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by: Daren Beatty Jr.
Daren Beatty Jr.
GPA 3.94

S. Laguette

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S. Laguette
Class Notes
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daren Beatty Jr. on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 153 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by S. Laguette in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see /class/227079/me-153-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Mechanical Engineering at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Ethics Case Studies SLague e ME153 Spring 2009 May 22 2009 ME153 Ethics Case Studies o Signing Off on Drawings 0 Serving as Design Engineer and General Contractor 52209 ME153 Signing Off on Drawings Putnam is responsible for the design of some computer equipment and signs off on the drawings The manufacturing process is fauly drives up cost and suffers a mechanical breakdown The manufacturing division suggests modifications to bring down costs Putnam analyzes the recommendations and finds that they would reduce the reigning of the product that would likely cost the company more through warranty claims Putnam39s supervisor asks him to siqn off on the changes anyway Although there is nothing to suggest that there is a safety problem Putnam raises reliabilitv concerns to his supervisor 52209 M E1 53 Signing Off on Drawings o What are Putnam39s professional responsibilities in this case 0 What are the supervisor39s responsibilities 0 What should Putnam do 52209 ME153 Signing Off on Drawings 0 Putnam should explain to the immediate supervisor the professional and ethical obligations under the circumstances and disclose his course of action a If the immediate supervisor is not receptive to concerns Putnam has an ethical obligation to bring this matter to the attention of those in management at a higher level 52209 ME153 Signing Off on Drawings 0 This case raises a fundamental issue concerning the professional integrity of engineers and the ethical obligations engineers owe to their employers clients and others 0 How far must engineers go in stating concerns in matters which directly involve theirjudgment as professional engineers but do not directly impact upon the public health and safety 52209 ME153 Signing Off on Drawings Code of Ethics Section II 1quotEngineers shall hold paramount the safety health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties quotSection ll1aquot39Engineers shall at all times recognize that their primary obligation is to protect the safety health property and welfare of the public If their professional judgment is overruled under circumstances where the safety health property or welfare of the public are endangered they shall notify their employer or client and such other authority as may be appropriate quot Section ll1bquot39Engineers shall approve only th0se engineering documents which are safe for public health property and welfare in conformity with accepted standards quot Section ll2bquot39Engineers shall not af x their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter in which they lack competence nor to any plan or document not prepared under their direction and control quot Section 4quot39Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees quot Section ll2bquot39Engineers shall not complete sign or seal plans andor speci cations that are not of a design safe to the public health and welfare and in conformity with accepted engineering standards If the client or employer insists on such unprofessional conduct they shall notify the proper authorities and withdraw from further service on the project quot 52209 ME153 Serving as Design Engineer and General Contractor Bernard is a principal in a consulting engineering firm 0 He is also a principal owner in a construction contracting m o In his role as consultant Bernard prepared plans for the desiqn of a roof structure for a wastewater treatment facility 0 The municipality hired a separate firm to administer the bidding and construction using the plans prepared by Bernard 0 Bernard thinks that bidding on the construction is a great opportunity to arrange for new employment 52209 ME153 Serving as Design Engineer and General Contractor 0 Should Bernard bid for the project assignment 0 Why or why not 0 Does Bernard have an unfair advantage over firms having designed the project on which he wants to bid 52209 ME153 Serving as Design Engineer and General Contractor o It is ethical for Bernard to bid as the general contractor on a project Bernard designed under the facts presented 0 As long as the process followed was not a subterfuge to evade the requirements of state and local procurement licensure laws and disclosures or consent of all interested parties contained 52209 ME153 Embodiment Design SLague e ME153 Spring 2009 April 15 2009 ME153 Design Process Define Problem 41509 ME153 Design Process Define Problem Gather Inform ation 41509 Design Process Define Problem Gather Inform ation 41509 Concept Generation Design Process 41509 Conceptual Design Define Gather Concept Evaluation Problem Information Generation Of Concepts l 39l ME153 Design Process Define Problem Gather Inform ation Concept Generation gt Conceptual Design Evaluation Of Concepts 41509 ME153 Design Process Define Problem Gather Inform ation Concept Generation gt Conceptual Design Evaluation Of Concepts 41509 ME153 Design Process Define Gather Concept Evaluation Problem Information Generation Of Concepts Conceptual Design Embodiment Design 41509 ME153 Design Process Gather Information Define Problem Concept Generation gt Evaluation Of Concepts Conceptual Design Embodiment Design 41509 Detail Design ME153 Embodiment Design Introduction Product Architecture Configuration Design Parametric Design FMEA Design Guidelines Human Factors Design Summary 41509 ME153 Embodiment Design 0 We are at the point of the design process where a set of concepts has been evaluated to give a single concept or a small set of concepts for further development 0 Feasibility Design Review to determine whether the resources should be committed to develop the design further 41509 ME153 Embodiment Design 0 Many companies divide the design process into three phases 0 Conceptual Design 0 Preliminary Embodiment Design 0 Final Detail Design 41509 ME153 Product Architecture 0 Product Architecture begins to emerge during the Conceptual Design Phase 0 Diagrams o Sketches o Proofof concept models 41509 ME153 Product Architecture 0 During Embodiment Design phase the product must be established by defining the building blocks 0 What they do 0 What their interfaces will be between each other 41509 ME153 Product Architecture 0 Create a schematic diagram of the product 0 Cluster the elements of the schematic o Create a rough geometric layout 0 Identify the fundamental and incidental interactions 41509 ME153 Configuration Design 0 Establish the shape and general dimensions of the components 41509 ME153 Configuration Design 0 Review the PDS and any specs developed for the subassembly 0 Establish the spatial constraints 0 Create and refine the interfaces or connections between components 0 Establish Critical Dimensions 0 Begin to consider manufacturing processes 41509 ME153 Parametric Design a The objective of parametric design is setting values for the design variables that will produce the best possible design considering Performance Manufacturability 41509 ME153 Parametric Design a Distinguishing between Configuration and Parametric Design is fairly recent 0 Industry has driven to improve the quality of its products 0 Robustness means achieving excellent performance over a wide range of conditions 41509 ME153 Parametric Design c There are three ways to improve the Robustness of a design 0 Improve the design concept 0 Change the value of a critical performance parameter to an obvious feasible limit 0 Carry out a systematic optimization of the design variables 41509 ME153 Parametric Design 0 Setting Dimensions and Tolerances so as to o Maximize Quality and Performance and o Minimize Cost 41509 ME153 0 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis FMEA 0 Methodology for determining all possible ways that components can fail and establishing the effect of failure on the system 0 We will address in a future lecture 41509 ME153 Design Guidelines Avoid arbitrary decisions Search for alternatives Solid models Address the problem at a higher level Need vsFunc on Make tables of design functions and options use them to evaluate competing concepts 41509 ME153 Design Guidelines Pursue design concept to its limits and then back off Aim for clarity of function Exploit materials and manufacturing methods to the fullest 0 Develop a logical chain of reasoning for the deggn o Continue to question the design 41509 ME153 Human Factors Design 0 Human factors is the study of the interactions between people and the products and systems they use and the environments in which they work and live 0 Creating a UserFriendly Design 41509 ME153 Human Factors Design Fit the product to the users physical attributes and knowledge Simplify tasks simple to operate Make the controls and functions obvious Make control reflect or map the operation Utilize constraints to prevent incorrect actions Provide feedback 41509 ME153 Human Factors Design 0 Provide good displays 0 Make controls easy to handle 0 Anticipate human errors 0 Avoid awkward and extreme motions o Standardize 41509 ME153 THE USER INTERFACE The following three examples of problems were Figure 1 Controls abstracted from the Medical DeVIce Reporting MDR system and FDA deVIce recalls With ma a o A physician treating a patient with oXygen set bgmlem Semngs the flow control knOb as show in Figure 1 the user was between 1 and 2 liters per minute not realizing nicked mfg that the scale numbers represented discrete 7 rather than continuous settings There was no dangem F oxygen flow between the settings yet the knob gym5i rotated smoothly suggesting that intermediate settings were possible The patient an infant became hypoxic before the error was discovered One solution would have been a rotary control that snaps into a discrete setting Some indication of ow also should have been provided 41509 ME153 Human Element 0 Memory Long term Shortterm Thinking and reasoning Visual perception Dialogue construction Individual skill level Individual sophistication 41509 ME153 HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING a Human factors engineering is a methodology that is crucial to effective userinterface design 0 Iterative application of various procedures and tools throughout the design cycle 0 Participation of individuals from the user population is integral to this process 41509 ME153 Human Factors Process 0 Analytical process that focuses on device objectives 0 Design and development process that converts results of analyses into detailed equipment features 0 Test and evaluation process which verifies that development process satisfies constraints 41509 ME153 a Planning 0 Analysis 0 Conduct user studies Observations Interviews Focus groups Task analysis Benchmark usability tests User profile Setup advisory panel Crucial Pieces CI of Human 41509 Factors hliE chess


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