New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Nellie Runte


Nellie Runte
GPA 3.8

A. Fridlund

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

A. Fridlund
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nellie Runte on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by A. Fridlund in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/227097/psy-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.


Reviews for INTRO TO PSYCH


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
FAIRGAME SHEET MIDTERM Mindbody or Mindbrain problem Is the mind the brain Two views Dualism the mind is separate from the brain but controls the brain and therefore controls the whole body Monism the view that the conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain Either the mind is something produced by the brain or mind and brain activity are just two terms for the same thing Physical and mental are one Materialism 8L Idealism Free willyou are the cause a person39s independent decision Ex You want to go shopping so you go Determinism opposite of free will everything has a cause or determinant Ex You want to go shopping but you can only go if You have someone to go with You get paid If you have a ride Nature Vs Nurture The issue of whether people are and behave certain ways due to biology or other outside environmental causes Ex Do boys play with cars and girls play with dolls because of their genetics or because society has made it that way Deductive vs Inductive Inductive Specific to general DeductiveGeneral to Speci c Inductive reasoning by its very nature is more open ended and exploratory especially at the beginning Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or con rming hypotheses Burden of proof the obligation to present evidence to support one39s claim Falsifiability of Hypotheses when we can see that there is evidence that can count against something but that is not to say that there is such evidence Replicability of Findings If a theory or hypothesis were true than the nding could be replicable if another individual other than the original experimenter tries to do the same experiment Parsimonious findings when given a choice among explanations that seem to t the facts we prefer the one whose assumptions are fewer simpler or more consistent with other well established theories literally stinginessquot a conservative idea we stick to with ideas that work and try as hard as we can to avoid new assumptions Devaluation of anecdotal evidencethey are not scienti c therefore not reliable Demand characteristics cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to nd when someone takes part in an experiment and reacts a certain way to the experiment because they know what to expect Naturalistic Observationsa careful examination of what happens under more or less natural circumstances the psychologist will usually try to observe people as an outsider Case history a thorough description of the person including the abilities and disabilities medical condition life history unusual experiences and anything else that is relevant Correlational Studies Finding the relationships between variables a correlational study is when experimenters try to find relationships between two variables without controlling either of them a variable can be something such as age years of education reading speed basically anything that can be measured that varies among individuals KEY WORDS more or less It can be measured by a correlation coef cient between1 and 1 Cannot determine a cause and effect relationship Correlational vs Causation o Correlational studies DO NOT determine the causes of relationships 0 they are intended to make predictions 0 causation is intended to nd the cause of variables 0 an experimenter nds causation by manipulating one variable and observing the changes in the other experiments Experiment a study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable Independent Variables what the experimenter controls Dependent Variables outcome depends on the independent variable Descriptive Statistics organize and summarize data so that it39s easier to understand Inferential Statistics making statements about a population as a whole from an inference of one small sample of that population Cerebrovascular accident CVA strokes Electroencephalography EEG is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp Hindbrain wfunctions Pons and Medulla Protective re exes Infant Pathological re exes 0rienting re exes Cardiovascular respiratory digestive re exes Cerebellum 01d inner cerebellum balance linked to semicircular canals of ears and trochlear nerve that moves the eyeballs New outer cerebellum rapid automatic movements timing of movements and thoughts Midbrain wfunctions Midbrain reticular formation General arousal Sleep wake cycles Pain perception Superior colliculi left and right Visual targeting saccades saccadic movements Inferior colliculi left and right Auditory targeting Forebrain w functions Basal forebrain hypothalamus hormonesamp thalamus Hypothalamus Control of Pituitary gland gtgt thyroid adrenals bone growth Autonomic Nervous System ANS immune system Hunger thirst body temperature and induction of fever pyrogens Sexual orientation Reward and punishment Thalamus sensory relay station 01d cortexquot Limbic system complex reaction patterns 4 F39squot Basal ganglia background postural axial movements smooth pursuit eye movements regulation of foreground background thinking disrupted in 0CD New cortexquot neocortex Complex perception Strategic movements Higher intellectual functions Social Machiavellian intelligence Autonomic Nervous System w branches The part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed such as breathing the heartbeat and digestive process Branches Parasympathetic nervous system PSNS parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of quotrestanddigestquot activities that occur when the body is at rest including sexual arousal salivation lacrimation tears urination digestion and defecation Sympathetic nervous system SNS Its general action is to mobilize the body39s nervous system ghtor ight response Reticular Formation wfunctions The reticular formation is a part of the brain that is involved in actions such as awaking sleeping cycle and ltering incoming stimuli to discriminate irrelevant background stimuli Orienting response an organism39s immediate response to a change in its environment when that change is not sudden enough to elicit the startle re ex Protective amp pathological re exes Infant amp pathological re exes Re ex Saccades vs smooth tracking eye movements fast movement of eyes skips vs smooth transition Corpus callosum Connects the left and right brain hemispheres Left Hemisphere Language Math Right Personality emotions Phrenology certain areas of the brain are speci c to certain functions localization they would feel the skulls of patients to tell what talents they had quotBinding problemquot described as the problem of the how the brain integrates various information on the shape color texture motion etc of a perceived object so that all of these properties of the object can be experienced together as a single scene by the mind Parkinson39s disease Damage in the basal ganglia it is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system The motor symptoms of Parkinson39s disease result from the death of dopamine generating cells in the substantianigra a region of the midbrain the cause of this cell death is unknown Early in the course of the disease the most obvious symptoms are movementrelated these include shaking rigidity slowness of movement and dif culty with walking and gait Effects of prefrontal damage and prefrontal lobotomy leads to personality changes lobotomy is done to x personality and mental disorders was successful if done correctly became popular but not done as much anymore Language areas of brain in 90 of people it is in the Left hemisphere of the brain Non uent Broca39s and uent Wernicke39s aphasias Damage in the Broca39s area means that a person can understand language but cannot speak it coherently damage in the Wernicke39s area means you cannot understand language and therefore cannot speak it Neglect syndrome Damage in the RIGHT side of parietal lobe only will result in neglect of the left side Doesn39t happen when it39s the opposite Hemispheric lateralization what the left and the right hemisphere of the brain are responsible for Lobes of neocortex w functions Look at midterm review notes Convolutions wrinkles in neocortex and explanation Contralateral control w rationale means that left part of the brain controls the right and the right controls the left no explanations for this Effects of splitbrain preparation as if a person has two brains that work independently Neurotransmitters w examples Glutamate brain39s main excitatory transmitter present at most synapse Essential for almost all brain activities including learning GABA gammaaminobutyric acid brain39s main inhibitory transmitter Cell body soma contains the nucleus of a cell in a neuron Axon a single long thin straight fiber with branches near the tip Dendrites widely branching structures that receive input from other neurons An axon transmits info to other cells and the dendrite or cell bodv receive that info This increases or decreases the probability that the next cell will send a message of it39s own Axon terminals terminal buttons little bulge at the end of an axon Synapse the specialized junction between one neuron and another a neuron releases a chemical that either excites or inhibits the next neuron Pre and postsynaptic membranes Resting potentialwhen an axon is not stimulated an electrical polarization across the membrane or covering of an axon Action potential yes or no on or off message all or none law an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength no matter how far it must travel Glial cells glia and functions support the neurons in many ways such as by insulating them synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons and removing waste products Neurotransmitter reuptake Postsynaptic receptors the neuron on the receiving end of the synapse is the post synaptic Common classes of drugs and their brain effects Amygdala and emotion The amygdala a small brain structure has long been linked with a person39s mental and emotional state It is important when it comes to things such as depression etc it is in the temporal lobe Personality changes in TLE people with temporal lobe epilepsy are more emotionally unstable than others perhaps with a tendency towards aggression MM and religiosity Major endocrine glands and functions hormones sent directly into the blood stream Psychophysics Detection Is anything therequot Recognition What is itquot Scaling how much of it is therequot Discrimination Are these things differentquot Thresholds Limen absolute difference Threshold Limen Absolute Limen the weakest stimulus that can be detected reliably Under threshold subliminal 0ver threshold supraliminal Generally subliminal messages do not work Difference Limen the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected reliably Perception is selection you only pay attention to what you need at that moment Detection discrimination recognition scaling Sensory coding Sensory events are converted from one energy into a nerve impulse Types of retinal cells and functions they receive visual information rods vision in dim light and cones adapted for color vision daytime vision and detailed vision Fovea central area of the human retina for highly detailed Vision Blind spot the part of the retina where there is no room for receptors because exiting axons take up too much space there fore we cannot see something that is in our blind spot Nature of quotcolorblindnessquot initially people thought that color blind people did not see colors at all they do they just have trouble differentiating them Conduction vs nerve deafness conduction deafness can be xed with surgery nerve deafness cannot be fixed Place theory frequency theory volley principle Place theory is a theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces Vibrations along the basilar membrane Frequency principle we can only hear to a certain limit of frequency if it is around 100Hz we can hear it if it is more we can39t Volley principle an information encoding scheme used in human hearing Nerve cells transmit information by generating brief electrical pulses called action potentials Sound is encoded by producing an action potential for each cycle of the Vibration Methods of sound localization Sound localization refers to a listener39s ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance Vestibular system and structures involved tells us about the movement of the head and its position with respect to gravity It enables us to keep our eyes xated on an object while the rest of the body is in motion Gate theory of pain the idea that pain messages must pass through a gate presumably the spinal cord that can block the message Neurotransmitters involved in pain Serotonin and Endorphine Endorphins Any of a group of hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having a number of physiological functions They are peptides that activate the body39s opiate receptors causing an analgesic effect Phantom limbcontinuing sensation in an amputated body part Olfactionsense of smell the detection of chemicals in contact with membranes inside the nose Pheromones not studied much in humans but are said to have effects on women39s menstrual cycle both of men and women Menstrual synchrony is a phenomenon reported in 1971 wherein the menstrual cycles of women who lived together such as in homes prisons convents bordellos dormitories or barracks reportedly became synchronized over time Due to Pheromones Signal detection theory to determine how accurately someone detects a signal we need to consider not only the ratio of hits to misses when the stimulus is present but also the ratio of false alarms to correct rejections when stimulus is absent Gestalt approach focuses on our ability to perceive overall patterns mI he whole is different from the sum of its partsquot Perceptual constanciesPerceptual constancy denotes the tendency of animals and humans to see familiar objects as having standard shape size color or location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective distance or lighting Constancies in vision perception we ordinarily perceive the shape size and color of objects as constant even when the pattern of light striking the retina varies Motion detection induced movement we incorrectly perceive the object as moving against a stationary background stroboscopic movement illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary movements phi effect a disembodied perception ofmotion is produced by a succession of still images Depth perception retinal disparity the difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas ocular convergence the degree to which eyes turn to focus on a close object binocular cues dependence on both eyes to see something monocular cues eg motion parallax enable someone to judge depth and distance with just one eye Anomalous Motion and explanation Part of a figure appears to move in the direction different from the rest Sleepwake cycle governed by an internal 25 hour circadian rhythm tuned externally to 24 hr by the sun Circadian and ultradian rhythms Circadian rhythm 24 hours tuned in our bodies by the sun REM periods alternate with NonREM periods according to a 90100 minuteultradian rhythm Melatonina hormone responsible for sleep makes you sleepy Activationsynthesis vs neurocognitive theories of dreaming Activation Synthesis The differences in neuronal activity of the brainstem during waking and REM sleep were observed and the hypothesis proposes that dreams result from brain activation during REM sleep Neurocognitive dream theory According to Domhoff and other researchers dreams are a way that we think under certain special conditions rather than being completely random The conditions that must exist are 1 Persisting activity from much of the cortex 2 Great reduction of sensory stimulation including reduced activity in the primary sensory area of the brain 3 Loss of voluntary selfcontrol of thinking Sleep paralysis occurs during REM sleep Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and frequent daytime sleep attacks People with this disorder hit REM sleep quickly within minutes while normal individuals do not hit REM sleep until about an hour Classes and examples of psychoactive drugs a chemical substance that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function resulting in changes in perception mood consciousness cognition and behavior Associationismis the idea that mental processes operate by the association of one state with its successor states Habituationdecreased response to a repeated stimulus I Pavlov Classical conditioning Aversion therapy is a form of psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort This conditioning is intended to cause the patient to associate the stimulus with unpleasant sensations in order to stop the speci c behavior Systematic desensitization is a type of behavioral therapy used in the field of psychology to help effectively overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders Classical conditioning E L Thorndike 0perant conditioning Puzzlebox experiments w rationale we learn by trial and error the cat in the bow learned how to get out by pushing lever accidently Law of Effect we learn to do what has a pleasing outcome B F Skinner criticized both classical and operant conditioning Operant conditioning K BC39squot of operant conditioning Antecedent Stimulus Behavior Consequence Reinforcement vs punishment Reinforcement increases the probability of a response punishment decreases the probability of a response Shaping reinforcing behaviors that lead to a particular outcome Schedules of reinforcement a rule stating which instances of a behavior will be reinforced In some case a behavior might be reinforced every time it occurs Sometimes a behavior might not be reinforced at all Operant extinction occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements Special cases of learning conditioned taste aversions associating a food with illness birdsong learning social learning imitationwe learn by observing other people39s actions and their consequences vicarious reinforcement and punishment We tend to imitate behaviors that lead to reinforcement for other people We are less consistent in avoiding behaviors that are unsuccessful for others Ebbinghausamp CVC39s Pioneered the experimental study of memory by testing his own ability to memorize and retain lists of nonsense syllables Consonant Vowel Consonance Bab gix bop kip poy sik nip quotForgetting curve quot and decay more time in between more you forget Nature of iconic memory sensory store Momentary storage of sensory information Partly a consequence of rate of recovery of sensory receptors from stimulation afterimage Lightbulb ash Only lasts a couple of seconds Characteristics of working shortterm memory and LTM Temporary storage of recent events Holds only a few items 57 typically Phonological loop Keep repeating numbers to yourself Last only a very short period 30quot Requires sustained attention Very vulnerable to distraction Circulating Verbal STM often tested using memory span Aided by ch unking Best seen as scratchpad or working memory Organizes information for consolidation into LTM LTM Capacity limits are unknown Includes both intentional and incidental memory with intentional memory more effective If it39s not something we try to remember you won39t remember it Lasting memories occur only after age 3 or 4 childhood amnesia Incidental vs intentional Incidental remember something without realizing it Intentional trying to remember something speci c Explicit vs implicit Free recall cued recall recognition and savings are tests of explicit memory direct memory That is someone who states an answer regards it as a product of his or her memory In implicit memory an experience in uences what you say or do even though you might not be aware of the in uence indirect memory Procedural vs declarative Procedural memories of motor skills such as walking and talking implicit Declarative memories we can readily state in words Semantic vs episodic Semantic memory of general principles and facts Episodic memory for speci c events in a person s life Levels of processing principle How easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types ofassociations you form Encoding specificity principleThe associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues Primacy and recency effectsPrimacy the tendency to remember well the rst itemsRecency the tendency to remember the nal items Permastorememories that you will always remember Process of memory reconstruction During an original experience we construct a memory When we try to retrieve that memory we reconstruct an account based partly on survian memories and partly on our expectations on what must have happened False memory effect A report that someone believes to be a memory but does not correspond with real events Hindsight bias The tendency to mold our recollection of the past to t how events later turned out Types of memory interference Proactive Interference old materials increase forgetting of the new materials Retroactive interference the new materials increase forgetting of the old Thinking Geons and quotimpossible guresquot Like the impossible staircase or the three prong thing Prototype theory of meaning Cognition thinking gaining knowledge and using knowledge How people organize their thoughts into language Spreading activation Process by which the activation of one concept also activates or primes other concepts that are linked to it We think of words or concepts with links to related concepts Stroop effect and automatization Stoop effect The interference between automatized what you re used to and what has become automatic to you and deliberate ways of thinking e shouting out words that are colored but are nonsense shb But when there is a color word ie brown that is colored red it is harder to call out the colors The interference part is reading The tendency to read the word instead of saying the color of ink as instructed Mental rotation and map imagescanning studies Mental rotation is when you see two shapes that are the same and rotate the two in your head until they are aligned in space in your mind Change blindness The frequent failure to detect changes in parts of a scene ie those puzzles that ask you find 10 differences between these two pictures Attentional blink During a brief time after perceiving one stimulus it is difficult to attend to something else It takes time to shift attention from one item to another Nature of expertise Even if someone is born with a certain talent they still need years of hard work to develop expertise Brain anatomy developing expertise expands the axons and dendrites in the brain areas relevant to a skill Algorithms and heuristics Algorithm a mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis Heuristics are strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess Representativeness heuristic An item that resembles members of a category probably belongs to that category When only a few instances are taken in to represent the entire category ie if something looks like a duck and sounds like a duck then it must be a duck Category Being able to focus on something and determine what it is categorization Categories are best described by familiar or typical examples called prototypes We decide whether an object belongs to a category by determining how well it resembles the prototypes of that category Some categories cannot be described by prototypes we can think about bugeyedmonsters from outer space without ever encountering a prototype of that category Baserate information How common the two categories are Availability heuristic The more easily we can think of members of a category the more common the category is ie are there more words that start with K or more with K as the third letter It is easier to think of words that start with K than with those with K as the third letter Although it is easier to recall words that begin with K it does not indicate how common words with K are Overcon dence Believing your estimate is more accurate than it is Con rmation bias The tendency to accept one hypothesis and then look for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities Framing effects and spinning effects Framing effect the tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed phrased a certain way Framing bias Spinning or Scientific Catastrophismquot When the wording of a problem leads us to a decision e Asian disease out break Positive framing if you choose option A then it will save 200 lives Negative framing if you choose option A then 400 people will die Reframing Our attitudes and feelings depend strongly upon the context in which they are framed Changing the context in which our attitudes and feelings are solicited can change those attitudes and feelings Development Epigenetic landscape Conrad Waddington A metaphor for biological development Waddington said that cell fates were established in development much like a marble rolls down to the point of lowest elevation e height and outgoingness the marble will roll from birth to maturity quotNaturenurturequot problem Same as maturation vs enculturation Are traits due to heredity or the environment Environment can release effects of genes genes can control susceptibility to the environment trait plasticity how much can the environment affect a trait Identical vs fraternal twins Identical twins tend to have very similar personality traits even ifthey were both reared in different families Fraternal twins are two separate individuals and therefore share about as many traits as with any other sets of siblings Effects of drinking and smoking during pregnancy Capabilities of newborns Babies probably have core knowledge about objects and physics of objects can distinguish human faces from any other object can imitate Crosssectional vs longitudinal studies Crosssectional several groups of subjects of various ages studied at one time It s quick no risk of confusing age effects with effects of changes in society Risk of sampling error by selecting different kinds of people and of cohort effects Longitudinal One group of subjects studied repeatedly as they develop Can study effects of one experience on later development no risk of sampling differences Takes a long time some participants quit sometimes hard to separate effects of age from changes in society Cohort effects A group of people born at a particular time or a group of people who entered an organization at a particular time ie if you lived 50 years before now how would you have been different Schemas Piaget An organized way of interacting with objects in the world Mental representation people have a schema of how a restaurant works or a general idea Assimilation Applying an old schema to new objects or problems Accommodation Modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem ie Rules with exceptions Object permanence and how it39s measured The idea that objects continue to exist even when we do not see or hear them Method setting a toy on the table blocking it with an opaque board or having a toy car pass through a solid block Conservation of number volume mass To understand that objects conserve such properties as number length volume area and mass after changes in the shape or arrangement ofthe objects Until children are about 7 they cannot perform the mental operations necessary to understand the transformation ie the water in the short fat cup and tall skinny cup Erikson39s social development model Each stage has its own special difficulties and an unsatisfactory resolution to the problems of one age carry over as an extra difficulty Key issues in adolescence midlife and old age Adolescence key issue is identity who am i identity vs role confusion Midlife key issue is generativity producing something important children or work vs stagnation Old age ego integrity vs despair Have I lived a full life and done everything I wanted or have I failed Temperament A child s behavior style or primary pattern of reaction to the environment Easy child 40 difficult child 10 slowtowarmup child 15 remaining 35 of the sample did not fall into ofthe above categories Effects of birth order The older siblings act different at home because of having more responsibility but often act the same in social settings Birth order is not related to IQ Smaller sized families have higher IQs than larger families Parenting styles and effects Authoritative parents set high standards and impose controls but are also warm and responsive to the child s communications Children are usually self reliant cooperative with others and do well in school Authoritarian parents set rm controls but emotionally more distant from the child and set rules without explaining the reasons behind them Children tend to be lawabiding but distrustful and not very independent Permissive parents warm and understanding but undemanding Children are often socially irresponsible Indifferent or uninvolved parents spend little time with their children and do little more than provide them with food and shelter Children tend to be impulsive and undisciplined Major sex differences in cognition amp behavior Relational and physical aggression Continuous vs stage theories Effects of cloth vs wire quotmothersquot A critical ingredient of forming attachment is contact comfort Lack of contact comfort was psychologically distressful for the monkeys Monkeys clung to the terrycloth mother whether or not it provided food and only clung to the wire mothers if it provided them with food Determinants of attachment Individual differences in attachment security seem to be related to the nature of the care an infant experiences with a particular caregiver Stockholm syndrome Affection of hostages toward captors regardless of the danger they are in Effects of abuse on attachment and resilience Abuse by caretaker leads to greater attachment Loyalty of abuse victims to perpetrators clinging of children to abusive parents effects of poor attachment can be overcome somewhat by later remedial experience Effects of divorce on children Regression in young children sense of vulnerability abandonment panic grief at loss of intact family anger intermixed with powerlessness adolescence overburdened child syndrome taking on responsibility for caretaking of parent NaturalSelection and Motivation Natural selection Those with better genes wi reproduce more because they are fitter Evolution through natural selection survival ofthe fittest Requirements for natural selection Variability of traits Among organisms traits can be structures or behavior Selection pressures the combined effect of all selection pressures at various levels determines the overall tness of an individual and hence the outcome of natural selection Inheritance mechanism genes which are segments of chromosomes control heredity Vestigial structures and importance to Darwin anatomical behavioral and biochemical structures that have lost their original function but remain their because of evolution e the appendix the tailbone muscles in the ear Neoteny juvenile features in adults ie humans have flat facesthroughout their entire life but monkeys get longer faces as they get older We prefer the baby look Personal vs inclusive fitness Personal fitness direct reproductive prowess Inclusive fitness assistance of kin s reproduction leads to cooperative behavior genetic selfinterest Kin selection organisms that tend to exhibit strategies that favor the reproductive success of their relatives Vervet monkeys and calls these monkeys let out calls to warn of danger even if it means attracting the dangerto them Taxis movement toward or against a simple stimulus Fixed action patterns amp releasing stimuli the releaser is a signal from one individual to another Fixed action patterns triggered by releasers they are instinctive behavioral sequences such as the egg retrieval by a herring gull Imprinting amp critical sensitive periods social bond that is formed immediately or during the rst few days of life ie ducklings newborn babies with mothers Tryon behaviorgenetics study genetic influences apparent by crossing strains of DNA in rats so that they could work the mazes better Types of mating systems Monogamy one male and one female Polygyny Male and two or more females Polyandry Female with two or more males Promiscuity Any male within the social group can mate with any female Rationale for sexual reproduction maybe to repair DNA damage Advantage of sexual reproduction variation of genes can evolve and species can fight mutation Sexual dimorphism the differences in the male and female within the same species e in most species the male is largerthan the female Evolutionary explanations of altruism Altruistic behavior is accepting some cost or risk to help others People want a reputation for being fair and helpful so that they will be offered help when they need it Evolutionary explanation of sex roles traits that help men win in competition with one another and ornaments that help them win the attentions of females Sexual selection a type of natural selection in which members of one sex compete for reproductive access to members ofthe other sex Male displays resulting from sexual selection quotFemale choicequot in mating Female selection of males resources height muscular angular appearance especially during ovulation predictability gifts caring during illness intelligence sense of humor Kinsey survey Alfred Kinsey who conducted the rst extensive survey of human sexual behavior found that sexual activity varies more widely than most people realize Gender identity the sex an individual regards themselves as or identifies with Most people with male genitalia have a male identity lntersexes people with anatomy that appears intermediate between male or female Due to hormone releases during prenatal development Sexual orientation and possible determinants genetic in uences and prenatal environment are possible influences A small percentage of men and women claim to be exclusively homosexual JamesLange theory of emotion your interpretation of a stimulus directly evokes autonomic changes and sometimes muscle actions Your perception of those changes is the feeling aspect ofthe emotion The situation gives rise to an action and your perception of the action is the emotion Cognitive SchachterSinger theory of emotion The arousal you perceive in yourself determines the intensity of the emotion although not the identity ofthe emotion itself The intensity ofthe physiological state determines the intensity of the emotion but a cognitive appraisal ofthe situation identi es the type of emotion quotPositive psychologyquot the study of the features that enrich life such as happiness hopes creativity courage spirituality and responsibility Effects of wealth on wellbeing your wellbeing depends on how you spend you time if you have more leisure hours you will be happier Wealth does not necessarily increase happiness but poverty produces unhappiness Effects of crying while crying sympathetic nervous system arousal and other signs oftension visibly increase Relaxation occurs when you stop crying However you will probably have just as much tension after crying as you did before crying Crying can often make you feel more depressed How the polygraph works simultaneously records several indications of sympathetic nervous system arousal such as blood pressure heart rate breathing rate and electrical condition of the skin sweating The assumption was that when people lie they feel nervous and therefore increase their sympathetic nervous system arousal SocialInteraction Primacy effects on social impressions if your rst impression ofsomeone is unfavorable you may not spend the time to get to know them and change your opinion Methods of assessing prejudice through the implicit association test It measures your reactions to combinations of two categories such as ower and pleasant The fact that one word primes the other indicates that you see the two words as related Results of Implicit Association Test the results were that even well meaning people have prejudices that operate without their awareness because we are influenced by stereotypes and prejudices that we don t recognize Internal vs external attributions Attributions set of thought processes we use to assign causes to our behaviors and that of others Internal explanations based on someone s attitudes personality traits or abilities ie your brother walked to work because he wanted the exercise External explanations based on the situation including events that presumably would in uence almost anyone e you assume he walked to work because his car wouldn t start quotFundamental attribution errorquot and culture the tendency to assume a strong similarity between someone s current actions and his or her dispositions le ifa student writes an essay defending Castro you d assume they were proCastro Actorobserver effects You are an actor when you try to explain the causes of your own behavior and an observer when you try to explain someone else s behavior Selfserving attribution bias you vary your attributions to try to present yourself in a favorable light ie you credit to your good grades to hard work but your bad grades to unfair tests Selfhandicapping strategies intentionally put yourself at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for possible failure e partying the night before a test and blaming your bad grade on that Factors affecting persuasiveness of messages Influence based on similarity if the person can relate to the message they are more easily persuaded In uence of group endorsement if a group of individuals endorse a message you are more easily persuaded Salesmanship techniques quotFootinthedoorquot Starting with a modest request which the person accepts and then follow it with a large request quotDoorinthefacequot someone follows an outrageous initial request with a more reasonable second one quotBaitandswitchquot first offers an extremely favorable deal gets the other person to commit to the deal and then makes additional demands quotThat39snotallquot someone makes an offer and then improves the offer before you have a chance to reply Cognitive dissonance a state of unpleasant tension that people experience when they hold contradictory attitudes or when their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes especially ifthey are distressed about inconsistency Factors promoting friendship people generally choose friends and romantic partners who live nearthem and resemble them Biology and physical attractiveness if something looks normal it is attractive because normal usually means healthy and good genes We also find familiar things to be attractive Characteristics of successful marriages having similar attitudes and personalities argue infrequently have sexual relations frequently have adequate income husband has a good job to maintain selfrespect the wife was not pregnant before they married the couple s parents had successful marriages Asch39s conformity studies had a black bar and asked students to pick which bar was the same length if all ofthe students responded with incorrect answers the last student would usually conform and provide an incorrect answer as well the tendency to conform in our society is so strong Diffusion of responsibility we tend to feel less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act If no one else is acting then you feel less inclined to Social loafing is the phenomenon of people making less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone Group polarization if nearly all the people who compose a group lean in the same direction on a particular issue then a group discussion will move the group as a whole even further in that direction They will make more extreme decisions than most people would have made on their own Groupthink occurs when the members of the group suppress their doubts about a group s decision for fear of making a bad impression or disrupting group harmony Basic setup of Prisoner39s Dilemma and use a situation where people choose between a cooperative act and a competitive act that bene ts themselves but hurts others Milgram obedience study amp results to see how people would react when asked to deliver shocks to another person starting with weak shocks and progressing to stronger ones Of 40 participants 25 delivered shocks all the way to 450 volts Most of them grew upset and agitated while they were supposedly delivering shocks to the screaming learner Factors promoting obedience 520 Kohlberg s view of moral development concentrated on moral reasoning not behavior People are at best moderately consistent in their answers to hypothetical questions about moral dilemmas They are less consistent in their reasoning about reallife decisions and still less consistent in actual behavior Problems with Kohlberg s view He assumed that people would base judgments offjustice But most people act in a sense of duty towards others or in caring for their wellbeing Also researchers nd that people usually act rst and then suggest moral reasons to justify their behavior Kohlberg s methods correlate poorly with actual behavior Personality Structured personality testing attempt to assign a personality type based upon measurements of someone s personality trait MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory consists of true false questions intended to measure certain personality dimensions and clinical conditions such as depression Type A behavior pattern Chronic sense oftime urgency Competitive achieving Sense of personal mission many selfimposed deadlines high pace in mental and physical activities aggression and hostility found in 50 if college freshmen and 85 of corporate executives can be diagnosed using stress interview or interactive gaming Type A s achieve more than Type B s Grudge bearing bitter Type A s are 26 times as likely to have a heart attack Cattell39s personality research sixteen personality factors test provides as overview of someone s personality at a higher conceptual level Projective testing wrationale are designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli e Rorschach inkblot procedure and Thematic Apperception Test TAT Rorschach inkblot procedure a projective technique based on people s interpretations often ambiguous inkblots TAT people tell a story about what is going on in a picture including what led up to and what will happen in the future Sometimes used to measure need for achievement by counting all the times the client mentions achievement Also used to measure power and affiliation needs Trait theories Eysenck Big Five Neuroticism emotional stability tendency to experience unpleasant emotions frequently Extraversion the tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people Agreeableness the tendency to be compassionate towards others Conscientiousness the tendency to show selfdiscipline to be dutiful and to strive for achievement and competence Openness to experience tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences and new ideas Situationism vs trait consistency criticism of the trait theory personality often changes according to a certain situation Personality traits exert a larger influence when the situational influence is less powerful lnteractionism Psychodynamic personality theories relates personality to the interplay of con icting forces within the individual including unconscious ones we are being pushed and pulled by internal forces that we don t understand Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud method of explaining and dealing with personality based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces Catharsis a release of pent up emotion The Unconscious the repository of memories emotions and thoughts many ofthem illogical that affect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them Oedipus complex when a boy develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression toward his father no evidence supports this Stages of psychosexual development Oral Stage psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the mouth birth to 2 yrs Anal Stage psychosexual pleasure from sensations of bowel movements begins at 2 years Phallic Stage children begin to play with their genitals at around 3 years Latent Period from 5 to 6 years they suppress their psychosexual interest Genital Stage beginning at puberty young people take a strong sexual interest in other people Components of personality Ego Id Superego Eggthe rational decisionmaking aspect of personality Q consists of all our biological drives such as sex and hunger that demand immediate grati cation Superego contains the memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from our parents and the rest of society Sometimes the id produces sexual motivations that the superego considers repugnant this evoking feelings ofguilt Defense Mechanisms know types The ego defends itself against conflicts and anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts and impulsesto the unconscious Repression motivated forgetting banishing unacceptable thoughts desires and memoriesto the unconscious Denial the refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety ie alcoholics will say they can stop at any time Rationalization when people attempt to prove that their actions are rational and justi able and worthy of approval Displacement diverting a behavior or thought away from its natural target toward a less threatening target causes less anxiety If your mad at your boss you won t yell at him but instead take it out on someone less scary Regression return to a more immature level of functioning Pro39ection the attribution ofone s own undesirable characteristics to other people Reaction Formation to present themselves as the opposite of what they PSYCHOLOGY Final Fair Game Sheet Thinking Geons and impossible figures Geons the basic building blocks ofall objects we recognize we recognize objects by rst noticing the component geons Impossible gures ie never ending staircase Not composed of geons we recognize Prototype Theory of Meaning we decide whether an object fits into a category by determining how well it resembles that category Spreading Activation thinking about one concept primes or activates concepts linked to it EX Redhot re refoxinternet Stroop effect the tendency to read the word instead of saying the color of ink as instructed Mental Rotation and map image scanning studies idea that time it takes to rotate a mental image is similar to real object time Researchers can infer thought process by delay in answer When something suddenly grasps your attention quotBottomupquot process Deliberately shifting your attention to something else quotTopdownquot process Automatization our automatic instinct ie when we see numbers we say numbers when we see color we say color linked to Stroop effect Change blindness the frequent failure to detect change in part of a scene Attentional blink during a brief time 100700ms after we perceive one stimulus it is dif cult to attend to something else We ignore the second stimulus if it is 100700ms after the rst one It takes time to shift attention from one thing to another Nature of Expertise experts have more and better cognitive schemas heuristics or algorithms Not born made through practice They just organize problems bettermore quick but has to be something they have practiced Algorithms a mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis Heuristics strategies for simplifying a problem and generating satisfactory guess Algorithms and Heuristics0ften these strategies are unconscious not deliberate They provide guidance when you have to make quick decisions with limited information Representative heuristic the assumption that an item that resembles members of some category is probably another member of that category Ex quotif something looks like a duck waddles like a duck and quacks like a duck chances are it39s a duckquot Base Rate information How common two categories are When people apply representative heuristics they often look over baserate info Availability Heuristic the strategy of assuming that how easily one can remember examples of some kind of item indicates how common it is Overconfidence they believe their estimates were more accurate than they actually were Confirmation bias We often make errors by accepting a hypothesis and then looking for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities Framing Bias and quotspinquot Framing Bias the tendency to answer a question differently when it is framedphrased differentlySpin phrasing information in a way to make it sound different or worse than it actually is Natural Selection and Motivation Natural selection The differential reproductive success of individuals within a population because of hereditary differences among them Requirements for natural selection Because resources are limited organisms must necessarily battle for survival Those organisms that possess favorable characteristics in that environment will reproduce more ie they are tter Because of this differential reproduction characteristics that are favorable in that environment will thrive whereas those that are unfavorable will decrease Reliable trends in natural selection constitute evolution by natural selection Variability there must be variability in genes and traits among populations so there can be differences in structure and behavior a measure of the tendency of individual genotypes in a population to vary from one another describes how much that trait tends to vary in response to environmental and genetic in uences Selection pressuresTraits that work well w your environment enable you to survive There must be pressure for one kind of trait to be bene cial refers to the environmental and competitive factors that in uence the kinds of traits that best help a species survive conditions an individual finds themselves in factors fostering selection include limits on resources nourishment habitat space mates and the existence of threats predators disease adverse weather Inheritance mechanism the idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring Vestigial structures and importance to Darwin Existence of useless vestigial structures supports Darwin39s ideas and doesn39t support the argument for perfect design Darwin said evolution by natural selection requires no grand design or designer ie pelvic bones in whales and snakes wings in ightless birds nger bones in penguin39s ipper eyes in blind sh and salamanders humans have dive and swim re exes appendix and crowded dentition random things organisms don39t need why do they still have themby natural selection should39ve been weeded out Neotenyretention of traits previously only seen in juveniles development of an animal delayed they don39t fully mature we look a lot like babies Personal vs inclusive fitnessPersonal direct reproductive prowess Inclusive assistance of kin39s reproduction leads to cooperative behavior altruism genetic self interest cooperative predation mating defense parenting Kin selectionthe idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one39s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes Vervet monkeys and callsThe vervet monkey uses different calls upon detecting different types of predators including leopards snakes and eagles Infants appear to have an innate tendency to make these alarm calls and adult monkeys seem to give positive reinforcement when their young make the right call by repeating the alarm Mothers have been reported to punish young giving the wrong call protolanguage proof of altruism Taxistype of inherited pattern of behavior movement toward or against a simple stimulus inherited pattern of behavior Ex Phototaxis the tendency toward or away a light Chemotaxis the tendency to move toward or away from a chemical Geotaxis the tendency to move toward or away from gravity Fixed action patterns amp releasing stimulisubroutines in a program a behavior sequence that is coded A stereotyperitualized behavior that once started will go all the way to the end FAPs are triggered by releasers more exible than once thought and are now oftentimes called modal action patterns Ex mother bird scoops egg all the way to nest and doesn39t notice when it is gone humans yawning Imprinting amp critical sensitive periods imprinting is any kind of phasesensitive learning learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviorMost developed in birds Have a limited time span to learn things when you are born Critical period rst few weeksmonths learning that occurs and you become what you will be Tryon behaviorgenetics study Evidence on human infant imprinting Types of mating systems Monogamy pairbonding one partner Polygamy one animal has many mates Polyandry one female w many males Polygyny harem one male w many females Promiscuity no bonding arrangement every male and female for himself Rationale for sexual reproduction to pass on genetic information to offspring continue to pass on genes Advantage of sexual reproduction increased genetic variation in offspring which increases the likelihood of at least one offspring surviving and passing on your genesif we had asexual reproduction there would be no genetic variety protection against pathogens red queen hypothesis shuf ing the genome every new offspring might have a chance to be fit against certain diseases no current reason for humans to have sex phylogenic intertia Sexual dimorphism females are much bigger than male animals MAJOR EXCEPTION is in species with proportionally large brains ie humans depends on degree of deviation from monogamy the more polygamous the more sexually dimorphic Evolutionary explanations of altruism Genetic self interest if you help a kin to survive and reproduce then you are helping them pass on your genes as well People want to act altruistically because they want a reputation for being fair and helpful Evolutionary explanation of sex roles The behaviors and patterns of activities man and women may engage in that are directly related to their biological differences and the process of reproduction Sexual selection natural selection in which members of one sex compete for reproductive access to members of the other sex Means of competition can be structural or behavioral and often lead to sexual dimorphism Female selection of males height muscular angular appearance esp during ovulation predictability gifts caring during illness intelligence sense of humor Male selection of females youth youthful features symmetry Hour glass gure Male displays resulting from sexual selection bigger more masculine bodies sizeaggression amboyant features coloration and display Incitement and quotfemale choicequot in mating Overt I chose you and not you and cryptic ova looks for sperm Testing of prospective mates predominance of female choice decisions can be based on male displays Cryptic female choice the ability of females to favor one male of the same species over another Aspects of human mating system Incest w costs Genetic cost of incest usually overstated odds of birth defect if one parent has it are 0 3 if parents are unrelate o 4 if parents are rst cousins 0 10 if parents are siblings Outbreeding drive and MHC findings Cryptic ovulation w rationales Mate guarding Restrictions on female behavior Iealousy and violence Female sexual mutilation male too Mating criteria Incitement amp irting Kinsey survey asking who menwomen think about when having sex men have far more homosexual thoughts Kinsey scale Helen Fisher39s phases of love andrelated neurochemicals Lust 0 Loveseeking 0 Driven in both sexes mainly by testosterone and estrogen Attraction o Lovestruck xating on the target 0 Loss of sleep and appetite 0 Driven mainly by dopamine norepinephrine epinephrine Attachment 0 Developing a bond lessening of attraction and lust 0 Driven mainly by oxytocin released during orgasm and to baby through mother39s milk and vasopressin which show higher levels in monogamous animals Sexual orientation and possibledeterminants LOOK AT NOTES LECTURE TWELVE NOTES quotCorrelated variationsquot with sexual orientation finger length etcTend to run in family Females in families with gay males tend to be more fertile Every older brother you have increases odds autoimmune build up Gay men and lesbians more likely to be left handed and have the reversed nger length 2D4D than their straight counter parts gay males have counter clockwise hair line and the opposite for straight Reproductive Behavior Ch 11 Book Insert Organizing effects of androgens and estrogens Androgens are mostly linked to males because males have high levels of them estrogen has higher levels in females but both are present in both sexes The organizing effects of sex hormones occur mostly at a sensitive stage of development well before the birth of humans they determine whether the brain and body will develop female or male characteristics Sensitive period in sexual differentiation Differentiation of the external genitals and some aspects of brain development depend mainly on the level of testosterone during a sensitive period an earlyperiod when hormones have longlasting effects A high level of testosterone causes the external genitals to develop the male pattern and a low level leads to the female pattern Role of Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus SDN For example one area in the anterior hypothalamus known as the sexually dimorphic nucleus is larger in the male than in the female and contributes to control of male sexual behavior Parts of the female hypothalamus can generate a cyclic pattern of hormone release as in the human menstrual cycle The male hypothalamus cannot and neither can the hypothalamus of a female who was exposed to extra testosterone early in life Activating Effects of sex hormones on human sexual function motivation attraction parenting Activating effects can occur at any time in life when a hormone temporarily activates a particular response Sex differences in jealousy men are more jealous fear of supporting children that are not his own Gender identity how we identify sexually and what we call ourselves Hermaphroditism individuals who appear to be a mixture of both male and female Common types of intersexes How should intersexed people be reared 1 Be completely honest with the intersexed person and the family and do nothing without their informed consent 2 Identify the child as male or female based mainly on the predominant external appearance That is there should be no bias toward calling every intersex a female 3 Rear the child as consistently as possible but be prepared that the person might later be sexually oriented toward males females both or neither 4 Do not perform surgery to reduce the ambiguous penis clitoris to the size of a normal clitoris Such surgery impairs the person39s erotic sensation and is at best premature as no one knows how the child39s sexual orientation will develop If the intersexed person makes an informed request for such surgery in adulthood then it is appropriate but otherwise it should be avoided Genetic and evolutionary hypotheses aboutsexual orientation is due to variation not because an individual cannot nd a mate of the opposite sex to be with different among gay men and lesbian women men tend to discover their sexual orientation earlier than women do and tend to not switch between heterosexual and homosexual orientation like women do Development Epigenetic landscape Conrad Waddington Said that how tall someone39s going to be is pretty much predestined or deeply canalizedquot w no freedom of movement genetic but that how outgoing you are is more exible or shallowly canalizedquot ex can be determined by who you hang outwith quotNaturenurturequot problem the issue of whether things are due to genes or biology or if they are due to outside in uence ie society environment It is an error to state things as either or Effects of genes vs environment can rarely be disentangled AKA maturation vs enculturation Epigenetic inheritance mechanisms and implications Identical vs fraternal twins Fraternal dizygotic literally two eggquot twins twins who develop from two eggs fertilized by two different sperm dizygotic twins are no more closely related than are any other children born to the same parents Identical monozygotic literally one eggquot twins twins who develop from the same fertilized egg sometimes mirror images or gene can be suppressed in one but not the other not necessarily identical Effects of drinking and smoking duringpregnancy Capabilities of newborns Crosssectional vs longitudinal studies Crosssectional study study of groups of individuals of different ages all at the same time weakness dif cult obtaining equal samples at different ages 20 yr olds vs 60 yr olds Longitudinal study study of a single group of individuals over time weakness people drop out as they get older and dif cult to separate effects of age from effects of changing society Cohort effects Group of people born at a particular time compared to people born at different times many differences between young and old people not due to age but to time of birth a group of people in a particular era is called a cohort and can differ from other cohorts in important ways Era in which you grow up is one of the most important in uences on behavior Schemas Piaget Organized way of interacting with objects in the world Intellectual development is not merely an accumulation of experiences or a maturational unfolding yet a child constructs new mental processes as he or she interacts with the environment Behavior is based on schemas infants grasping sucking A child shows deferred imitationquot when she imitates an action she saw the day before AssimilationFit practice to theory application of an established schema to new objects or problems apply old to new Ex a child who observes that animals move on their own may believe that the sun and moon are alive because they seem to move on their own Accommodation Fit theory to practice Modi cation of an established schema to t a new object or problem Exa child may learn that only living things move on their ownquot is a rule with exceptions and the sun and the moon are not alive Object permanence and how it39s measured Concept that objects continue to exist even when one does not see hear or otherwise sense them Piaget argues that infants in rst few months lack object permanence Conservation of number volume massAccording to Piaget preoperational children lack and concrete operations understand Fail to understand that objects conserve such properties as number length volume area and mass Erikson39s social development model Erikson divided the human life span into eight stages or ages At each stage people have speci c tasks to master All stages have their own social and emotional problems Failure to master taskwould have consequences carrying over into later stage Key issues in adolescence midlife and old age Temperament People39s tendency to be either active or inactive outgoing or reserved and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli Depends partly on genetics These tendencies are magnified by the environment that we choose to be in stays consistent throughout life Monozygotic twins resemble each other in temperament more than dizygotic and remain consistent over age Relational and physical aggression Continuous vs stage theories Effects of cloth vs wire quotmothersquot anddeterminants of attachmentA long term feeling of closeness towards another person is one of the most important events of early childhood Infants with at least one good attachment sense of security and safety can explore the world and return when scared highquality romantic attachments later and form close friendships and don39t fear rejection No good attachment trouble forming close relationships later one Can also depend of how respondent parents were and the care given hugging etc in different cultures Stockholm syndrome Captives feel affection towards hostages after a period of time Effects of abuse on attachment and resilience studied by Harlow deprived were less active stayed in corners bounced back when put in normal environment if hit with scary stimulus would regress to previous behavior can be lifelong Abuse by caretaker leads to greater attachmentloyalty of abuse victims to perpetrators clinging of children to abusive parents Effects of divorce on children Divorce show a variety of academic social and emotional problems receive less attention and suffer economic hardship endure prolonged hostility between parents show signs of distressmore likely to get a divorceclingy for relationshipsreunion fantasies for preadolescenceregression to younger age relocate loss of friends Triangulation when one parent makes the other parent looklike the bad one more likely to suffer from drug and alcohol problems Social Interaction Primacy effects on social impressionsthe rst information we learn about someone in uence us more than later information does Methods of assessing prejudiceIAT Results of Implicit Association Testmeasures reactions to combinations of categories Important for showing that even well meaning people have prejudices that they do not recognize Internal vs external attributions Internal attribution explanations based on someone39s individual characteristics such as attitudes personality traits or abilities External attributions explanations based on the situation including events that presumably would in uence almost anyone quotFundamental attribution errorquot and culture Actorobserver effects Actorobserver effect People are more likely to make internal attributions for other people39s behavior and more likely to make external attributions for their own You39re an actor when you try to explain the causes of your own behavior and an observer when you try to explain someone else39s behavior Fundamental attribution error to make internal attributions for people39s behavior even when we see evidence for an external in uence on behavior Selfserving attributional biasattributions that we adopt to maximize credit for success and minimize to blame for failure Selfhandicapping strategiesputting oneself at a disadvantage to provide and excuse for failure Factors affecting persuasiveness of messages Salesmanship techniques quotFootinthedoorquot someone starts with a modest request which you accept and follows it with a larger request quotD oorinthefacequot quotBaitandswitchquot first offers an extremely favorable deal gets the other to commit to the deal and then makes additional demands quotThat39snotallquot someone makes as offer and then improves the offer before you have a chance to reply Cognitive dissonance a state of unpleasant tension that people experience when they hold contradictory attitudes or when their behavior contradicts their stated attitudes especially if the inconsistency distresses them Factors promoting friendshipmore likely to become friends with people in proximity and whom we come into contact with most often Biology and physical attractivenessTheoretically attractive more likely than others to be healthy and fertile Also good looking means normal which probably means good genes Characteristics of successful marriages Equity theoriessocial relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goods and services Asch39s conformity studies did a study where he showed his participants bars and asked them which one was the same length 12 participated but only one was a real participant others were staged to say the wrong answer to see if we conform to the majority even when we know the right answer most people conform because of fear of being ridiculed or doubt themselves because the majority had a different answer Diffusion of responsibilitywe feel less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act Social loafingthe tendency to loaf or work less hard when sharing work with people Group polarizationif nearly all the people who compose a group lean in the same direction on a particular issue then a group discussion will move the group as a whole even further in that direction Groupthinkoccurs when the members of a group suppress their doubts about a group s decision fear of making a bad impression or disrupting group harmony Ways to reduce prejudice also in TA Sectionhaving people work towards a common goal reduces prejudice Basic setup of Prisoner39s Dilemma and usea situation where people choose between a cooperative act and a competitive act that bene ts themselves but hurts others Used to investigate how situations evoke cooperation or competition Setup you and a partner are arrested and charged with armed robbery The police take you into separate rooms and urge each of you to confess If neither of you confesses you get a one year sentence if you confess you go free the other gets 20 years if you both confess you both get five years Both know that they have the same options as the other Milgram obedience study amp resultshad people obey rules to shock others when they made a mistake discovered that most people obey what authority gures tell them to do even if it involves something that will hurt Stanford Prison Experiment basic results Factors promoting obedience Kohlberg39s view of moral development general principle only Problems with Kohlberg39s view Personality Psychodynamic personality theories relates personality to the interplay of con icting forces within the individual including unconscious ones Psychoanalysis Freud39s method of explaining and dealing with personality based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces Catharsis a release of pent up emotional forces The Unconscious the repository of memories emotions and thoughts many of them illogical that affect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them Oedipus complex a stage in the development of boys in which he develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression towards his father Stages of psychosexual development oral stage anal stage phallic stage latent period genital stage Components of personality Ego IdSuperego Ego the rational decision making aspect of personality Idconsist of sexual and other biological dries that demand immediate grati cation Superegocontains the memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from parents or others Defense Mechanisms know types Repression motivated forgetting Denialthe refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety Rationalizationwhen people attempt to prove that their actions are rational and justi able and thus worthy of approval Displacementby diverting behavior or thought away from its natural target toward a less threatening target Regressiona return to a more immature level of functioning Projection attributing one39s own undesirable characteristics to other people Reaction Formation present themselves as the opposite of what they really are to hide the unpleasant truth either from themselves or others Sublimation the transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable even admirable behaviors Overall evidence on validity lung39s collective unconscious and archetypes Collective unconscious present at birth pertains to the cumulative experience of preceding generations Archetypesvague imagesthat have always been part of the human experience Adler and quotsocial interestquot a sense of solidarity and identi cation with other people It doesn39t mean a desire to socialize it means an interest in the welfare of society People with social interest want to cooperate not compete Self Actualization the achievement of one39s full potential Rogers According to him it is natural for people to strive for excellence MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory consists of true and false questions intended to measure certain personality dimensions and clinical conditions Empirical method of MMPI development based on evidence rather than theory sample testing on patients with psychological disorders and people without any psychological disorders and it was determined that if the answers the healthy individuals answered match the patients than perhaps you have that disorder too MMPI39s detection of deception set of questions put into the test what you answer to them can give the experimenter good reason to suspect your lying if you deny common faults and claim rare virtues you39re probably lying Trait theories of personality Barnum effect tendency to accept vague descriptions of our personality Nature of the quotBig Fivequot neuroticism extraversion agreeableness conscientious and openness to new experience These are clusters of traits that correlate well with each other but not with the other clusters Narcissism over time Projective testing wrationale designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics onto an ambiguous stimuli Rorschach inkblot procedure a projective technique based on people39s interpretations of 10 ambiguous inkblots TAT Thematic Apperception Test a person is asked to make up a story for each picture describing what events led up to this scene what is happening now and what will happen in the future Personality and criminal profilingpsychologists try to aid police investigations by


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.