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by: Kristoffer Nader
Kristoffer Nader
GPA 3.72


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This 89 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristoffer Nader on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 105 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/227019/anth-105-university-of-california-santa-barbara in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Natural Selection Directional Selection Stang Selection One trait is favored over others Mean Results in directional changes gt Stabilizing selection A Promotes phenotypic uniformity 51015 20 25 51015 20 25 Frequency Disruptive selection Dmmnalsaectm Intermediate traits are disfavored Mean While two extremes are favored Me D1rect10nal selectlon actlng 1n several directions Acommon allelic trait is favored less 5 1 15 23 Se 1 15 2 25 3 ruptlve ctlon common are d1sfavored 39 L11 7 V r 9274 Frequency Frequency 5 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 25 Stabilizing Selection Reduces genetic variability by selecting out extremes pulls in the skirts of the distribution Average individuals have higher tness than individuals at the extremes The survival of sparrows during the winter of 1898 on sparrows Wing length and other characteristics were correlated with survivorship Birds with average traits had a higher survival rate that smaller or larger birds Stabilizing Selection lVban Frequency Birth weight and Infant Survival The birth weight of nearly 7000 human female babies recorded by Kam and Pinrose After one month survival of these babies was determined as a function of birth weight Overall survival was 959 Babies less than 45 lb had 414 survival babies 75 85 lb had 985 survival Babies greater than 100 lb had 905 survival An example of stabilizing selection Percentage ofPopulation 1 3 5 7 9 11 Enhvxbightabs U1 0 mellow 1U9319d p l N WUIQO Stabilizing selection for number of offspring per birth Clutch Size in Birds gt Too few eggs mean reproductive potential is not met lowered fitness gt Too many eggs means low edgling survivorship lowered tness The fact that humans usually give birth to one child is undoubtedly explained by low survivorship of multiple births in earlier human populations Directional Selection 0 Selection that favors one extreme Responsible for evolutionary change 0 Examples gt Arti cial selection is a special form of directional selection in which humans provide the selective pressure gt Penicillin resistant Micrococcus Industrial melanism gt Adaptation of humans and horses to environmental change Dire ctional Selection Frequency Antibiotic Resistance 0 In the absence of antibiotics mutant bacteria are out competed by normal bacteria 0 When an antibiotic is introduced into the the environment of mutant bacteria are are favored over normal bacteria that lack the mutation Directional selection of this type has produced drug resistant strains of the organisms responsible for diseases such as tuberculosis staph infections The Peppered Moth Story The peppered moth story is an example of directional selection Light colored moths were favored before pollution Soot darkened the bark of trees and favored dark colored moths Later When pollution was reduced the reproductive success of light colored moths again increased A good example of how the tness values associated With a trait is contingent of current environmental conditions Horse Evolution aat Ha A welldocumented example of directional section in response to La environmental change Grasslands expanded at the end of the Miocene epoch 2 These environmental changes produced selective pressures that favored fewer toes and higher l 6395 ri longer wearing teeth in horses I a quot1quot 4 g V K 3 an ELK a quotw quota v Human Evolution Humans were exposed to the same enV1ronmental changes as horses 0 L 0 Contraction of tropical forests and environmental instability resulted in directional selection for gt Bipedalism gl aquot w x 7 i gt Larger brains gt A exible adaptation based on the cultural transmission of learned information Diversifying Selection Also know as destabilizing or disruptive selection 539 Promotes phenotypic differences JI fa favors the presence of multiple SJ iquot alleles Thought to be important in species r formation Sf The fishing net analogy SB 5ij 811 h Number I herel39de Disruptive artificial selection on bristle number in fruit ies Balancing Selection Balancing selection occurs when the heterozygote has higher tness than homozygotes This is called heterozygote advantage Balanced Polymorphism gt The situation in which heterozygotes have a selective advantage over homozygotes Balanced Polymorphism gt A balanced polymorphism exists When an equilibrium among different alleles at a given chromosomal locus Fitnes OAMmbU IGV Genotype Sickle Cell Anemia an example of balancing selection Best known example is that of sicklecell trait in humans gt People homozygous for the trait ss are severely anemic gt Normal people SS are susceptible to malaria gt Heterozygous people are slightly anemic but have the advantage of malaria resistance gt Human modi cation of the environment may be reducing the advantage ofhaving the sickle cell trait 1245 lgt15 agrphin distribu of hemoglobin s in the The Spread of the S Allele lD iStFlbII ll Inf Hemuglubin 5 gene WM lmE Darwin s 1871 de nition of sexual selection quotsexual selection depends not on a struggle for existence in relation to other organic beings or to external conditions but on a struggle between the individuals of one sex generally the males for possession of the other sex quot ALHL 39 7 7 o 4 74 I O i r L H A q A 4 m f f39 quot 0 Q g a Ifxy n mm 7 71 H x I x A 17 r M39 I l u N r39 Sy L2 5 Len w m4 pk g 4 1 g Q 9 C7 Q Intrasexual selection competition for mates among members of the same sex this may favor horns large canines etc Intersexual selection quotsex appealquot This kind of sexual selection may explain traits such as the peacock s tail Mamie Sexual dimorphism 1quot morphological differences between the sexes Sexual Selection and Sexual Dimorphism a Over mates tends often favors larger male size in comparison to that of females as is exemplified by the elephant seal The angler fish is an exception X j Sexual Selection and Natural Selection Sexual selection and natural selection can reinforce each other as well as act at cross purposes A trait that increases success in attracting mates a longer tail may increase vulnerability to predators Ultimately an equilibrium will be reaches between the pressures of sexual selection and natural selection O O K gr Aw x K F quot1 vvv 7 A 3921 w PRC Adiw u q we iron and iLlijcll g i 1 xi r i7 m to Uy l L Polygyny many Wives increases intrasexual selection and sexual dimorphism Monogamy one mate reduces intrasexual selection and favors reduced sexual dimorphism Sexual Selection in Humans How can we explain the physical differences between human males and females gt To what extent are they a result of natural selection gt To what extent are they a result of sexual selection Darwin s perspective quotWe may conclude that the greater size strength courage pugnacity and energy man in comparison with woman were acquired during primeval times and have subsequently been augmented chie y through the contests of rival males for the possession of the females Charles Darwin Descent ofMan 1871 Sex Differences in the Human Pelvis Natural selection favored a pelvic outlet large enough to I 54 quot in g1ve b1rth to largeheaded I if babies I 3 h Sexual selection may have 39 35 reinforced this males may have preferred mates with wider hips Wide hips present mechanical dif culties during running loss of energy through angular momentum This would counterbalance their obstetrical advantage Shoulders Chimp anze 6 Narrow hips women may have preferred males with narrower because of its association with running ability and hunting prowess Theories of Human Variation in Agricultural societies 39 Cycles of reincarnation 5 in eastern religions E MWE E a ma oqu H 4 Ehntcn re 5 aagacyfap n ra 5 Special creation in the JudeoChristian tradition Modern evolutionary theories of descent with modi cation auxtkn Eh ru Pythagoras 582500 BC Founded a mystic cult that saw numbers as concrete objects The Earth is a perfect sphere that can be understood through mathematics The world is the product Plato f d o a Wine artisan 427 to 347 BC Everyday reality is a imperfect re ection of a perfect form It is apprehended by the understanding not by the senses The world of being everything in this world quotalways isquot quothas no becomingquot and quotdoes not changequot Plato and the Scala Natume Plato believed in the Scala Naturae or Ladder of Nature in which the simplest creatures were on the bottom and man was on the top The Scala Naturae is immutable each species had its place on the ladder ordained by God during creation He believed that living creatures had always eXisted Plato s Classi cation of living creatures Heavenly gods Winged things t Water creatures it t Land creatures N I I 5quot 5 Water 2 ramp 1 Saw life as a result of atoms moving through space This formed the stars planets the earth and all upon the earth including ourselves This process was all determined by mechanical lawsnot by any kind of gods Epicurus 342270 BC The world is static ArlStOtle and of unlimited 384322 BC duration The highest and most satisfying form of human existence is that in which people fully exercise their rational faculties Aristotle s view of biological variation Believed species re ect existence of unchanging ideal form as Plato suggested Variation Within them represents an imperfect manifestation of underlying universal or type Viewed variation Within a species as noise that is if little consequence John Ray 16281705 Seventeenth century natural historian Ray and his contemporaries believed the world was a static Variation was viewed as a re ection of divine wisdom Classi cation of plants and animals was considered a religious activity because it revealed God39s plan SMememm hd MmmamnnMe WWWHJMe va on169l There is for a free man no occupation more worthy and delightful than to contemplate the beauteous works of nature and honour the in nite Wisdom and goodness of God 1660 39CR EATION I fIIHMEVOV TH 1 0 wttnnmute n Maylil ellcd in the i WORKS OFTHE T Heavenly Bodies lfcilils quotgctablclt hikes and lnfafts mot paniuilarly in the Body m Liv lmrth its gum Vlurinn and Connllcnuy and in r11 admirathirm lum Elements Met ors 15 3113 in their Generation id s wfoHNa r Fellow of the Rgm Scricw Al nmls liga s Birds 1 ch Brndids nt l vian and other Animalsquot k The Smsz En umu very much enlarged u y L N D o N Planted for Samuel Smmb a the Prmm Arm in St Paul s Churcl lyard 4 V u Human Variation in the News oTRALI an acute lung injury that occurs within six hours of a transfusion oTransfusions of plasma from men do not N cause TRALI but those from women sometimes do oTRALI kills a few hundred people a year Antibodies carried by women who have been EMEBLUXSE pregnant are emerging as a chief culprit cells called antibodies that motherstobe produce nguggls39gf ggf ugh blond transfusions in reaction to their fetus39 foreign father cells n and plmlululs Red cults carry th may mnsluslonsi W9 quotmm leelets cunlml Homing Fenin vzs Males 60 cement we auntie mm f H mm a r deemn 10000 an only 5 pmm dmuzn 9 enamel masass MIMIHZ rm m u 1 Mao Lu m AP The Intellectual Legacy of Greek Philosophers The world is static and of unlimited duration The world is the product of a divine artisan and everyday reality is a imperfect re ection of a perfect form The Scala Naturae is immutable and organized in a hierarchical fashion each species and its place on the ladder ordained by God during creation and Questioning as a learning tool the highest form of human activity is to fully exercise our rational faculties Cyclical variation rotation of Religious explanations 0f p39anetS arid 5 0 were part Of variation Within a static world the perfection of God s deSIgn Random variation the differences between individuals is God39s way keeping the world interesting and thus perfect The Great Chain of Being Organisms can be ranked according to their closeness to God Decline form original perfection differences between human populations reflect their distance from god Then God said Let us make mankind in our image after our likeness and let them rule over the sh of the sea and the birds of the air over the cattle and over all the earth and over all the creatures that creep 0n the earth Genesis 126 The Geocentric Astronomical Theory 0 The Earth as the Center of God s Creation 0 Plato believed that the planets moved in perfect circles around the earth 0 The Mathematike Syntaxl39s of Claudius Ptolemy A D 127151 describes the system i 4 Immanily UPI Farm Human Variation and the Great Chain of Being Differences between western and non western people were p p I interpreted in terms of i differences in w I closeness to God Monogenism vs Polygenism Monogenism gt All humans had a single origin from Adam and Eve gt NonEuropeans are environmentally determined degenerate forms gt Europeans are closest to Adam and thus closest to God Polygenism gt Different races are the result of different creations gt Only Europeans are the descendants of Adam gt Europeans are closest to god gt Rejects Buffon39s criterion of interfertility for species Noah s Family for this people shall be scattered and shall become a dark a lthy and a loathsome people beyond the description of that which ever hath been amongst us Book of Mormon page 468 Mormon 5 verse 15 The Christian Time Line Before Christ BC 3400 3200 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 O D V N 4000 3800 3600 3000 2800 Hittiie Empire 9 me of The Judges The Tower of Babel Theory of Human Variation God punished humans by making them speak different languages and scattering them over the face of the earth So the LORD scattered them from there across the face of all the earth and they left offbul39ldl39ng the city That is why its name was called Babel because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world and from there the LORD scattered them across the face of the whole earth Genesis 11 89 Expanding Worldviews New technologies allowed the macroscopic and microscopic dimensions of the world to be explored New shipbuilding technology made the voyages of discovery and work of Geologists and physicists expanded our temporal perspective Paleontologists expanded knowledge of biological diversity both past and present All of these scienti c advances disrupted earlier beliefs based on literal interpretations of the Bible L Dr n u dd A W f ATWVI n my a 1 4 A Mammal Copernicus 14731543 0 A Polish astronomer and cleric who was the rst to present an astronomical theory suggesting that the earth and the rest of the planets circle the sun 0 This hypothesis was named the Heliocentric theory 0 His book The Revolutions 0f the Celestial Orbs was banned by the Roman Church until 1835 I N1 0 o L 1 c o illquotch V DKINFNSIH 39 DI IIIQL I ll l Ii Emuunz luluIn maulH 39mmmm mg m m m hl 39 bkn kw mama qu umbl muqJm quotuu urmlrll 3q wx 1 I Ammomu 39 rigidiwhglr imiI 352 Holy Father some who discover that I here ascribe certain motions to the terrestrial globe will shout that I must be immediately repudiated But a philosopher 39s ideas are not subject to the judgment of ordinary persons because he endeavors to seek the truth in all things to the extent permitted to human reason by God The idea that the idea that the earth is a planet that orbits the Sun This was seen as heretical by some religious leaders The rst methodically observe extraterrestrial bodies It r a V I V Drew maps of the moon s surface if 539 Showed that it was imperfect and geologically similar to the Earth 39r r 3 i s 7H4 1 Lil wl l 4 l Antony van Leeuwenhoek 16321723 Explorer 0f the microcosm 1 O 4 O r LE T Eo jp WL Wm J 39 0 w x 1 1 E M A 739 VQ f 739 739 T39 39 R g y LA 1 Ml th QML EU lt 1V 1 7E 3 L V V x 1 a Alien autopsy The voyages of discovery of by Christopher people such as Columbus Columbus revealed and unexpected biological diversity 1451 1506 These new plants and animals needed somehow to be integrated into the European worldview v H Human m NOGEPQIS Exploration expanded western Vi iological di versi ty ews 0f the Earth s An expanded view of human variation posed many questions about the signi cance of human variation Are these strange people us or them Why did God create them What is their relationship to God Were they the result of separate creations What rights should we give them Is it moral to enslave them This variation was dif cult to account for based a literal interpretation of the bible 0 How could all of these newly discovered creatures have been accommodated by Noah s arch If God is perfect why did he create so much apparently super uous diversity The discovery of great apes was especially problematic Why are humans so similar to apes T A imagoamgmHmsylw n PYGMI E ANX f IgMY Compared wizh glut of I Mamie an Apaand 21 MM To which is aided A PHILOLOCEIC L ESSAY B 1 gmiuthc Wepbali the Saarmud Spiinges ofthe ANCIENTS Whrdnitw laypear that they at all chins Jess MONKEIS ndthEN nihth m sgwaafmryfaokzg u n iowg c6011ng Wm t q 3 39 quot bendquot of 39 quot3g 739 39 L 9 v p 9 39t I l mnmi and faM H u lw 39 I39m andmlohiMol lhmnlk H MDC XCIK quot GeorgesLouis De Buffon 1707 1788 A French naturalist who believed that species were the highest level at which animals could be organized All humans are members of the same species because they can 1nterbreed Subscribed to the degeneration hypothesis Realized the environment in uenced lifeforms Saw nature as a series of processes Looked at how variation was patterned and how those patterns were created H 5 T 0 1 R E f quot Wrote 36 volume H istoire Naturelle a m EEHEEAL i compendium on almost every natural historical 39 subject from the history of the earth to human variation Maintained that America was inferior to Europe because of its climate and thus was inhabited by less Vigorous animals Am u umw 3 DU ChIIIHLT 51 RCquot 5 hr lquot kquotll39llR1t nun a nunsn Father of Taxonomy Cal OIUS Linnaeus His goal was to construct a 17071778 quotnatural classificationquot that would reveal this Order in the universe Grouped species into genera and genera into higher taxa based on shared similarities At rst believed in the Xity of species but later accepted the idea that God sometimes created new species as part of his divine plan How Linneaus Classi ed People 0 Mixed behavioral and physical characteristics in the classi cation of humans 0 Recognized four species of Homo sapiens gt americanus Red choleric obstinate painted custom gt europaeus White sanguine muscular capricious close tting clothes and laws gt asiaticus Sallow melancholy stiff loose clothes and opinionated gt afer Black phlegmatic relaxed grease caprice 0 Two or three additional species gt ferus Wild man all fours hairy gt troglodytes probably the orangutan gt monstrous Giants genetic mutants Expanding the temporal dimension The restricted temporal perspective based on literal interpretations of the Bible made gradualist evolutionary explanations impossible What is intelligence One intelligence Several types of intelligence Intelligence is what intelligence tests measure Intelligence tests measure culture speci c symbolic and analytical capacities How intelligent would you be if the tested for your ability to read the subtle signs the San of South Africa use to detect the presence of subterranean water and edible roots That s the gist of what I want to say Now get me some statistics to base it on Intelligence as a species speci c way of adapting Each organisms nervous system has been designed by natural selection to solve speci c problems relevant to its survival Are gophers more intelligent than horses Are snakes more intelligent than gophers w g u 2 33 5 s 31 3 Intellectual capacities were valuable to our early ancestors gt Spatial memory gt Ability to associate sensory stimuli gt Symbolic capacity gt Ability to generalize gt Ability manipulate other people gt Ability to form cooperative social groups that are effective at competing With other social groups Cultural differences in sensory processing and patterning Perception gt A process of ltering and focusing speci c aspects of sensory input gt The result is selective awareness of the surroundings Children learn to perceive the patterns and con gurations in their surroundings according positive and negative reinforcements provided other members of their culture 0 Different cultures lter and focus sensory input in ways that produce divergent pictures of reality Environment and Susceptibility to Illusions Susceptibility to illusions varies according to a person s history of culture specific Visual experiences Which vertical line is longer Which man is larger Carpentered World Illusions People Who live in carpentered environments full of square walls and right angles perform less well in tests of their ability to accurately judge the length vertical lines in the MullerLyer illusions Population differences in Cognition Populations Differences in susceptibility to visual illusions gt Skill at solving embedded gure problems gt The effects of living in a quotcarpenteredquot world quotLinearquot and quotnonlinearquot thinking Differences in quot eld dependencequot Effects of the environment on development of the nervous system and cognitive abilities O a O O O N O Susceptible to i11usion Z 100 r Discrepancy Population difference in susceptibility to the Muller Lyer illusion Heavy line Europeans dashed line noneEuropeans Environmental In uences on Intelligence Test Performance The effects of sensory depravation and sensory enrichment Effects of malnutrition on development of the nervous system Effects of Industrial pollutants such as lead Measuring Heritability Studies designed to measure the heritability of IQ involve either attempting to control for the environmental or genetic variable Measures of heritability describe the amount of variability in a population that can be accounted for by genetic differences under a speci c set of environmental conditions Under a different set of environmental conditions different heritability are likely to be found Studies of heritability are based on the following idea variation in total variability of the phenotype Vp variation in genotype Vg variation due to the environment Ve Hereditability H2 is de ned as the proportion of variability that can be attributed to a genetic source H2 genetic variability total variability or H2 Vg Vp Twin Studies and Heritability Estimates In studies of the heritability of intelligence IQ scores are used as a measure of total variation in the phenotype Vp Since the effects of environmental variation Ve are enormously complicated and impossible to control for experimentally environmental effects are assumed to be the residual of variability the remains when genetics are controlled for The effects genetic variability Vg can be controlled for by testing people with known genetic relationships For example since identical monozygotic twins are known to have identical genotypes the assumption is made that differences in their performance are the result of differences in their developmental environment Ve Twin Studies of IQ Inhen39tance o c o a c a c Ex n x Cmcgnry q 1 n m 2 5 I x mud 7 Q G 3 3 5 C O 3 values UnrcltcdRc quotcd pa l 0 pcnons Rcarcd logerhcr H 39 O Fusxcrparcnl Child un 0 00 I erl child u l 050 chrcd aparx I J thlm s 050 g Rearcd together W Twms OPPQWc 5 quot m4 0 50 nng Same sex n4 Inn 39 Tm Rund Iparl III quot WF W Rmer mgrlhcr What do SAT39s predict Intelligence test advocates argue that they are tools that can be used for to ef ciently allocate scare resources One justi cation for intelligence tests is that they predict future scholastic and economic success If we have limited resources to allocate Why not allocated them in the most ef cient way possible aauwemmu 1234567 In the fi ure above what is the area oft e shaded region A 213 24C 250 28E 32 LINGUISTICSiANGUAGE A statisticss nritolegg1r B ceramiesxlag C gymnastics ealth D ynamicsmetion E economicszwarfare Levels of Response to Environmental Change Technology Body Proportions as Adaptations to Heat and Cold Body proportions are to some extent a re ection of developmental plasticity Children who develop in conditions of heat stress tend to have smaller trunk size and longer limbs of smaller girth than controls The body proportions of some groups of people may be explained by natural selection for thermoregulation Allen39s Rule The appendages of widely distributed species tend to be shorter in individuals that inhabit the colder areas of their range gt Developmental plasticity may explain some variation in limb proportions but probably not all The physiological explanation of Allen s Rule EDEN VCRUME AND SKIN ELEM HRH Longerappendages increase the surface area available for heat radiation This increases heat loss in warm environments SKIN HArn In gsLT Bergmann39s Rule The members of widely distributed species tend to have a larger body size in the colder areas of their range Examples gtPossums gtBears gtDeer The Physiological explanation of Bergmann s Rule Heat conductance depends on the surface area of the body With increase in body size volume increases at a faster rate x3 than surface area x2 Thus heat retention increases with increased body size Side1 Surface6 Volume1 SurfaceVolume6 Side2 Surface22 X 6 24 Volume 23 8 SurfaceVolume3 Side3 Surface32 X 6 54 Volume 33 27 SurfaceVolume2 Evidence of Bergmann s Rule in humans In some areas body size tends to decrease towards the equator This may be due to health nutrition and economic factors instead of natural selection related to thermoregulation 26 24 22 20 y 251484 0069x R 084 l 40 60 Mean Annual Temperature 100 Evolution of Human Heat Regulation 0 Why are humans such hairless sweaty thirsty animals gt We thermoregulate through sweating gt Sweating is ef cient only in environments with a low relative humidity so that evaporation occurs gt Humans have comparatively little capacity to store up water The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness suggested by human thermoregulatory physiology These facts suggest that we evolved our hairlessness in gt A warm environment gt An environment With a low relative humidity gt An environment with plenty of water This is consistent with paleoenvironmental evidence concerning the African environments our early ancestors evolved in Human Adaptation to High Altitudes The Challenges of life at high altitude gt Low oxygen pressure results in hypoxia Inadequate oxygen intake gt Cold stress gt High altitudes are marginal environments in which agricultural productivity is low and living conditions tend to be poor usulnMSaILevel S 8 E 539 Air and Ozvaessure x u m o o o u o o Almude Immediate Responses Mountain sickness gtNausea vomiting gtLoss of appetite gtHeadache Increased rate and depth of pulmonary ventilation in response to hypoxia hack of giddinss concemration headache I disinclinarion insomnia to work dysnnoca cough 39 fulness or pain In chest nausea vomiting anorexta oedema of legs and feet 5131 39 39 p 3 V a 7 N I a p r t 39 39 rquot 1n g I 5 g 1 4 ALIquot i I Acclimatization Responses Increase in hemoglobin content of blood Increase in red cell mass Increase in right ventricle size Increase in capillarization of the lungs depression and i rrita bi lily venl ilation diminished right ventricle increasad haemoglobunt in 5le red cell ma 55 139 3 39 e arlarlal blond pressure in ths 02 saturation of lung Elm aderial blood reduced Developmental Responses Increased oxygen intake Increased pulmonary diffusion capacity N O O MALES Increased lung volume quotbarrel chestsquot Highland Emiopian A J LOGm CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE cm 39 2 UI Q 0 5 l0 5 AGE yrs N O O FEMALES Highland EIhiopian MAXIMUM OXYGEN INTAKE mlkqmin Acc hakedoun39ng 07741091 andAdaescence LOCbCHEST CIRCUMFERENCE cm 39 75 25 i i o 3 398 x 3 EE 3 SE 39 x by u s 3 w E E its 50 8S Eli 525 O 5 IO 5 20 5 5 AGE yrs Reproductive Consequence of Life at High Altitudes Reduced sperm production Low birth weights Increased placenta weight I I lt 009E 340W 2 E ii a w 2 I 9A97 095 z 2 g 1 n 1 I I I o o o o 8 B S 8 b JH93M 39lVJN3V391d NVBW I woos may 2 I 395 4 l 0 ME I I 39M3997 09 2 m 3 I l I l r l I I lo I I I 8 8 o 8 t0 gp r 390 N N 5 LHSIEIM Hulls NVEIW I 91197083 0 1193950 lam slog A WOE E 4 100 I I max ID 500 a I I I mamas IV 0 O O O O O O O O O 0 g m m N no In st 70 l e VOZOLVWHBdS NI SWHOJ 3391LLOW LNBDHEId 70 I womwa 1009 I was 1051009 l 7 waves IV 0 O O O O In 0 quot391 O N N INSUOIIIW VOZOLVWBEIdS Human Responses to Variation in Nutrition Responses to malnutrition gt Shortterm reduction in metabolic rate gt Longterm stunted growth in children STATURE lN CM 8100 gt 170 3 so I60 3 Madonna Seminarvallon I50 2 e x 0 I40 0 5 BO 05 In I 10 g I20 3 I o E I lo undernoumhsd I6 GOWacmnurva on quot I00 392 A4qu Starva on 90 50JLILLILIIIl 8 C 4 8 I2 IS 20 24 2 4 e a lo I lt I I4 IS IS 20 22 AGE IN YEARS Catchup growth in enslaved children Enslaved children demonstrated remarkable catchup growth in quot height in response to improved provisions when they became old enough to work in the eld The diagram on the left plots heights of enslaved African children in the US between 182060 Height as percentile of US growth standards Gentile NCHS Plasticity in Nutritional Requirement 1 Minimum daily 39 requirements show population differences Natives of New Guinea have good muscle mass low protein intake Possible explanations gt Differences in metabolic rate gt Developmental plasticity in digestive physiology gt Culturespeci c intestinal fauna


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