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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
End of Chapter 8 3-22-16 *Stress: o Condition in the environment that makes unusual demands on the organism (e.g, threat, failure, etc.) o Internal condition: body’s response to a stressful situation *Stress as an adaptive response o Stressful situation è activation of the sympathetic branch of PNSè helps the organism cope with stress o Stressful situationèactivation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal cortex axis o Group of structures that increase activation and energy levels *HPA Axis: o Hypothalamus o Anterior Pituitary o ACTH (through blood): Adrenal Cortico Tropic Hormone § hormone that targets the adrenal cortex o Adrenal Cortex: § Epinephrine and Norepinephrine which increases heart rate and increases glucose availability § Cortisol: Converts proteins to glucose, increases fat availability, and increases metabolism (energy) *Stress as an adaptive response o Short term stress è increases immune system activity o Immune System: cells and cell products that protect the body against foreign substances (bacteria, viruses, tumor cells) *Major Types of Immune Cells Macrophages: invest invaders; display antigens, which attract T cells T Cells: multiply and attack invaders B Cells: make antibodies, which destroy intruders Natural Killer Cells: attack cells containing viruses, certain kinds of tumor cells *Negative Affects of Stress (Long-Term) o Memory impairment, appetite changes, decreased sex drive and energy, mood disruptions o Decreased B cells, T cells, and Natural Killer cells, which makes illness more susceptible o Increased blood pressureè increased risk of heart attack or stroke o Hyperactivation of sympathetic nervous systemè heart goes into fibrillationè sudden cardiac death o Decreased hippocampal volume and cortical tissue in brain (premature shrinking of neurons and cells) o Probably caused by increased levels of cortisol and can induce memory impairment *Pain and Emotion o Pain is adaptive § Congenital insensitivity to pain leads to repeated injuries and death § Most individuals don’t end up living very long because they do things to hurt themselves. o Level of pain perception influenced in some measure by context and culture § Childbirth; different cultures rate childbirth pain differently o Pain pathway heavily connected with limbic system o Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)è emotional aspect of pain o Long-lasting pain activates the prefrontal cortex § Planning of responses to painful stimulation (ACC is part of the cingulate gyrus) Ends at Page 240 Chapter 9 Hearing and Language Up to Page 270 (Excluding Language) *Windows on the Outside World Hearing and Language(Chapter 9) Vision (Chapter 10) Body Senses and Motor Control (Chapter 11) *All acquire information from the outside world through the senses and processes sensory information to then act upon the world (communication, movement) *Basic Concepts o Sensory System: set of components of the PNS and CNS involved in acquiring and processing of specific sensory information (e.g., auditory information) § Sensation: acquisition of sensory information § Perception: interpretation of sensory information (recognizing someone’s face; you don’t “sense” someone’s face) o Receptor: a cell that is suited by its structure and function to respond to a specific form of energy (e.g., sound) § Often is a specialized neuron § Transducer: device that converts energy from one form to another (e.g., photoelectric cell) o Stimulus: specific energy form for which the receptor is specialized (e.g., vibration for hair cells in inner ear) *Hearing o Most people would say that vision is the most dominant sense of the body. o Stimulus: vibration in a conducting medium (normally air) o Source Sound: alternating pressure changes (compression- decompression) o Pure Tones: single frequency o Frequency: number of compression and decompression waves that occur over time; one compression followed by one decompression is one cycle o Complex Sounds: combination of 2 or more frequencies o Pitch: experience of the frequency of sound o Loudness: experience of the intensity (i.e., physical energy of sound) o Greater amount of air pressure change that the sound is producing, the louder the sound is o Loudness and pitch are not independent in our ear experience because our ear has different levels of sensitivity to different frequencies. Frequency and amplitude are totally independent. o Why do our ears show this preference for higher sensitivity for higher frequency sounds? -It’s an adaptation to the social environment that we live in. Human speech is normally on the high end of frequency range, which is why our ear is more sensitive. *Ear o Subdivided into three parts 1. Outer Ear (Pinna): has bumps and such to detect the sound and let the brain know where the sound source is located. a. External Auditory Canal: serves as a resonator, so the sound gets amplified as it travels through the canal 2. Middle Ear a. Tympanic Membrane b. Ossicles (tiny little bone) i. Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup ii. Joint of interconnected bones that transfer the energy to the next part of the ear, but they also amplify because they act as a set of levers iii. Energy is still vibration at this level. 3. Inner Ear: bony structure on the outside that is part of the skull a. Cochlea: basically a cylinder of bone that has been wrapped around onto itself. Inside filled with liquid with a couple of membranes running though i. Basilar Membrane: made of tissue and divides cochlea into two regions: Vestibular Canal and Tympanic Canal ii. Vibrations cause movement in the liquid and membranes in the inner ear *The sound is still just energy at this point. iii. Round Window 1. Basilar Membrane of Cochlea: Has cells on top of it. Cells reached by axons. 4 rows of hair cells on top called outer hair cells, and 1 row of inner hair cells 2. Cilia: Hair part of the hair cell: fingerlike projections; 3. Outer Hair Cells: embedded into the tectorial membrane; most numerous; their activity actually seems like they just sit there and do nothing not sending signals to the brain; cells acting more as muscles not receptors; many of these cells contain a contractile protein 4. Inner Hair Cells: only one row of them; also have cilia that don’t make physical contact with the tectorial membrane; send most vibrational signals to the brain 5. Tectoral Membrane (“Roof”): have hair cells **Membranes move when sound comes through, which causes cilia to vibrate and bend, which starts the transduction of vibration into an electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation moves to the brain 1. Cochlear Nucleus: First part of the brain to receive electrical stimulation from the cochlear; part of the medulla (hindbrain) (both sides of the brain receive information from both ears) 2. Superior Olive: they look like an olive and there are two; part of the auditory pathway; receive information from the two ears; allows location of sounds; part of the medulla (hindbrain) 3. Inferior Colliculus: part of the tectum midbrain and the auditory pathway; information goes through here before it reaches other higher areas; figuring out sound location; find the first neural networks that trigger responses to sound stimulation (like when someone says “POP” really loud and you jump) 4. Medial Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus: Major sensory relaying station; 5. Primary Auditory Cortex: first neurons that receive information from the ears; as soon as they become active you become consciously aware of hearing the sound (There are no pain receptors in the brain) *Auditory Cortex is topographically organized, which means that the auditory cortex looks like a map. Adjacent neurons in the cortex receive information from nearby receptors located on the basilar membrane. *Base: *Apex: *Pitch Perception o Experience of the frequency of sound o Frequency Theory: basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a soundè auditory nerve axons fire at the same frequency o Problem: individual neurons can fire at no more than about 1000 Hz, but we can hear sounds up to 16,000+ Hz Resources Garrett, Bob. Brain & Behavior: An Introduction to Biological Psychology. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2010. Print. Cantalupo, Ph.D., Claudio. "PSYCH 3240." Psych 3240 Lecture. 120 Brackett Hall, Clemson. 22 Mar. 2016. Lecture.
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