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by: Johnson Kozey


Johnson Kozey
GPA 3.5


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Class Notes
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Kozey on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MS 21 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/227073/ms-21-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Military Science at University of California Santa Barbara.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
Hypernovae and GRBs a Paolo A Mazzali MaxPlanck Institut fUr Astrophysik Garching Astronomy Department and L RESearch Centre for the Early Universe mwm umm0 University of Tokyo 0 stituto Naz di Astrofisica OATs N A F Tvloe labc Spectra 7 39 39 39 SN lc no H Ia Q g no strong He E E SN19941 L N19 4D zag E SNIQS39Fd NO 7 9763f HNe m i 7 sumam 1544 wimp 7 M 98bw I I 4000 8000 Rest Waiiggngth A Hypernovae broad features blended lines Laroe mass at hioh velocities 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 2 CoreCollapse SNe Massive Star gt8MQ Si burning 9 NSE 9 56Ni 011M Core collapse Compact object NSBH 0 V emission KE deposited SNIb SN envelope ejection 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 3 A typical 392 SN Ic SN1994 Fit spectrum with a classical model Mej 1 Mo KE1O51 erg 1 foe Abundances dominated by O Si M56Ni 01 MG Sauer et al 2006 21 Mar2007 30quot 39 39 39 25 Apr 05 1994 t10d 5000 8000 10000 rest wovelmgth A SNe amp GRBS KITP 4 Prelude KITP Nov 1997 A broadlined SN lc SN1997ef A classical model Model C060 KE 1 foe Mej 6 M0 Too little mass at high velocity 21 Mar 2007 1 Cal 39343968 DI 77727774 7 775 29 Nov1997 TT 17 Dec 1997 WW l l 1 l 4000 6000 SNe amp GRBS KITP l l 8000 Rest Wavelength A 10 lwamoto et al 52000 l the optical counterpart SN l998bw n Ej uc F Frame 7139 r 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 6 A Type lc SN 1998bw I I I I I F611 5016 Sill 6355 Call 349535423662 20 I I I I I I I SN m M A a 199m 3237 005 A19790 3113003 15 Mini IMIIIIIIII km quot AV 2a I I AIQQII 2943 56 W N 16 In is mum Mayzfayza M Mayzl It W May19 44 A W May 16 7 A N w May14 WW Wm May 13 12 39 39 WW May 11 39 i MayS MW MayB 10 i I M N May4 IHIII wu g3l o 100 200 300 400 500 I I i I I l I I I l I V days from maximum V 4000 6000 8000 10000 SN1998bw was a vey bright Type Ic SN with verv broad absorption lines indicative of hiqhvelocitv eiecta 01c and of a verv enerqetic explosion 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 7 Explosion Parameters 56 Mej KE A r I Light Curve I IWI TLC N 15572 161139 12 1sz QC 12 2 N V Rc J t 3 4 Iii21116 J Elm 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 8 TLC Olt Classic SN Ic vs Hvoernova Ek may not be unique Model C060 1 foe 6M Mode CO110 8 foe MCO 10M both 21 Mar 2007 model 15 x 39 SN 1997ef 7 0010003109 T 1 1s 0060Hoe J 1quot 17 i l J a J 1 1 E w 5 1 1e 5 f l 1 m I J 19 T T w j w x 20 o 50 100 Timedays SNe amp GRBS KITP Iwamoto et al 2000 SN 1997ef 29 Nov 1997 early time 32 spectra A hypernova model C0100 KE 20 foe 1 Me 8 Mo FEE 2m TA 104Le erg secquot 2an A4 Cn 39342963 a 39quot 0177727774r1775 I anon anon Bonn 1 0 Rest Wavelength R Mazzali et al 2000 21 Mar 2007 SNeampGRBs KITP 10 Determining the properties of SN 1998bw 435 Light curves can be degenerate if both M and E 43 are allowed to vary 4 425 42 Iwamoto et al 19 21 Mar 2007 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I E Galama et al1998 D 38 Mpc EBV 005 07 MB 5 Ni M5a H460 Ms5 M125 I I I I I 5 ltch decoy I l I I I I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I of 40 time since the GRB days SNe amp GRBS KITP 60 11 on O Photospheric velocity SN 1998bw usefultodistinguish I SiII between models 0 CaHKaAch9m D from spectral fits 3x104 v an10 M5161 e EP2o MEJ10J e Em30 Mq109 Enp40 M5113 E p50 MJ127 21104 39 I V 12 IL ILIJII IEFILLquot I photosphcn39c Velocity kinsec but spectra are I I I I l I I I I I I I 0 IllIIlIllIllIlIIlIIIIIII 0 20 30 4O 50 lime since he GRB days Iwamoto et al 1998 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 12 SN 1998bw Earlytime M spectra Model C0138 i g 39 n 39 W KE5x1052 erg T I Tquot Me 109MQ 4000 6000 8000 104 Rest Wavelength Iwamoto et al 1998 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP Latetime spectra of SNe Ejecta are thin Spectrum no continuum NebU39ar EF OCh Emission line profiles Gas heated by depend on velocity deposition dv s and abundance distribution cooled by forbidden line Homologous expansion emlSS39O39j homogenous density and abundance T lt 1 parabolic profiles 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 14 SN 1998bw Latetime spectra Line profiles not parabolic vFe gt vO VQFey l kmr s 10 7 Vr 1r6 kmla M56Ni 06MQ 01 68006863 7172 E555 7452 7324 on 7322 1 Fe II 7155 cu m 5 o 3323 lllul Mej8MO o 21 Mar 2007 soon 80 00 Rest Wavelength A SNe amp GRBS KITP 104 15 Vz cm5 Interpretation as an Aspherical explosion m Q g D c O m C m O 0 5x10 21 Mar2007 2x109 Vr cms EObsered Sphe cal Asphe cal Orientation 15 deg 15x109 2x109 SNe amp GRBS KITP 8m Maeda et al 2002 16 What we see depends on where we look g Flux amilraw unilst m w J neg1w f2qgm SN 2003jd an aspherical SN viewed offaxis L MM w 00 6300 6630 FI1 wavel mrh A Mazzali et al 2005 Science 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 17 Was SN 2003jd also a GRBHN Xray and Early 2 quot 15 Radio upper limits 25 quot a are not in 1 GRB viewed offaxis Later Radio upper limits Soderberg et al 2005 indicate no jet contradiction with a 10 so FV mJy i tdays Mazzali et al 2005 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 425 logfz Constant The Confirmation GRBOSOSZQ SN2003dh HN 033617 A 1 GRB 030329 Am L L 3 UT WWW Apr 417 s 1 GRB 030329 Apr 8 UT powe a ub meted 4000 5000 60X 7000 Observed Wavelength A 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Observed Waveleng A Stanek et al 2003 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 19 mag SN 2003dh the light curve SN 2003dh is somewhat tfm Damage dimmer than I SN 1988bw at but much th F brighter than k we m both SNe 3 N 1997efand i 2002ap Mazzali et al 2003 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 20 SN 2003dh another Hyoernova SN 2003dh is almost as bright 1 l l and powerful as W t 7 SN 1998bw 39m KI V w a r W39W ttt t KE 38 1052 erg quotquot a 39 39 it M 56M O35M 0quotllHH HHMHNHIIV Mazzali et al 2003 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 21 GRBO31202 SN2003W H N 2 f 0105 0 Dec 20 Dec 30 6X Specific flux erg cm 2 3 2 A 3gtltO 18 1 439 O I l 4000 21 Mar 2007 I V l gt 6000 7000 5000 Rest wavelength A Higth reddened but a close mm m With i GRBO31202SN2003IW ALL 3 nearest GRBs are Hypernovae Malesani et al 2004 SNe amp GRBS KITP 22 SN2003lw the Light Curve 19 l 391 The most 3 ii 3 quot t powerful HN g 5 EK 60 foe 48 a g 3 Me 13M Ex 3 M56Ni06Mo g 2 16 5 r l I L f O 20 40 60 BO Restframe Time after GRB days Mazzali et al 2006 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 23 TvDe Ic SNe HVDernovae 9 HYperhova u39 only SN 1998bw Was associated with a GRB Narrow lines 9 normal KE 1 foe 9 Normal SN Ic 21 Mar 2007 normalized ux SNeHNe k near maximum I I I I I N vauvllxwxlx 2 2 WWII 15 Mr M 39 SN 1979 509g 17 days 39 1 SN 2002ap 10 Feb 13 days SN 1994i 9 Apr t3913 days 05 o I 1 I I I I 1 SN 1998mm 11 May 16days on 3000 Rest Wavelength A Mazzali et al 2002 SNe amp GRBS KITP 24 M56Ni oc MS WH I NS EH Hypermqu Branch 1 3 e 998b20031w aooad quotg 7 i 7 1997ef T 1994i 2002a 41 01 r i 001 j mayhr mm ml IVanL 19970 oncl m HHx HI 21 Mar 2007 3 5 Mass of Progenitor Me Kinetic Energy 105 erg KE oc MMS 100 L NS BH Hypernova 9 a Branch 10 5 Z 2002ap 19941 4939 EWQQ IBNf QOBN H397 39aim M m i39nnc HUIHHIHHMHI 20 30 4o 50 60 Mass of Progenitor MB 25 SNe amp GRBS KITP 3 HNeGRB Same SN properties but very different Xray light curves and radio properties 9 What is the diagnostic value 21 Mar 2007 45 log Lon 2 keV erg 5 39f 38f 1 1111111 111r111 1 1111111 11111111 111 46 44 43 42I 41 4o GRBOBOBZQSNZOOZdh GRBOS 1 203SN20031w GR8980425SN1998bw iiiiliililiiiilliiiliiiIliliiliiiiliiiiiiilillquot IIIIIIHI Ilillllll illlillll 111111111 11 37 01 1 10 100 1000 Days after GRBSN SNe amp GRBS KITP 26 Energy erg Radio Properties of SNe Ibc 10 i i i i Hi 10 E 1051 i 105 1050 7 l E 1050 a E e 3 49 10 a 1049 E x a i m 1045 7 We 10quot f 1047 E S E SNZOOBjd a a s 104 i r 1045 i 0001 001 01 1 10 100 0001 0 01 10 100 Density A n Dialensity A1n Most HNe show no radio Soderberg et al 2005 Either no jet or a lowdensity environment wind 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP Amether KlTP hit z0033 SN2006aj was dimmer than other GRBSNe 98bw 03dh 03lw Light curve similar to nonGRB broadlined SN lc 2002ap but brighter M56Ni 02Mo Rapid LC evolution XRFO60218SN2006aj 4306 19 0 39 39 a 39 031 O quot 009 w i 0 98b 5 39 g 1a 2quot quot39u 4268 39 06a 0 039 5 7 1 o 0301 390 E 0 quot 39 o 2 717 4228 L l 3 gquot 3 d E A 97ef 39 o 390 k 39 m 39 o 025 39 16 7 x 1174188 k 39 94E Q 15iiiiiiiiiiiiiI o to 20 so 40 Mej3E is small 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP time after SN explosion days Pian et al 2006 Nature 28 105mm erg 8 An Oxygenpoor SNIC Iod Closest match is the v 1 I broadlined MMquot nonGRB SN2002ap 4 more than the m JWM traditional t quot 2 7 t M HN SN1998bw J V OI line 7300A t weak or absent sf 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 29 Testing for Oxygen A Model with 5m similar 0 content 39 as SNe 1998bw and SN 2002ap has 0 strong 01777418 SNZOOSa 3 Mar I I I line A model with 12 3 the mass of SN E 2002ap and less Wquot O is a better t i 4 I I i I I I I I I 4000 6000 8000 10000 Rest Wavelength A 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 30 SN2006aj spectr lum l39lF39 Model similar to that used for SNZOOZap but with smaller Mej KE more 56Ni less 0 U a Odominated shell O1Mo at 2025000 kms shell 39 t39 f 39t wecjlog r wggem or M56Nz39 N 021MQ EK N 2 x 105L erg F const TD 5 erg squot cm 2 Aquot 0 llIIHIIIIllIIIIIllllIllIIlllllIlllllllllllllll39lalllll Mazza et ali Nature 4000 5000 6000 7000 5000 9000 Rest wavelength 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 31 Evolution of photospheric velocity from spectral modelling SN2006aj never reached velocities as high as the GRBSNe It is intermediate between nonGRB broadlined SNe lc such as SN2002ap and SN1997ef and GRBSNe 30 velocity 103 km 5 m o photospheric 39 l I l SN 2003dh7 39 Sl 2003M O gt l lfllllm 0 SN ZOOBaj lquot S l997 cl 0 SN 200261107 HMS1 S Pian et al 2006 Nature 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 32 SN 2006aj a Light Curve model Explosion model gives a LC consistent with results of spectral fitting Mazzali et al 2006 Nature 46 21 Mar 2007 L on I bolometric magnitude f l ll SN ZOOGaj SN 2002ap 2 l l l l I l 3 4 5 6 7 s 910 20 restframe days since SN explosion SNe amp GRBs KITP 30 40 33 SN2006aj nebular spectra Strong 0 line Low 0 mass 1 3Mo 515 SN 5 Small Mej 2M9 H No sign of major E 39 asphericity Rest wavelength A 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 34 Properties of SN2006aj SN 2006aj exploded as a CO core a WR star of 33 Mo The ejecta 2Me consisted of O 13Mo and heavier elements 05 incl 02Me of 56Ni 9The progenitor of SN 2006aj was a small mass star MZAMS 20 Me Remnant was a NS M 14 MG Magnetic activity induced the XRF Magnetar 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 35 Kinetic Energy 10539 erg Placing SN2006aj in context I I Hyper nuva Branch Guam 2 200363199833 19976 dml Q39H H391Ir 39quot 30 40 5 Mass of Progenitor Me O zomm 1 lQSBbw gt 2003dh 39i NS EH 7 Hypernovw NS EH w 9 9 1997a Branch 1 e 9 T i aooeaj 10 7 A 1 E 39 A 39 20023 P 9 H3941 2002ap 7 5 01 7 g o HD 7A E 7 2006aj quot 1 s41 2 raw 99 001 v997 aml SN 1W irnnc39 7 mgng 1997 0 0 1 HHM HMH M 0001 1H 20 30 4O 5 60 20 Mass of Progenitor M0 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 36 Prooerties of Wm Ibc SunerHvoernovae SN 83N 94 02ap type lb lc MZAMS 15 15 20 21 34 40 MHe 4 4 55 66 13 16 MCO 2 2 33 45 11 14 MExpl 4 21 33 46 111 138 MRem 125 12 14 NS 21 16 29 XRF V 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBs KITP 37 Hypotheses future checks Magnetar activity may have been responsible for the high energy transient 9 possible rebrightenings Asymmetries orientation TBD when nebular spectra available expect 0 l 63006363A emission to be weak wr to Fe and broad 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 38 The Grand Scheme Collapse of very massive 355O M0 stripped stars to Black hole makes GRBHN GRB can be very different HN much less Collapse of less massive star 20 M0 to NS can cause an XRF via magnetic activity Some of these NS may later when spin is lower harbour some shorthard GRBs SGRs If system is a close binary possibly necessary for mass loss it may end as a NS NS merger and again produce a shorthard GRB 21 Mar 2007 SNe amp GRBS KITP 39 21 Mar 2007 Debates Are ALL long GRB SNe Are all GRBs similar viewing angle effect or are they really very different How do GRBs and XRF relate What are the progenitors Cosmological use SNe amp GRBS KITP 4O


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