The Neanderthal Femur Bowing was originally thought to be an indication of rickets Now believed to be related to their extraordinary muscular strength The Neanderthal crosssection is round and lack the bony ridge on the back pilaster found in modern people FEMUR 50 Late Archaic Early Modern NEAN 1 CM 4822 O 0 O 0 Neanderthal Arm Bones Neanderthal humeri have thick cortical layers in comparison to those of early Upper Paleolithic EUP and Late Upper Paleolithic LUP people They are also attened from sidetoside in comparison to Late Upper Paleolithic arm bones This has been interpreted as an indication of a functional response to a shift from habitual of thrusting to throwing l r93 l ml PUP i quot F39 The Neanderthal Hand The Neanderthal thumb is unusual with the development of a crest for the insertion of the opponens pollicis muscle opposes the thumb to the other digits This is an indication of a strong grip Also the distal phalanx of the thumb is long relative to the proximal phalanx Crest for attachment of opponens pollicis V Early Modern Qafzch 9 Neanderthal Shanidar 4 Neanderthal Feet Neanderthal feet and have a short proximal phalange for the big toe Boule s suggestion that they had greater opposability than modern big toes is incorrect Neanderthal Body Proportions Neanderthals had a short stocky build with relatively short distal element in comparison to modern people Body Proportions as a Thermoregulatory Adaptation derthal CroMagnon Eskimo 39 V x Archaic Nean Why were Neanderthals so Robust Heavily built limb bones and evidence of traumatic injuries suggests that they were involved in strenuous activity perhaps hunting large game quot I m Rib Fracture Neanderthal Linguistic Capabilities The human larynx has a lower r position than in nonhumans it quot391 Soil palate This has the advantage of directing are out through our mouths When we talk Hard palate Some problematic reconstructions of Neanderthals have suggested a higher position of the larynx than in modern humans Recent studies of structures associated With the tongue hyoid bone and hypoglossal canal suggest that Neanderthals had modern human speech capabilities Neanderthal HVoid Neanderthal Neanderthal Speech Evidence from Hypoglossal Canal Size Residual hypoglossal canal size d l l 091 quot macaw g gcgg acc I lllll Stcrkfonlein Kahwe La Ferrassie Skhul 5 ll Homo sapiens l Uj l Gorilla gorilla FIE l Pan Irogt39odyr es Hm l Pan paniscus Ev39pogluna canal FORAMEN MAGNUM FORAMEN MAGNUM The Middle Stone Age ca 20000040000 ya 4 u P N F1 IE1 quot quotrr Dyuhtai tradition Er 39 um 4 E MIMI in w quot Asian HE R 1 l f 39 I I 5 V quotquot mu 3 1 rf g I 5 E Asian and E s lg 4 u a E ande a 7 rquot Australasianquot L J LaniW 3391 a I39 gimpIa cure up emhan y and ake 5A Inquot 5 I II industries x ambl gss African i 1 39 M54 TI 3 p5 N f v nmmngj xll39l L I J 39 Dmurrence 1311 assemblage yith akeabladesl last Interglanial or earliar Middle Stone Age Lithic Technology Kw Kw 39quot Africa Europc Levant a3930 10 r 7 m Magdalenlan 2 5 ED Salutrean E 7 2n W 2 Gravet an u 30 Aurignacian E 30 w 4r 5G 39 r SvD 39 39cmiqanfs v f3 Pnnrt 39 quot 39 Moustarian ICU 100 u E E c I 1quot n 3 l w a m 2w 4 I g 7 200 E I E 3 z I 5 0 40C 1 7 400 Choppers Flakes E 103390 1000 mm 2000 2530 260D African Middle Stone Age Assemblages Stemmed pieces distinguish the North African Aterian industry from the Mousterian industry Howieston s Poort artifacts from South Africa include wellmade backed tools and crescents ordinary nonslzmmcdl scrapers Aterian Howieston s Poort The Levallois Technique The Levallois technique probably originated in Africa around 300000 years ago This innovation involves using a quotpreparedcorequot technique in which a stone core was carefully shaped until a single blow could detach a ake that required little modi cation into a nished implement The advantages of this technique are that it produces a thin blade with a virtually continuous cutting edge around most of the periphery of the implement It is also comparatively conservative of raw materials Mousterian Tools Mousterian tool kits consisted of items such as hand axes choppers scrapers backed knives denticulates and points Hand axes were probably widely used in skinning and cutting up game Choppers were used for smashing bones open to obtain marrow hacking wood softening meat and possibly as a primitive hammer Momhad PmduLnallnla Walled Palm Palm dungatzd llmple mncsve Moultcnan poLnt miner par quot ub sl 2 don la double armpitconequot 39 runcavc may straightconvex Md crapcr dam sidescraprr aldescrnpu aldeacraper bloom Idcmapa sumgm wquot double comex cunvergent COMM mncave sldcscraper C 39 Nanci ape cunvergcm C nvergen aldeicrl zer aidcscrapzr Mousterian Tools Scrapers were deployed for dressing hides and possibly obtaining meat from bones Backed knives appear to be designed to easily cut esh Deniculates might have been used to carve and shape wood stralghl v ramzd gnuscraper transverse trauma trimsme aldcscgafx on smegmaper sldcacrapcr sldeurapcr ventn 1 n n ac per wltls A menuapt Wllh d huacnl munch alternate remuch C2 sidearm wlth abmpt y plural fndxcrlp v atypical typical in and scrape hacked knife mkcd 1 r quot1 notch denunulale 1 alternate endnotched bumdng bee ma Tayac Point Chatelperronian Blades This technology started from about 32000 years ago and ended at around 30000 years ago Associated with Neanderthal remains at the site of SaintCesaire Provides evidence of a blademaking technology comparable to that of Upper Paleolithic people Was this a Neanderthal invention or an imitation of modern Homo sapiens technology There is disagreement over how effective Neanderthals were as hunters Uncertainties arise concerning the source of the remains of animals found in sites natural deaths carnivore kills hunting by humans Faunal Evidence for Hunting Many sites show such as 39SalzgitterLebenstendt in west Germany below show a predominance of large game especially reindeer Hunting techniques probably included drives hurling Spears or bolas setting snares Some scavenging probably also occurred Population Increase and Its Effects on Prey Species In South Africa changes in the size of small prey such as tortoises suggest heavy exploitation In the Mediterranean area there is a trend toward increasing reliance on agile fast reproducing partridges hares and rabbits at the expense of slowreproducing but easily caught tortoises and marine shell sh These data have been interpreted as an indication that the humans populations of the early Middle Paleolithic were exceptionally small and highly dispersed 10n 80 607 4o Slow prey 207 O l l l we 69 No a Thousand years before present Pemnlnge of Dials Hnmri 3D LSA modes angulam mnoise Chersine angldam Emmaka Cave 1 LSA 111003900 13 P NI133 Di Kel us Cave I MSA Winn1 50 813 4 25 nu 4975 627 757 17 mm mm Class Midpoint mm Shanidar Traumatic Injuries Several of the skeletons from Shanidar show healed rib fractures Burial 1 has a crushed orbit and an atrophied arm perhaps caused by the same traumatic episode a 39iwi fwmzrm 391 r L asquot l I Esta24 39 qa EMT x 39 a 1 1 R iii 2 g I 7 Highrisllt hunting 393 m anTIMIMm Some Neanderthal skeletons the old man La Chapelle auxSaints are elderly A number of Neanderthal skeletons show signs of disability This suggests the presence of an effective social support system as well as emotional ties between community members Neanderthal Clothing Stone tools such as scrapers were no doubt used to prepare skins for use as clothing Lack of bone needles in Mousterian assemblages suggests limited use of highlytailored clothing The Molodova in southern Russia contains evidence of a dwelling With 15 hearths and the use of mammoth bones as construction materials Post molds at other sites such as Combe Grenal in France see right suggest fairly substantial constructions Neanderthal Cannibalism The cave site of Baume Moula Guercy 80 meters above the modern Rhone River was occupied by Neanderthals approximately 100000 years ago The inference of Neanderthal cannibalism at Moula Guercy is based on comparative analysis of hominid and ungulate bone spatial distributions modi cations by stone tools and skeletal part representations Krapina Croatia Contains many broken human bones with injuries that occurred around the time of death Scratches and other evidence suggest de eshing and the use of hammer stones for crushing them Neanderthal Mortuary Practices There is clear evidence for intentional burial by Neanderthals The presence of elaborate burial rituals and the extent to which grave goods were included with burials is disputed Some researchers believe that Neanderthal burial was perfunctory hardly more than the disposal of an unpleasant nuisance Others see Neanderthal burials as ritualized activities with a welldeveloped symbolic content Evidence of Intentional Burial Intentional burial is many suggested by well preserved wellarticulated burials This is unlikely to result when a body is left on the surface of the ground The chart below illustrates this for modern police cases in which unburied skeletons have been discovered The dark line is the Kennewick skeleton It is relatively complete and was thus probably a burial Ulna Hand 4 Pelws Fem ur Tibia Fibula Font Cervicle Thoracic Lumbar Sacrum sternum clavicle Scapuia Hum erus Radius Figure 1 Comparative element recovery patlems or Kennewick water recovered remains beach 39 l39 39 WATER deposnled remamsand canid scavenged remains BEACH La Ferrassie 1 39 ma a flfr l ILL mu U Midme Irmi II cr w1rtv 21v 39w 1 I V Shanidar Flower Children Several types of owers and red ochre appear to have been included with one of the Shanidar burials Rodent burrowing makes some people doubt this evidence Pairs of goat horns are said to have been arranged around the body of a Neanderthal boy However goat horns are common in the site and an overall map of the site has not been published Burial Rituals at Monte Circeo Italy Contained a cranium dating from ca 50000 years ago The cranial base had been broken out brain extraction and there is damage to one orbit The cranium is said to have been in the center of a stone circle but its original location has been disputed Neanderthal Rituals Cave bear bones from Drachenloch cave in Switzerland have been interpreted as evidence of some type of ritual or perhaps the collection of hunting trophies Now most people believe that this is a result of natural processes Neanderthal Jewelry There is little evidence of body adornment among the Neanderthals Body painting is perhaps indicated by pigments associated with burials This perhaps re ects the weak development of social symbolism Lagar Velho A Neanderthal Modern Human Hybrid 0 The site Abrigo do Lagar Velho Portugal dated to ca 24500 years BP contained the skeleton of a 4yearold child buried With pierced shell and red ochre The cranium mandible dentition and postcrania show a mosaic of early modern human and Neanderthal features 12 Breadth mm Lagar Velho Chin Development Neanderthal Child Chin is well developed and similar to that of modern children Anterior teeth are reduced in size relative to Neanderthals Nean erthal Modern 11 C l 0000 0 C O c o 00 ad 0 Q EIEIUGZ EI 63 Do 0 G IIIJ Cl I a 0 Lagar V Modern 120 M1 Breadth mm Has a juxtamastoid crest that is intermediate between Neanderthals and modern Homo sapiens Styl ol39d process External auditory ealus Jugular process of occipital hone Mastoid process Digestric fossa Juxtamastoid eminence Groove for occipital artery 39Occipitomastoid crest Occipilomastoid suture Area of attachment of superior oblique muscle Fernur Circumference mm Lagar Velho Long Bone Proportions The long bones are robust and have proportions similar to those of Neanderthal children and not modern children red Lagar Velho yellow Neanderthal open modern 39 39 l r z 39 39 I l 39 50 16m 150 200 250 300 Femur Length mm Tibia Circumference mm 160 1430 i 200 250 Tibia Length mm Evidence from Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondria are organelles cytoplasm generate energy for host cell Have their own DNA Maternal inheritance Evolves faster than nuclear DNA Low mtDNA variability in humans only 6 between populations suggests recent ancestor Fertillmcl ovum with mother s mitocho dzia still carrying mitochondria Offs 39 male angnf iale mitochondria 3944ng 1393 1 ILLJu L39 E The Maternal Inheritance of mtDNA Trail of mtDNA Descendant gene pool 1 Descbndan ts Reduction of Genetic Variation in Founding Populations Because of their small population size immigrants who colonize new areas will 0 0 o G lack some of the genetic variation found in the larger wellestablished population of their homeland This means that genetic A variation in the homeland of mg ELMO W h a population will be greater WW EL than in areas to which they sun c tam biliu have recently migrated Identifying the mitochondrial quotEvequot Comparisons of modern populations shows that greatest variation exists in Africans This suggests that all modern populations ggfgpguineac come from same region of Africa 0 02 04 06 06 04 02 0 Sequence divergence Using mtDNA to Time the Migration Out of Africa In two isolated populations mtDNA differences will tend to accumulate at a constant rate I With a known divergence date a mutationyear constant can be derived I I mtDNA differences suggest a common 1 female ancestor for all modern people i 290000140000 years ago l if f r 9 u I It m hult h irJu pitiful Uli lllll mgquot I 239 on cilia ojlot i Neanderthal mtDNA Research The researchers used a method of overlapping short strands of DNA to obtain a mitochondrial DNA sequence of 378 base pairs The Neanderthal sequence was compared to 994 modern human mitochondrial DNA lineages including Africans Europeans Asians Native Americans Australians and Paci c Islanders The number of base pair differences between the Neanderthal sequence modern human groups averages about 27 or 28 for all groups While the results indicate that Neanderthals did not contribute mitochondrial DNA to modern humans it is still possible that they contributed other genes Mark Stoneking Additional studies of Neanderthal DNA DNA from 29000 year old Russian Neanderthal Mezmaiskaya Cave has also been sequenced Phylogenetic analysis places the two Neanderthal sequences that we currently have together in a distinct clade basal to modern humans 95 5846 modern humans 98 Mezmaiskaya Feldhofer 96 Chimpanzees 9 modern humans lKung 93 Mezmaiskaya Feldhofer 99 Chimpanzees Australopithecus garhi Recently discovered 25 mya hominid as a site in Ethiopia Associated With crushed bones In the right place and dates from the right time to have given rise to later humans The skull of A garhl39 looks very different from A afrl39canus surprisingly primitive with a protruding apelike face Looks like a scaledup afarensis except its brain stayed small With a capacity of about 270cc w v r 39 of SUDAN 3x wan Homlnl K N jossllifc m gifwlfi Mm a Ethiopia A Vaquot 39 r soueLIA 39 if 7 um m r A garhi phylogenetic relationships 5 Mnuarn Neanderthal Hummi 1 A ruhuitus H0 2 A balsal iractus A am Emu A awthlnplvzus 0 0 3 A qarhl A manual ill fir 4 Australuplthacus ammmsis Ardipithacua ramldus millions nl wears mo 39n The rst Australopithecine discovery Described by Raymond Dart as a hominid based on dental and cranial features Given the name Australopithecus africanus Not accepted at rst because of Piltdown itquot gt 1 Raymond Dart Australopithecus africanus Initially described by Robert Broom as a new genus Pleisanthropus Remains of this comparatively lightly built or quotgracilequot species of australopithecine have been recovered from sites in South Africa Sterkfontein Makapansgat and Taung Its presence in East Africa is subject of dispute Robert Broom Australopithecus africanus dental features No sectorial canine function canines only wear on the tip not on the back edge as in A afarensis No gap diastema between canines and premolars Lacks a sectorial lower premolars premolars are similar in shape and used for grinding Molars are bigger than in A afarensis A africanus Cranial Features of Australopithecus africanus Brain case is small and rounded Considerable facial prognathism with a quotdished outquot facial profile The Brain of Australopithecus africanus Average cranial capacity around 450 to 500 cc Foramen magnum is located under vault for bipedalism Studies of internal casts of the braincase indicate an expansion of areas associated with higher cognitive functions Whether or not lateralization was present is unclear from available material PostCranial Features of Australopithecus africanus Pelvic and femoral anatomy indicates full bipedalism Some foot bones have been interpreted as indicating that the feet were adapted for climbing Australopithecus robustus Also know as Paranlhropus robuslus This is a heavily built species of Australopithecus the remains of which date later than those of the A africanus It appears to have evolved into a hyperrobust form known as Australopithecus boisel39 that persisted in Africa until as late as 13 million years ago Sites containing robustus Australopithecine remains South Africa Kromdraai Swartkrans Makapansgat East Africa Omo Olduvai Gorge East Lake Turkana ml Kenya Ph nr 2f5 a A Dlduwi Eargu Lucy39 my 39 Tangentin I 39 39 l ll e m dm39 7 Snerkfunmln 39 quot39 South Afrign ng Soulih Ailka MHrshlustmloe pithutini skull Found in 1921 was 1 young individual A robustus Cranial Features Face is less prognathic than in A a z canus Sagittal crest is frequently present in males Heavy cheek bones for attachment of the masseter muscle indicates heavy chewing Cranial capacity between 500 cc and 540 cc is somewhat larger than of A africanus A robustus Dental Features Parabolic dental arch Continuation of trend toward increase in molar size Thick enamel on molars Evidence of tooth development indicates the rate of maturation was intermediate between that of modern humans and great apes Discovery of Australopithecus boisei Hyperrobust australopithecine discovered in 1959 by Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge Tanzania Described a a new genus Zinjanthropus boisei KAr dates on an overlying basalt indicates a date of ca 18 mya A boisei dental features Massive molars indicate an adaptations that involved heavy chewing Reduced canines and incisors suggest foods consumed required little incisor preparation before ingestion InllnImn nl 39 l Lgu 0 Flat face and jaws placed under the cranial base suggest a masticatory adaptation that emphasized heavy chewing 11 nlf lgrf l 39 quotA iv 19 4 nHrl i U xquot A quot 39 f39 dw g39fVILi LI39t39ETf li39i rg MI R quotVFW J IH 9 A u w u if a 397 quot 39 1 I a 2 a l l lau39rr ur mm 1 rt jI i Phylogenetic relationships of A boisei Relatively late disappearance suggests that it was a specialized form that became marginalized and eventually was driven to extinction Millions of ears 3 0 4l5lllllllliliilllllgl llll 1ls t A 7 9 1 im39x 393 3939 L 7 H Homo A afarensis P aethiopics P boisei P robustus Australopithecus aethiopicus Most complete specimen is known as The quotBlack Skullquot Heavily built small brained australopithecine Found in an east African deposit that dates to around 25 million years ago This early date for a robust australopithecine has made paleontologists reevaluate their theories of australopithecine evolution A aethiopicus phylogenetic relationships Millions of ears a o 4 2 5y 8 1 lllllllllllll 05 Jllllllllllllllwl4ullllLLJ u SiiJ i 1 5L3939 151 A afarensis lu t r A afarensis Separate East and South African robust lineages Trends in Australopithecine evolution Premolars lose their shearing function and take on the grinding function of the molars The relative size of the molars increases as grinding becomes more important There is a reduction in facial prognathism and a development of the cheek bones for heavy chewing muscles Increase in brain size and perhaps internal reorganization of the brain accommodates higher cognitive functions There is some evidence for an increase in the length of the developmental period over that found in apes Olduvai paleoecology Geological evidence suggests that early hominids were living in a lakeside environment Australopithecine tool use Chimpanzee analogy suggests behaviors such as termite shing were well within the capacities of Australopithecus The earliest stone tools The earliest recognizable stone tools are from the Omo and date from between 25 and 20 mya Oldowan is the term used to describe crude stone tools associated With australopithecines 5mm TUGL39mmeLom alpsnmlncomarm l GM 139 1 Oldowan Tools Often these consist of only slightly modi ed pebbles with an edge chipped off to serve as a cutting edge Such tools are dif cult to distinguish from naturally broken rocks V quotLquot a Oldowan tools have been recovered from South African sites These may have been made by Homo rather than Australopithecus Oldowan tools from the early Olduvai Bed I sites are less diverse than those from the lower Bed 11 This appears to have been a period of comparatively rapid cultural evolution Home snpims Homo Wynn13 r A mimsl us IL J39mbilfs mnmiarh39mlgnsis swims 5 tumvnmn f j I fnuugi nx Ht 10 V WrTV 5 15 32 iii 3 f HI F Mlmvll39lh 20 439 3 1 E lnwlralqpulm m Molly V I 25 x 14 5r E xnmrf ulllnu L I39 quotrunquot 71 mm 51 u 5 Armhulgjm lm H nimrgusn 35 l Fig ure 3029 A tlme line of some hominld species Notice that there have been times in the history 01 human evolution when two or more hominids coexisled Were early hominids killer apes The Osteodontokeratic Culture Osteodontokeratic refers to tools made of bones osteo teeth donto and horns keratic Raymond Dart suggested that australopithecines used such implements for hunting the animals found in the South African cave deposits Evidence of the Osteodontokeratic Clture Dart believed the accumulations of bones in the south African caves were a result of hominid hunting activities Bones from Sterkfontein and other sites show damage that Dart interpreted as evidence of hominid activity Were early hominids scavengers or hunters Evidence of scavenging Cut marks Signs of crushing Cut marks on the bone bones of hominids Cutmarks on a jaw from Sterkfontein suggests processing of hominids by hominids An alternative interpretation of the South African cave deposits Dart argued that hominids we were responsible for the quot accumulation of bones in the South African caves More recent studies however suggest that they were sinkholes that served as traps for animal regains Tooth mark evidence of leopard predation Evidence of Australopithecine Social Organization Some sites appear to be living oors with traces of some kind of shelter This suggests that camps or home bases were maintained It has been suggested that food was brought to these camps and shared Prolonged infant dependency might have resulted in a sexual division of labor The Seedeater Hypothesis Dietary Differences A Africanus vs A robustus LARGE BACKWARD Ex I ENDING ZYGOMATIC MCquot CMNIAL CAPACITY 0530 ml VERY LARGE quotDUKES LATERAL VIEW Robust Australopithecines A q wtmus Dental caries an indication of carbohydrates in the diet Australopithecus the Hunter


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