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by: Lois Effertz
Lois Effertz
GPA 3.94

G. Graves

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G. Graves
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lois Effertz on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENV S 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by G. Graves in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/227075/env-s-3-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Environmental Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Lecture 13 93 EWOWBWai impact of Global War7 Ypres World War war is the byproduct of an industrializing nation 7 feeds capitalism or socialism global warfare has left a legacy of toxic waste chem39cal issues etc that will outlive all of us warfare had been expanding since 1700s and 1800s WI 71914 71918 7 the great war a continents were at war 7 introduced the world to many new weapons How did it grow in magnitude Ypres Belgium 7 first battles occurred here u by 1915 all of Europe was at war England ost 900000 young men 7 greatly effected the nation Germans wanted to gain territory and thus started a war 7 they didn t think Britain would join u all industrialized nations had also been m39litarized FranceGermany were helped by Napoleon 7 started the draft taxing the french etc a Europe 7 century7old hate for neighboring countries a 2 events led to WWI uni cation of Germany in 1867 unification of Italy in 1870 Civilian armies of 100000s fought a European countries began alliances in 1880s and 1890s reason a Great European Civil War Involved all these nations industrialization militarization and assassinations will all these in place the single assassination of Franz Ferdinand began VWVI Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Ferdinand 7 heir to throne of Autstria7Hungary June 1914 in Bosnia Austro7Hungarians blamed the Serbs alliances with Russia Russia thus declared war on AH Western Front saw more action than the western front of WWII British joined French in resisting German offense area of over 100 m39les wide a North Sea Germans believed they could take over sea forces began near Ypres 1st Battle of Ypres if Germans controlled North Sea a sea ports would also be controlled in Britain as well Belgium was a small non7military country 7 France wanted to help defend but couldn t 7 British did a British vs Germans 7 1914 Lecture 13 Winston Churchill British Prime Minister 7 participated in successful British stance against Germans did not allow Germans to march to the sea a dead and wounded 7 240000 people 7 why new technology a Machine guns wasn t new in WI but was much more lethal than ever before a reason for ghastly death tolls 2nd Battle of Ypres after regrouping in the winter 7 April to June of 1915 a two new types of warfare 7 poison gas and flamethrower 105000 people dead and wounded Poison gas goes back to 1850s Germans first decided to use it at Ypres 7 was previously thought to be too barbaric allies were caught off guard at first but then joined in using it soldiers then needed gas masks while fighting a poison gas proved unreliable wind blew gas back to own troops Blister tear vomiting Nerve types of gases used by both sided 7 introduced by Germans Flamethrowers figured out a way to put a pump on a soldier s back that shot out liquid that caught on fire a 3rd Battle of Ypres incurred the greatest casualties arial warfare was used 7 bombing became more accurate dog fights between planes Germany knew that the Americans were com39ng 7 wanted to get to the sea dead and wounded 7 570000 people American army broke the stalemate 7 Germans realized they could not win Germans agreed to armistice in November of 1918 Today Ypres is still so contaminated with poison gas that the land is not usable discovery of stock piles still continues to this day took war to a new level 7 still an environmental problem stock pies leak hard to dispose of etc 915000 7 total dead and wounded in all three battles Influenza Spanish Flu caused deaths of millions believed to have been a mutated swine flu virus Spanish because so many people died in Spain Questionable origins not certain how and why it mutated half of the world was locked in warfare 7 no health care no clean water a war conditions exacerbated problem of virus millions of soldiers on the move like black death came from trade routes people were in motion all around the world a food shortages and famines Lecture 13 Alfred Crosby wrote The colurrbian Exchange as well as America s Forgotten Pandemic America s Forgotten Pandemic Wartirre Conditions Carrp Funston KS Albert Mitchell a trained soldiers to fight in WWI March 11 1918 he reported to infirmary with flulike syrrptoms by noon there were 107 other soldiers who reported in sick two days later 7 over 500 people sick within a week A the first person had died then 48 people were reported dead Flu was then reported in every state in Union then Europe then Asia and South America became a global pandemic fueled by wartime conditions a 2nd wave of virus hit in 1915 a 3rd wave hit at the time of armistice in 1918 A stayed around till mid71919 US Public Health Service started in 1912 by Federal Government created to deal with largeescale diseases issued warnings to use masks when outside a closed movie theaters and many public facilities a funeral services for thousands who died there was extreme lung damage in all flu victims Eastern cities 7 worse cases estimated that 25 of people in US had flu 850000 people died of flu in US a virus believed killed 2 of all native americans and completely wiped out a tribe of eskimos in Alaska estimates that 25000000 people died worldwide during the pandemic US lost 165000 troops Woodrow Wilson caught u in early 1919 at Versailles sickness hurt his ideas Wilson then suffered a stroke when trying to push peace plan in US did not recover died in 1924 Franklin Roosevelt contracted the flu while serving in France in 1919 survived in 1921 A contracted polio which paralyzed him from the waste down a flu weakened his body a US Governrrent response was slow to respond rapid transference due to war weakened immune systems facilitated virus Stalingrad lnterwar Period period between VWVI and WWII biggest and most costly battle ever fought Adolf Hitler invaded Poland in 1939


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